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921 [921]

K. Henry. 7. The historye and tyrannye of the Turkes.

ther straunge kynd of miserie, incredible to speake of: MarginaliaChristians in their captiuitie, put to draw in the ploughe like horses.In somuch that the author reporteth, that he hath seene hym selfe, certaine of such Christen captiues yoked together like horse and oxen, and to drawe the ploughe. The mayde seruauntes likewise are kept in perpetuall toyle and worke in close places, where neither they come in sighte of any mā, neither be they permitted to haue any talke with their felow seruaūts. &c. Such as are cōmitted to kepe beastes, lye abroad both day and night in the wylde fieldes, without house and herbour, and so chaungyng their pasture, go from mountaine to mountayne: of whom also, beside the office of kepyng the beasts, other handie labour is exacted at spare howers, such as pleaseth theyr masters to put vnto them.

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MarginaliaThe great daūgers of Christē captiues which flye out of Turkye.Out of this misery there is no way for them to flye, especially for them that are caried into Asia beyond þe seas: Or if any do attempte so to do, he taketh his time chiefly about haruest, when he may hyde him selfe all the day time in the corne, or in woodes, or marishes, and fynd foode: and in the nyght onely, he flyeth, and had rather bee deuoured of wolues and other wyld beastes, then to returne agayne to his maister. MarginaliaThe maner and shift of our mē in getting ouer the sea.In their flyeng they vse to take with them an hatchet and coardes, that when they come to the sea syde, they may cut downe trees, and bynde together the endes of them, and so, where the sea of Hellespontus is narrowest, about Sestos and Abydos, they take the sea, sittyng vpon trees, where, if þe wynd & tyde do serue luckely, they may cut ouer in foure or v. houres: MarginaliaThe manifolde daūgers by the way in flyeng.But þe most part, either perish in the floudes, or are driuen backe agayn vpō the coastes of Asia, or els bee deuoured of wild beastes in woodes, or perishe with hunger and famine. If any escape ouer the seas alyue into Europe, by the way they enter into no towne, but wander vpon the mountaines, folowing onely the Northstarre for their guide.

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MarginaliaThe miserie of Christiā Cities and prouinces whiche lyue vnder the Turkes tribute.As touchyng such townes and prouinces, whiche are wonne by the Turke, and wherein the Christians are suffered to lyue vnder tribute: firste, all the nobilitie there, they kyll and make awaye, the Churchemen and clergy hardly they spare. The Churches with the belles and all the furniture therof, either they cast downe, or els they cōuert to the vse of their owne blasphemous 

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The addition of this adjective, 'blasphemous', is one of only twointerpolations that Foxe made to Georgevits's description of Ottoman treatment oftheir captives. This description of the Ottoman sultan as a master thief is one ofonly two interpolations Foxe made into Georgevits's description of Ottomantreatment of their captives

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Religion, leauyng to the Christiās, certaine olde and blynd chappels, whiche when they decaye, it is permitted to our men to repayre them agayne, for a great somme of money geuen to the Turke: Neither be they permitted to vse any opē preachyng or ministration, but onely in silence and by stealth, to frequent together. Neither is it lawfull for any Christiā to beare office within the Citie or prouince, nor to beare weapon, nor to weare any garment lyke to the Turkes. MarginaliaIf Christians may not goe lyke Turkes, why should our Gospellers goe lyke Papistes?And if any contumely or blasphemie, be it neuer so great, be spoken agaynst thee, or agaynst Christe, yet must thou beare it, and holde thy peace. Or if thou speake one word agaynst their religion, thou shalt be cōpelled (whether þu wilt or no) to be circūcised: And then if thou speake one word against Mahumet, thy punishement is fire and burnyng. MarginaliaThe Turkes haue their fyre and fagottes, as well as our Papistes.
The Christians must lyght frō their horse, meting a Turkish Priest, and adore hym.
And if it chaunce a Christian beyng on horsebacke, to meete or passe by a Musulman, that is, a Turkishe priest, hee must light from hys horse, and with a lowly looke, deuoutly reuerence & adore the Musulman: Or if he do not, he is beaten downe from his horse with clubbes and staues.

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Farthermore, for their tribute they paye the fourth part of their substaunce and gayne, to the Turke: beside the ordinarie tribute of the Christians, whiche is to pay for euery polle within his familie, a ducket vnto the Turke: whiche if the parentes can not do, they are compelled to sell theyr children into boundage. Other beyng not able to pay, go cheyned in fetters from dore to dore beggyng, to make vp their payment, or els must they lye in perpetuall prison.

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MarginaliaAn other miserie most lamentable, in taking away Christen mens children from theyr parentes, to serue the Turke.And yet notwithstandyng, when the Christians haue discharged all dueties: it remayneth free for the Turkes, to take vp among the Christians children, whom they best lyke, and them to circumcise and to take them away being young, from the sight of their parentes, to farre places, to be brought vp for þe Turkes warres, so that they may not returne to them agayne: but firste are taught to forget Christe, and then their parentes: so that if they come agayne amongest thē, yet are they not able to knowe theyr kyndsfolkes and parentes.

