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887 [887]

K. Henry. 7. Joane Boughton. A Priest. Babram. An olde man, Martyrs.

MarginaliaRadul. Agricola.
Weselus lamenteth the darkenes of the church.
faith, why S. Paul so oftentimes did inculcate, that mē be iustified by faith and not by woorkes, the same Iosquine also reported, that they did openly reiecte and disproue the opiniō of Monkes, whiche say that men be iustified be their workes. Item, concernyng mens traditons their opinion was, þt all such were deceaued, who so euer attributed vnto those traditions any opinion of Gods worship, or þt they could not be broken. And thus much for the storie of doctour VVesellianus & VVeselus.

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By this it may be sene and noted, how by the grace of God and his gifte of Printyng, first came forth learnyng: 

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Once again, Foxe takes the opportunity to associate the invention ofprinting with the advent of Protestantism.

by learnyng came light to iudge and discerne the errours of the Pope from the truth of Gods worde, as partly by these aboue said, may appeare: partly by other þt folow after, (by þe grace of Christ) shall better be sene.

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About the very same tyme and season, when as the Gospel began thus to braunch & spring in Germanie: the hoste of Christes Churche begā also to muster & to multiplie likewise here in Englād, as by these histories here consequente maye appeare. 

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These histories of English martyrs are all derived from London Guildhall MS 3313 (now printed as The Great Chronicle of London), which belongedto John Stow and possibly was loaned by him to Foxe (certainly Foxe consulted the work at some point). Foxe attributes this work (probably correctly) to the chronicler Robert Fabyan.

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For not longe after the death of this VVeselus, Marginalia1494.
Ione Boughton mother to the lady Yong Martyr.
in the yeare of our Lorde. 1494. and in. 9. yeare of the reigne of K. Henry. vij. the 28. Aprill, was burned a very olde womā named Ioane Boughton widowe, & mother to the lady Young, which Lady was also suspected to be of that opinion which her mother was. 
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There is actually no evidence that Lady Jane Young, the wife of Sir John Young, a wealthy draper and Lord Mayor of London, was ever burned.Andrew Hope has argued that Joan Baker confused Jane Young with her motherJoan Boughton, who was burned at Smithfield on on 28 April 1494. It is true,however, that Jane Young was herself suspected of heresy. (See Andrew Hope,'The lady and the baliff: Lollardy among the gentry in Yorkist and early TudorEngland' in Lollardy and the Gentry in the Middle Ages, ed. Margaret Aston and Colin Richmond [Stroud, 1997], p. 260 and J. A. F. Thomson, The Later Lollards,1414-1520 [Oxford, 1965}, pp. 156-7).

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Her mother was of. iiij. score yeare of age or more & helde. viij. of Wickleffes opinions (which opinions my author doth not shew) for the whiche she was

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Foxe is the main source for our knowledge of Joan Boughton, whom he reports to have been over eighty when she was burned at Smithfield, believing Wyclif was a saint. Her daughter, Lady Jane Young, who was thought to have met the same fate at a later date, is more traceable and raises interesting questions about the social networks infected by heresy.
There already existed a small block (Type 1) of a single woman at the stake, but a new image (Type 2) portrayed the 'very simple woman', Cicelie Ormes at the stake she had welcomed as the cross of Christ. This woodcut remained unique to her and did not serve any other woman martyr - a fact that says something about Foxe's estimate of these martyrs. It disappeared from the Book of Martyrs after Foxe's death, having been used to illustrate a murder pamphlet.

burnt in Smithfield the day abouesaid. My author saith she was a disciple of Wickleffe, whom she accōpted for a saint, & helde so fast and firmely viij. of his. xij. opiniōs, that all the Doctours of London, could not turne her from one of them: & when it was told her þt she shoulde be brent for her obstinacie and false belefe, she set nothyng by their manacing wordes, but defied them, for she said she was so beloued of God, and his holy aungels, that shee passed not for the fier, and in the midst thereof she cried vpon God to take her soule into his holy handes. 
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See The Great Chronicle of London, ed. A. H. Thomas and I. D. Thornley (London, 1938), pp. 252-3. It should be noted that Foxe is putting apositive spin on the account in The Great Chronicle, whose author regarded Joan Boughton as a deluded heretic.

The night folowyng that she was burnt, the most part of her ashes were had awaye of such as had a loue vnto the doctrine, that she dyed for. 
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The Great Chronicle records that Boughton's ashes were removed'and kepyd ffor a precious Relyk, In an erthyn pott' (The Great Chronicle of London,ed. A. H. Thomas and I. D. Thornley [London, 1938], p. 253). Foxe is careful todisguise the suggestion that her remains were regarded as relics.

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Marginalia1497.
Richard Milderale. Iames Sturdye.
SHortly after the Martyrdome 

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The following accounts of Londoners punished for heresy are drawn from The Great Chronicle of London, ed. A. H. Thomas and I. D. Thornley (London, 1938), pp. 261, 262 and 264.

of this godly aged mother, in the yeare of our Lorde. 1497. and the 17. of Ianuary, 
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I.e., 17 January 1497.

being Sonday. ij. men, the one called Richard Milderale, and the other Iames Sturdye, bare Fagots before the processiō of Paules, and after stoode before the preacher in þe time of his Sermon. And vpon the sonday folowing, stoode other. ij. mē at Paules crosse all þe sermon tyme: the one garnished with painted & writtenpapers, the other hauing a fagot on his necke. MarginaliaHugh Glouer.After þt in Lent season vpon Passion Sonday, one Hughe Glouer bare a Fagot before the procession of Paules, and after with the Fagot stoode before the preacher all the sermō while at Paules Crosse. Marginalia4. Other beare fagots.And on the Sōdaye next folowyng. iiij. men stoode, and dyd there open penaunce at Paules as is aforesayd, in the Sermon tyme many of their bookes were burnt before them at the Crosse.

