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984 [984]

K. Henry. 8. Christopher Shomaker, Martyr. Persecution in the dioces of Lincolne.

ther he had any cause why he should not be adiudged for relapse, he trustyng to finde fauour and grace in submittyng him selfe, sayd: that hee submitted him to the mercy of almightye God, and to the fauorable goodnes of hym his iudge. And lykewise did William Swetyng submitte hym self, trustyng belyke, that they should finde some fauour and reliefe in this humble subiectyng them selues vnto their goodnes.

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MarginaliaThe vnmercifull, & vnchristian dealing of the catholique Papistes.But note here the vnmercifull and vnchristian dealyng of these Catholicque fathers: who vpon their submission were contented to geue out a solemne commission, the tenour wherof was to release & pardon them frō the sentence of the excommunication, wherinto they had incurred: But immediatly after vpon the same, the Byshop all this notwithstādyng pronounced vpon them the sentence of death and condemnation. MarginaliaWilliam Swetyng, & Iames Brewster, burnt in Smithfield.Wherupon they were both deliuered to the secular power, and both together brent in Smithfield at one fire, the xviij. of October, an. 1511. 

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The signification of the excommunication of Sweeting and Brewster, and their transfer to the secular authorities for execution, is dated 14 September 1511 (TNA C/85/126/19).

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¶ Christopher Shomaker, Martyr.

MarginaliaChristofer Shomaker burnt in Newbery, Martyr.TO these blessed saintes before past, 

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Persecution in diocese of Lincoln

Of all the sections of Foxe's book, this account of the persecution of the Lollards in the Chilterns, may be the most valuable to students of late medieval English religion. One reason for its value is that is based on court books from the diocese of Lincoln that are now missing. However, there is some corroboration for Foxe's account of these persecutions. In the seventeenth century, Archbishop James Ussher copied twelve lines into one of his notebooks '"Ex libro Detectionum Confessionum et Abjurationum haeretic" coram Johanne Lincolnensi episcopo an. 1521 (In Bibliotheca Lambetha)' (Trinity College, Dublin, MS 775. fos. 128v-129r). Furthermore, the signification to Chancery survives of the excommunication of four heretics - named by Foxe - who were burned in Longland's persecution. Foxe did not invent the persecution and he is probably accurate in his description of the scope of the persecution and the people affected by it. But the extent to which he rewrote the beliefs of those accused of heresy, or omitted material he felt was damaging, will never be known.

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The second reason for the value of these records lies in the systematic manner in which Bishop John Longland investigated heresy in his diocese. The bishop began his inquiries by questioning those who had previously abjured and were thus vulnerable to being charged as relapsed heretics. Moreover, once they had abjured again, they were required to inform on other heretics, to demonstrate their sincerity. By this means, one heretic incriminated several others, each of whom incriminated others and ultimately Longland detected about 50 heretics. Four of these people were burned and the rest were obliged to do penance.

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Longland's persecution not only confirms that Lollardy was entrenched in the chilterns, it also demonstrates that in towns, such as Amersham, were almost completely controlled by them and that the local elites were disproportionately Lollard in sympathy. (For discussion of this see Derek Plumb, 'John Foxe and the Later Lollards of the Thames Valley' [Cambridge PhD, 1987], pp. 274-76 and Andrew Hope, 'Lollardy: the stone the builders rejected?' in Protestantism and the National Church in Sixteenth Century England, ed., Peter Lake and Maria Dowling (Beckenham, Kent, 1998], pp. 3-4 and 9-10). On occasion, the Lollard minorities were even able to intimidate the orthodox Catholics in the region. All of this was, of course, manna from heaven to Foxe, who used this material to show that there was a 'True Church' in England.

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Thomas S. Freeman
University of Sheffield

we will also adioyne Christopher Shomaker: of whom this I find briefly in the Register of Iohn Longland: 
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If Smith was burned in in 1518, then he was prosecuted while Bishop William Atwater held the see of Lincoln. Foxe probably obtained his knowledge of this case from the testimony of John Say.

that the sayd Christopher Shomaker a parishner of great Missendē, came to the house of one Iohn Say, and after other matters of talke, readde to him out of a litle boke the wordes whiche Christ spake to his disciples. And thus cōmyng to his house about fore tymes, at euery time readde some thyng out of þe same booke vnto him: teachyng him not to be deceaued in þe priestes celebratiō at Masse, & declaring that it was not the same very present body of Christ, as the Priestes did phantasie: but in substaunce bread, bearing the remembraunce of Christ. And taught him moreouer that pilgrymage, worshippyng and settyng vp candles to saintes were all vnprofitable. And thus the sayd Iohn Say beyng taught by this Christopher, and also confirmed by Iohn Okenden, and Robert Pope, was

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¶ Christopher Shomaker, Martyr.
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Shoemaker was of the parish of Great Missenden. He would read passages of a doctrinal text to one John Say in the parish, urging him to renounce his belief in Catholic doctrine. Shoemaker was burned at Newbury in 1518.

brought to the knowledge of the same doctrine. MarginaliaThe death of Christofer Shomaker.
1518.
Thus muche briefly I finde in that Register cōcernyng Christofer Shomaker, declarīg further that hee was burned at Newberye, aboute thys tyme, which was. an. 1518. And thus much out of the Registers of London. 