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This miserie passyng all other miseries, no man is able with tōgue to vtter, or with wordes to expresse. MarginaliaO miserie.What wepyng and teares, what sorowe and lamētation, what gronyng, sightes, and depe dolour doth teare and rent asōder the wofull hartes of the sely parentes, at the pluckyng away of their babes and childrē? to see their sonnes and their owne children, whom they haue born and bredde vp to theseruice of Christ Iesus the sonne of God, now to be drawē away violently from them, to the warfare of Satan, and to fight agaynst Christ? MarginaliaThis is with teares rather then with woordes to be expressed.to see their babes, borne of Christiā bloud, of Christiās to be made Turkes, and so to be pluckt out of their armes and out of their sight, without hope euer to returne to them agayne? to lyue perpetually with alians, barbarous and blasphemous Turkes, and so to become of the number of them, whiche are called fatherles and motherles?

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MarginaliaPriuye Gospellers in Turkeye.And albeit the same childrē 

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This description of covert Christianity under the Ottomans, and of aprophecy of Christian overthrow of the Turks, are all taken from BartolomeoGeorgivits, De origine imperii Turcorum as excerpted in Theodore Bibliander,Machumetis Saracenorum principis…Alcoran (Basel, 1550), III, p. 179..

afterward do greatly degenerate frō the faith of Christ, yet very many of thē haue priuely about thē þe Gospell writtē of S. Iohn, In principio erat verbum. &c. whiche for a token or remēbraūce of their Christiā fayth, they cary vnder their armehole, writen in Greke & Arabie: MarginaliaAn old prophesey of the Turkes touching the swords of the Christians.Who greatly desyre and long looke for the reuēgyng sworde of the Christians to come & deliuer them out of their dolorous thraldome & captiuitie, accordyng as the Turkes them selues haue a Prophecie, and greatly stand in feare of the same. Wherof more shal be sayd (Christ willyng) in the Chapter folowyng.

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¶ And thus haue 

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The following remarks on the afflictions of Christians under Ottomanrule and the need to make them known to English readers, are Foxe's own comments.

ye heard the lamentable afflictions of our Christian brethren vnder the cruell tyranny and captiuitie of the Turkes, passing all other captiuities that euer haue bene to Gods people, either vnder Pharao in Ægypte, or vnder Nabuchodonosor in Babylon, or vnder Antiochus in the tyme of þe Mechabees. Vnder the which captiuitie, if it so please the Lord to haue his spouse the church to be nurtured, his good wil be done & obeyed. But if this miserie come through the negligence and discorde of our Christian guides and leaders, then haue we to pray and crye to our Lord our God, either to geue better hartes to our guides and rulers, or els better guydes and rulers vnto his flocke.

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And these troubles and afflictions of our Christen brethren suffered by the Turkes, I thoughte good and profitable for our countrey people here of Englande to knowe, for somuche as by the ignoraunce of these and suche lyke historyes worthy of consideration, I see much inconuenience doth folow. MarginaliaNecessarie for many causes that the troubles of the Churche be knowen.Whereby it commeth to passe, that because wee Englishe men beyng farre of from these countreys, and litle knowyng what miserye is abroad, are the lesse moued with zeale & compassiō, to tender their greuaūces, and to pray for them, whose troubles we know not. Wherupon also foloweth, that we not consideryng the miserable state of other, are the lesse gratefull to God, when any tranquillitie by hym to vs is graunted. And if any litle cloude of perturbation arise vpon vs, be it neuer so litle, as pouertie, losse of liuyng, or a litle banishement out of our countrey for the Lordes cause, we make a great matter thereat: and all because wee goyng no further then our owne countrey, & onely feelyng our owne crosse, do not compare that which we feele, with the great crosses, whereunto the Churches of Christ commonly in other places abroad, are subiecte. Which if we did rightly vnderstād and earnestly cōsider & ponder in our myndes, neyther woulde wee so excessiuelye forgette our selues in tyme of our prosperitie geuen vs of God: nor yet so impatiētly be troubled, as we are, in time of our aduersitie: and all because either we heare not, or els we ponder not the terrible crosses whiche the Lord layeth vpon our other brethren abroad in other nations, as by this present story here prefixed may appeare.

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MarginaliaThe largenes of the Turks dominions declared.NOwe consequently remayneth, 

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Ottoman dominions

This description of the extent of the Ottoman empire may seem thegreatest disgression in Foxe's apparently discursive account of the Turks. But it serves one important purpose: to demonstrate, if not magnify, the power and extent of the Ottoman empire. This supports Foxe's identification of the Ottomans as a diabolical power, if not, indeed, Antichrist itself. Foxe's emphasis on how the Turks(and other Moslems) overran formerly Christian countries also supports his interpre-tation of the 'defections' mentioned in 2 Thess. 2 as the conversion of Christians toIslam, which further reinforces the identification of the Ottomans as Antichrist.

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The geographical information in this section is obtained from two works: PiusII's Cosmographia and Sebastian Münster's Cosmographiae universalis. Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

as I haue shewed hetherto what tyrāny hath ben vsed of þe Turkes against Christes people, so to declare lykewise, how farre this tyranny of the Turkes hath extended and spread it selfe, describing as in a table, to the Christen reader what landes, countreys, and kyngdomes the Turkes haue wonne and got from Christendome: to the entēt that when Christen princes shall behold the greatnes of þe Turkes dominiōs spread almost through all the worlde, & how litle a part of Christianitie remaineth behynd, they may thereby vnderstand the better, how it is tyme now for them to bestyrre them, if euer they thinke to doe any good in Gods Church. And therefore to make a compendious draught as in a briefe table, of such countreys, kyngdomes, and dominions gotte from vs by the Turkes, we will first

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begyn
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