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Marginalia1498.FVrthermore the next yeare folowyng, whiche was þe yere of our lord. 1498. 

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Actually 1499; Foxe was misled by the author of the Great Chroniclereckoning years by the Lord Mayor's term of office which began in the spring. This account is from The Great Chronicle of London, ed. A. H. Thomas and I. D. Thornley(London, 1938), p. 286.

in þe begynning of May, þe king then beyng at Canterbury, MarginaliaA priest brent.was a Priest burnt, whiche was so strong in his opiniō that all the clerkes and doctors thē there being, could not remoue him frō his faith: wherof þe king beyng enfourmed, caused þe said priest to be brought before hys presence, who by hys persuasiōs caused hym to reuoke, & so he was burnt immediatly.

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MarginaliaThe quene was remoued to Calys at the beheadyng of her cousin Edward PlātagenetIN the same yeare aboue mentioned, whiche was the yeare of our Lord. 1499. 

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Actually 1500; Foxe was misled by the author of the Great Chroniclereckoning years by the Lord Mayor's term of office which began in the spring.

after þe beheadyng of Edward Plantagenet Earle of Warwyke, and sonne to þe Duke of Clarence, þe kyng and Queene beyng remoued to Calys, MarginaliaBabram brent in Northfolk martyr.a certaine godly mā and a constant martyr of Christ, named Babram 
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Foxe made a mistake error, there was no such person. In the Great Chronicle, it reads that in July there 'was a town in Norfolk [sic] namyd Babramconsumed the more part therof with fire' (The Great Chronicle of London, ed. A. H. Thomas and I. D. Thornley [London, 1938], p. 294). This reference to burning is followed immediately by the account of the execution of a heretic in Smithfield. In the manuscript Foxe consulted a marginal note reads: Babram hereticus (London Guildhall MS 3313, fo. 273v).

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Reading rapidly Foxe must have thought that Babram was the name of a heretic andthat he was burned. By the way, Babraham is a village in Cambridgeshire, notNorfolk.

in Northfolk, was brent

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Brabam was martyred in Norfolk, his story first being recounted by Fabian. It is not clear why this particular martyr warranted an illustration.

in the moneth of Iuly, as is in Fabian recorded after that copye whiche I haue writen. 
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Foxe is referring to the Great Chronicle, which he believed was written by the chronicler Robert Fabian. These histories of English martyrs are all derived from London Guildhall MS 3313 (now printed as The Great Chronicle of London), which belonged to John Stow and possibly was loaned by him to Foxe (certainly Foxe consulted the work at some point). Foxe attributes this work (probably correctly) to the chronicler Robert Fabyan.

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Albeit in the booke of Fabian printed, hys burnyng is referred to the nexte yeare folowing, which isan. 1500. 
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Foxe is referring to the version of Fabian.s chronicles in print, incontrast to the Great Chronicle, which Foxe believed was written by Fabian, butwhich was in manuscript. These histories of English martyrs are all derived from London Guildhall MS 3313 (now printed as The Great Chronicle of London), which belonged to John Stow and possibly was loaned by him to Foxe (certainly Foxe consulted the work at some point). Foxe attributes this work (probably correctly) to the chronicler Robert Fabyan.

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Ex Fabiano, & alio scripto codice. MarginaliaAn olde man burned.

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ABout whiche yeare lykewise or in the yeare next folowyng the. xx. day of Iuly, was on old man burnt in Smithfield. 

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This is from The Great Chronicle of London, ed A. H. Thomasand I. D. Thornley (London, 1938), p. 294. The execution of an unnamed old man at Smithfield is recorded in a number of sources (e.g., The Great Chronicle of London, ed. A. H. Thomas and I. D. Thornley [London, 1938], p. 294 and Fabyan's Chronicle, ed. H. Ellis [London, 1911], p. 687). None of the surviving sources supply the details of the man's attempted escape and injury, so it must be assumed that whatever the source that Cary supplied to Foxe was, it was subsequently lost.

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Marginalia1499.
Hieronymus Sauonarola with two fryers, Martyrs.
IN the same yeare also, which was of the Lord. 1499 fell the Martyrdome 

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Foxe had an account of Savanorola in his Commentari (fo. 177r-v)but this account is conflated from two sources. The first is the admiring accountof Philippe de Commynes, whose praise of Savanorola as a prophet who foresawthe future and who was dedicated to the reform of the Church, helped establishSavanorola as a proto-Protestant to the Reformers (see Philippe de Commynes,De Carlo Octavo…et bello Neapolitano Commentarii [Paris, 1561], pp. 105-7). The other source was the account of Savanorola in Matthias Flacius,Catalogus testium veritatis (Basel, 1562), p. 565.

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and burning of Hieronymus Sauonarola, a mā no lesse godly in hart, thē constant in his profession. Who beyng a Monke in Italy, and singularly well learned, preached sore agaynst þe euill life and liuing of the spiritualty, & specially of his own order, cōplaining sore vpon them, as the springes and authors of all mischieues and wickednes. Wherupon, by the helpe of certaine learned men, he began to seeke reformation in his own order. Which thyng the pope perceyuyng, & fearyng, that þe said Hierome, which was now in great reputation amongest all men, should diminish or ouerthrow his authoritie, he ordeined his vicare or prouinciall to see reformation of these matters: which vicare wt great superstition begā to reforme things, but the sayd Hierome did alwayes withstād him, wherupon he was complained of to the Pope, and because that contrary vnto the Popes commaundement, he did withstand his vicare, he was accursed. But for all that, Hieronimus left not of preachyng, but threatned Italy with þe wrath

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