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This is an error (probably typographical): this information came the Lincoln court book, not London.

IN turning ouer the Registers & Recordes of Lincolne likewise, & commyng to the yeare of Lorde. 1520. and 1521. I finde that as þe light of þe Gospell began more to appeare, and the number of the professours to growe: so the vehemencie of persecution, and styrre of the byshops began also to encrease. Wherupon ensued great perturbation and greuous affliction in diuers and sondry quarters of this realme, especially about Buckynghamshyre, and Amersham, Vxbrige, Henley, Newbery, in the dio-ces of London, in Essex, Colchester, Suffolke, & Northfolke, & other partes moe. And this was before the name of Luther was heard of in these countreys amongest the people. Wherfore they are much begyled & misse informed, whiche condemne this kinde of doctrine now receaued, of noueltie, askyng where was this Church and Religion 40. yeares ago, before Luthers tyme? 

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Once again, Foxe is using the records of Lollard trials to show that there was a 'True Church' before Luther.

MarginaliaThe antiquitie of the true doctrine of the Gospell.To whom it may be aūswered, that this Religion and forme of doctrine first planted by the Apostles, and taught by true Bishops, afterward decayed, and now reformed agayne, althoughe it was not receaued nor admitted of the Popes clergie before Luthers tyme, neither yet is, yet it was receaued of other, in whose hartes it pleased the Lorde secretly to worke, and that of a great number, which both professed and suffred for the same, as in the former times of this hystorie may appeare. And if they thinke this doctrine to be so newe, that it was not heard of before Luthers tyme, how then came such great persecutions before Luthers time here in England? If these were of the same professiō, which they were of, then was their crueltie vnreasonable, so to persecute their owne Catholique fraternitie. And if they were otherwise, how then is this doctrine of the Gospell so new, or the professours therof so late starte vp, as they pretēde them to be? MarginaliaIgnoraunce of antiquitie.But this cōmeth onely of ignoraunce, and for not knowyng nor considering well the times & antiquitie of the Church, which hath been before vs. Whiche if they did, they should see, & say, that the Church of England, hath not lacked great multitudes, which tasted and folowed the sweetenes of Gods holy worde: almost in as ample maner, for the nūber of well disposed hartes, as now. MarginaliaElder tymes of the Gospell with these later tymes compared.Althoughe publique authoritie then lacked, to mainteyne the open preachyng of the Gospell, yet þe secret multitude of true professours was not much vnequall: certes the feruent zeale of those Christiā dayes semed much superiour to these our dayes and times, as manifestly may appeare by their sitting vp all night in readyng, and hearyng, also by their expenses and charges in bying of bookes in Englishe: of whom some gaue v. markes, 
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Foxe is interested in demonstrating the zeal of the Lollards in acquiring godly literature, but this is also an indication of the affluence of many of these Lollards. On the importance of books to the Lollards see Margaret Aston, 'Lollardy and Literacy' in Lollards and Reformers: Images and and literacy in late medieval England (London, 1984), pp. 1-47.

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some more, some lesse for a booke. Some gaue a loade of haye for a few Chapters of Saint Iames, or of S. Paul in Englishe. In whiche raritie of bokes, and wāt of teachers this one thing I greatly maruell and muse at, to note in the Registers and to consider how the worde of truth notwithstandyng did multiply so excedyngly as it did amongst them. Wherin is to be sene no doubt the meruelous workyng of Gods mighty power. For so I finde and obserue in consideryng the Registers, how one neighbour resortyng and conferring with an other, eftsoones with a few wordes of their first or second talke, did wynne and turne their mindes to that wherin they desired to persuade them, touchyng þe truth of Gods worde and his Sacramentes. MarginaliaThe earnest zeale of our forefathers in following Christes Gospell.To see their trauailes, their earnest seekyng, their burnyng zeales, theyr readinges, their watchynges, their sweete assēblies, their loue and concorde, their godly lyuing, their faithfull marying with the faithfull, may make vs nowe in these our dayes of free profession to blushe for shame.

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Foure principall pointes they stoode in agaynste the Church of Rome, in pilgrimage, adoration of saintes, in readyng Scripture bookes in Englishe, and in the carnall presence of Christes body in the Sacrament.

MarginaliaAbiuratio magna.After the great abiuration aforesayd, whiche was vnder William Smith, Byshop of Lyncolne, MarginaliaKnowen men, Iust fast men.they were noted & termed among them selues by þe name of Knowen men, or Iuste fast men, as nowe they are called by the name of Protestantes. 

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Here Foxe dexterously identifies the Lollards with the Protestants, implicitly establishing that Protestant teachings went back to (at least) Wiclif.

As they were simple, and yet not vncircūspect in their doyngs, so the crafty serpent beyng more wylie thē they, by fraudulent subtiltie, did so circumuent them, MarginaliaThe practyse of Romyshe prelates.that they caused the wife to detect the husband, the husband the wife, the father þe daughter, the daughter the father, þe brother to disclose the brother, and neighbour the neighbor. 

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Foxe is genuinely shocked by Bishop Longland's methods of investigation, which undermined the integrity of both family and community.

Neither were there any assemblies, nor readinges kept, but both the persons, and also the bookes were knowen: Neither was any woorde so closely spoken, nor Article

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men,
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