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938 [117]

K. Henry. 7. Williā Tylseley. Father Robartes. Thom. Barnard. James Mordon, Martyrs..

Marginalia1500. IN this long digression 

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Persecution of Lollards

These accounts of Lollards executed or disciplined during the reign ofHenry VII were important to Foxe, as they helped him to demonstrate (to Foxe'ssatisfaction at least) that there was a True Church before Luther. (Foxe makes thispoint explicitly later). Yet Foxe had to rely on the co-operation ofothers to obtain this information. On one level, there were reports by individualinformants, some of whom were eyewitnesses to the events described, and some ofwhom were repeating what they had heard from others. Foxe based his account ofthe Lollards tried at Coventry in 1486 and 1488 on a transcription (possibly atranslation) of extracts in the register of John Hales, the bishop of Coventry and Lichfield; this was almost certainly sent to Foxe. And for information about other Lollards, Foxe also relied on chronicles and documents supplied tohim by antiquaries such as William Bowyer and William Cary.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

, wherin sufficiently hath bene described the greuous and tedious persecution of the Saracens, & Turkes agaynst the Christians, 
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Persecution of Lollards

These accounts of Lollards executed or disciplined during the reign ofHenry VII were important to Foxe, as they helped him to demonstrate (to Foxe'ssatisfaction at least) that there was a True Church before Luther. (Foxe makes thispoint explicitly later). Yet Foxe had to rely on the co-operation ofothers to obtain this information. On one level, there were reports by individualinformants, some of whom were eyewitnesses to the events described, and some ofwhom were repeating what they had heard from others. Foxe based his account ofthe Lollards tried at Coventry in 1486 and 1488 on a transcription (possibly atranslation) of extracts in the register of John Hales, the bishop of Coventry and Lichfield; this was almost certainly sent to Foxe. And for information about other Lollards, Foxe also relied on chronicles and documents supplied tohim by antiquaries such as William Bowyer and William Cary.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

thou hast to vnderstand (good reader) and behold the image of a terrible Antichrist euidently appearyng both by his own doyngs, and also by the Scriptures, prophesied and declared to vs before. MarginaliaA question whether is the greater, Antichrist the Turke or the PopeNow in cōparyng the Turke with the Pope, if a question bee asked whether of them is the truer or greater Antichrist, it were easye to see and iudge, that the Turke is the more open and manifest enemie agaynst Christ and his Churche. But if it be asked, whether of them two hath bene the more bloudy and pernitious aduersary to Christe and his mēbers, or whether of them hath consumed and spilt more Christian bloud, he with sword, or this with fire and sword together, neither is it a light matter to discerne, neither is it my part here to discusse, whiche do but onely write the hystorie, and the Actes of them both. 
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This is yet another example of Foxe considering the 'persecution'of Christians as a basis for identifying them with Antichrist.

Wherfore after the story of the Turkes thus finished, now to reenter agayne there, where as we left, in describing the domesticall troubles and persecutions here at home vnder the Byshop of Rome: MarginaliaBabram and an olde man, Martyrs.
Vid. supra. pag. 866.
after the burnyng of Babram in Northfolke aboue declared. pag. 866. I signified also of an other certaine aged man mentioned in an old written Chronicle borowed of one in the tower, 
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Foxe obtained a manuscript copy of Ranulf Higden's Polychroniconfrom William Bowyer, the keeper of the Tower records from 1563-1570. Thismanuscript, with Foxe's annotations, is now College of Arms, Arundel MS 7.

intituled Polychron. (although I finde not hys name in the sayd Chronicle expresed) whiche suffered the paynes of burnyng in Smithfield, about the same tyme, which was the yeare of our Lorde. 1500. MarginaliaEx scripto Polychronico.Ex Polychron.

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This aged father, I suppose, be hee of whom I finde mention made in certeine olde papers and recordes of William Carye 

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This is one of a number of occasions when Foxe acknowledged hisdebt to William Cary, a London clothworker and antiquary. (On Cary and his manuscript collection, see Andrew G. Watson, 'Christopher and William Carye, Collectors of Monastic Manuscripts, and "John Carye"', The Library Fifth series,20 (1965), pp. 135-42). Foxe's purpose in stating his sources was to demonstrateto potential critics of his work that he had evidence to support his narrative.

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Citizen (albeit the day of the moneth doth a litle differ) wherin is thus testified, MarginaliaDiuers Kentysh mē bearing fagottes.that on the xx. day of Iuly, an. 1500. vpon þe day of S. Margaret, there was an old man burned in Smithfield for an hereticke, 
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The execution of an unnamed old man at Smithfield is recorded in anumber of sources (e.g., The Great Chronicle of London, ed. A. H. Thomas andI. D. Thornley [London, 1938], p. 294 and Fabyan's Chronicle, ed. H. Ellis [London,1911], p. 687). None of the surviving sources supply the details of the man's attempted escape and injury, so it must be assumed that whatever the source that Cary supplied to Foxe was, it was subsequently lost.

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and the same person vpon the tenth daye before he was burned, would haue stolen out of the Lolardes tower, and so fallyng out of the tower, did fowlye hurt him self: wherupon he was caryed in a carte to his death, as he went to his burnyng.

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In the foresayd papers 

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No record of these trials survives, but the Milanese ambassador and aa number of contemporary chronicles mention the abjurations (J. A. F. Thomson, TheLater Lollards, 1412-1520 [Oxford, 1965], pp. 158-9).

of auncient recorde, is furthermore declared, how in the yeare aboue prefixed, whiche was. an. 1499. in the tyme of one Perseuel, many were taken for heretikes in Kent, and at Paules crosse they bare faggottes and were abiured, and shortlye after the same yeare, there went xiij. lolardes afore the processiō in Paules, and there were of thē viij. wemen and a young ladde, and the laddes mother was one of the viij. and all the xiij. bare faggots in their neckes afore the procession.

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¶ William Tylseley, Martyr.

MarginaliaWilliam Tylseley, Martyr.FOr so much as the world is come now to such a morositie and peuishe insensibilitie in these cōtentious and cauillyng dayes of ours, that nothyng can be so circumspectlye written and storied, but shall lye in daunger of one Sycophant or an other, whiche neuer will credite there, where they liste not to lyke: neither will they euer lyke that, whiche seemeth preiudiciall to their faction, or not to serue the humor wherewith their phantasies be infected: therefore to stoppe the mouthes of suche carpyng cauillers with as much possiblitie as I may, bee it knowen to all and singular such persons, who by euidence of truth and witnes will be satisfied, that in the towne of Amersham, be yet alyue both men and wemen, whiche can and do beare wytnes of this that I shall declare. Also there is of the sayd companye one named William Page, an aged father and yet alyue, witnes to the same. Also an other named Agnes Wetherley wydowe, beyng about the age of an hundreth yeares, yet lyuing and wytnes hereof: That in the dayes of kyng Henry vij. an. 1506. 

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The date is incorrect; the signification of Tilesworth's excommunica-tion and commitment to the secular authority survives and is dated 10 August 1511(TNA C 85/115/10). But this document - which lists Robert Cosin, William Scrivener, Nicholas Collins and Thomas Man as also being condemned - shows that,in this case, apart from the date, the information from Foxe's aged informants was essentially accurate.

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in the dioces of Lyncolne in Bukynghams shyre (William Smith beyng Byshop of the same dioces) one William Tylseley 
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Actually William Tilesworth.

was burned in Amersham, in a close called Standley, about 60.yeares agoe. MarginaliaThe daughter cōpelled to set fyre to her father.At which time one Ioane Clerke, being a maryed womā, which was þe onely daughter of þe said W. Tylseley and a faithfull woman, was compelled with her own hādes to set fire to her deare father: and at the same tyme her husband Iohn Clerke dyd penaunce at her fathers burnyng, and bare a fagot, as did also. 
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The family names of many of those listed below (Chase, Harding,Phipp and Scrivener) will recur in Foxe's account of the 1521investigations into heresy in the Chilterns. TNA C 85/ 115/10 lists a William Scrivener condemned todeath as a relapsed heretic on 10 August 1511; he may be the William Scrivener included in this list.

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Robert Bartlet.Iohn Mumbe,
Richard Bartlet.and his wife.
Iohn Bartlet.Richard Bennet.
Thomas Hardyng,Roger Bennet.
and his wife.Iohn Fip.
Henry Hardyng.William Grinder.
Richard Hardyng.Thomas Homes.
Robert Hardyng.Yomand Dorman.
Iohn Milsent,William Scriuener.
and his wife.Iohn Scriuener.
William Whyte.Thomas Chase.
Iohn Cracher.

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MarginaliaAmersham men bearing fagottes.All these bare fagottes, and afterwarde were compelled to weare certaine badges, and went abroad to certayne townes to doo penaunce, as to Buckyngham, Aylesbury, and other townes moe: And also diuers of these men were afterwarde burned in the cheeke, as William Page, whiche at this present is alyue, and lykewise did beare a fagot with the aforesayd. Farthermore the foresayd Agnes Wetherley testifieth, that at the burnyng of this William Tylseley, were lx. and aboue that were put to beare fagottes for their penaunce, of whom diuers were enioyned to beare and to weare fagottes at Lyncolne, the space of vij. yeares, some at one tyme, some at an other. &c. In which number was also one Robert Bartlet a rich mā, who for his professiō sake was put out of his ferme and goodes, and was condemned to be kept in þe monasterye of Ashryge, where he ware on his right sleue a square peece of cloth the space of vij. yeares together.

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It foloweth moreouer in the testimonie of the forenamed, that about the same tyme of the burnyng of William Tilseley (as the Amersham men do say) or the next day after (as recordeth the foresayd Agnes) MarginaliaFather Robertes, Martyr.was one father Robertes burned at Buckyngham. 

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This must be Robert Cosin, of Little Missenden, who is recorded on TNA C 85/115/10 as being condemned to death for heresy. Foxe will laterdescribe the execution of Thomas Man, but he says nothing about the executionsof William Scrivener or Nicholas Collins.

He was a Miller and dwelled at Myssenden: and at his burnyng there was aboue xx. persons that were compelled to beare fagottes, and to do such penaunce as the wicked Pharisies dyd compell them. After that by the space of ij. or

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¶ William Tylseley, Martyr.
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Barnard was a husbandman and Mordon a labourer, burned together at Amersham. Foxe only mentions them briefly. However, James Morden (a book owner) was a member of a family with a significant Lollard record (eight members of whom feature in Bishop Longland's investigations). CUL copy: detail provided in the faces with flushes to the cheeks and features detailed in black ink; otherwise this is rather clumsily executed, with some bleed through from the red paint of the flames as a result. There appears also to be some damage to the right-hand side of the image caused by metallic paint. Note that the man on the left, presumably Barnard, is depicted with a greying beard, with some brown and predominantly grey hair. The man on the left is depicted as looking much younger and fresher-faced, with brown hair and beard. The image in the WREN copy is in particularly bad condition. The metallic base paint occurs on many parts of the image, obscuring detail. In this copy there is less grey in Barnard's beard and hair.

3. yeres, MarginaliaThomas Barnard. Iames Mordon, Martyrs.was burned at Amershā, Thomas Barnard a husbandmā, and Iames Mordō a labourer: 

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A James Marden was handed over to the secular arm for burning in1522 (TNA C 85/115/13).

they ij. were burned both at one fire: and there was Williā Litlepage (who is yet aliue) cō-pelled to be burned in the ryght cheeke, & father Rogers, MarginaliaFather Reuer Martyr.and father Reuer aliâs Reyue, whiche after was burned.

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This
LL.iij.
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