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1014 [1013]

K. Henry. 8. Supplication of the soules of Purgatory.

almes þt the good christē people would geue vnto vs, sore, impotent, miserable people, your bedemē. MarginaliaWhat wealth & goodnes commeth to the realme, by putting out Monkes, Friers, and Chauntries. Then shall as wel the number of our foresayd monstruous sort, as of the baudes, whores, theeues, and idle people decrease. Then shall these great yearely exactions cease. Then shall not your sworde, power, crowne, dignitie, and obedience of your people be trāslated from you. Then shall you haue full obedience of your people. Then shall the idle people be set to worke. Then shall matrimony be much better kept. Then shall the generation of your people be encreased. Then shall your commons encrease in riches. Then shall the Gospel be preached. Then shall none beg our almes from vs. Thē shall we haue enough and more then shall suffice vs: which shall be the best hospitall that euer was founded for vs. Then shall we daily pray to God for your most noble estate long to endure.

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MarginaliaThe supplication of the soules of Purgatory, made by Syr Tho. More, agaynst the booke of beggars. Agaynst this booke of the Beggers, aboue prefixed, beyng written in the tyme of the Cardinall, another contrary booke or supplication, 

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This refers to Thomas More's treatise, The Supplycatyon of Soulys (October 1529) (in two books). See The Yale Edition of The Complete Works of St. Thomas More, ed. by Frank Manley, Clarence H. Miller, and Richard C. Marius, vol.7 (New Haven, 1990). More's response to Fish was famously ten times longer and written within only days of his reading Fish's work.

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was deuised and written shortly vpō the same, by one Syr Thomas More knyght, 
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More was a successful London lawyer with a growing practice when he was employed by the crown as a member of a commercial treaty negotiating commission in the Low Countries. Following on from this he was made a privy councillor and was knighted in 1521. Further offices followed: master of requests, under-treasurer, and chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster (1525) and lord chancellor (25 October, 1529) - an office in which he served two and a half years.

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Chauncellour of the Duchy of Lancaster, vnder the name and title of the poore sely soules pewlyng out of Purgatory. In the which booke, after that the sayd M. More writer therof, had first deuided the whole world into foure partes, that is, into heauen, hell, middle earth, and Purgatory: then he maketh the dead mens soules by a Rhetoricall Prosopopœa 
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This refers to prosopopoeia, which is a rhetorical device in which a writer speaks to an audience as another person or object.

, to speake out of Purgatory pynfolde, sometymes lamentably complayning, sometymes pleasauntly dalying and scoffing at the authour of the Beggers booke, sometymes scoldyng and rayling at hym, callyng hym foole, wytlesse frantike, an asse, a goose, a madde dogge, an hereticke, and all that naught is. And no maruell, if these sely soules of Purgatory seeme so fumish & testy. For heate (ye knowe) is testie, & soone inflameth choler, but yet those Purgatory soules, must take good hede how they call a man foole and hereticke so often. For if the sentence of the Gospell doth pronounce them guiltie of hell fire, which say, fatue, foole: MarginaliaMath. 5. it may be doubted lest those poore sely melancholy soules of Purgatory, calling this man foole so oft as they haue done, do bryng themselues therby out of Purgatory fire, to the fire of hell, by þe iust sentēce of the gospell: so that neyther the v. woundes of S. Fraunces, nor all the merites of S. Dominicke, nor yet of all the Friers can release them poore wretches. 
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According to mediaeval Catholic doctrine, merit had been accrued over the years by the virtues of the saints which could be applied to the souls in purgatory, mitigating their time.

But yet for so much as I do not, nor cannot thinke, that those departed soules, eyther would so far ouershoote themselues if they were in Purgatory, or els that there is any such fourth place of Purgatory at all (vnlesse it be in M. Mores Vtopia) MarginaliaVtopia, that is to saye, Nusquam, no place. as Maister Mores Poeticall vayne doth imagine, 
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This is a rather pithy little play on words by Foxe. Utopia, More's treatise of 1516, famously described a fictional island which featured a perfect society, with perfect political, economic and legal systems. The title stems from the Greek construct of 'οὐ' (meaning 'not') and 'τόπος' (meaning 'place') or 'no place'.

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I cease therfore to burden the soules departed, and lay all the wyte in maister More the authour and contriuer of this Poeticall booke, for not kepyng Decorum personæ, as a perfect Poet should haue done. They that geue preceptes of Arte, do note thhs in all Poeticall fictions, as a speciall obseruation to foresee and expresse what is conuenient for euery person, accordyng to hys degree and condition to speake and vtter. MarginaliaA Poete sayth Horace, Reddere personæ sit conuenientia cuiq́;. Wherefore if it be true that maister More sayeth in the sequele of hys booke, that grace and charitie increaseth in them that lye in the paynes of Purgatory, then is it not agreeable, that such soules lying so long in Purgatory, should so soone forgette their charitie, and fall a rayling in their supplication so fumishly both agaynst this man, with such opprobrious and vnfittyng termes, and also against Iohn Badby, Rich. Howndon, Iohn Goose, Lord Cobham 
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Sir John Oldcastle famously escaped imprisonment at the Tower of London and led a Lollard rebellion against his friend Henry V. It is assumed that he was also the model for Shakespeare's character Sir John Falstaff. [See James Gairdner, Lollardy and the Reformation in England, an historical survey, 3 vols. (London, 1908), 1, pp. 93-7].

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and other Martyrs of the Lord burned for hys worde: also agaynst Luther, William Tindall, Richard Hunne and other mo, falsely belying the doctrine by them taught and defended: which is not lyke that such charitable soules of Purgatory would euer doe, neyther were it conuenient for them in that case, which in dede though their doctrine were false, should redound to the more encrease of their payne. Agayne, where the B. of Rochester defineth 
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This is a reference to Bishop John Fisher's patristic examination of the doctrine of purgatory, entitled Confutation of Lutheran Assertions (1523). See Carl R Trueman, Luther's Legacy: Salvation and English Reformers, 1525-1556 (Oxford, 1994), pp.121-56.

the Angels to be ministers to Purgatory soules some wyll thinke peraduenture maister More to haue missed some part of his Decorum in makyng the euil spirite of the authour and the deuill to be messenger betwene middle earth, and Purgatory, in bringing tidinges to the prisoned soules, both of the booke, and of the name of the maker.

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MarginaliaM. Mores Antikes. Now, as touchyng the maner how this deuill came into Purgatory, laughyng, grynnyng, and gnashyng his teeth, in sothe it maketh me to laugh, to see þe mery Antiques of M. More. Belike thē this was some mery deuil, MarginaliaSatan nasturciatur. or els had eaten wt his teeth some Nasturcium before: 

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This refers to 'nasturtium' or watercress, a leaf vegetable known for its peppery flavour.

which comming into Purgatory, to shew the name of this man, could not tell hys tale without laughing. But this was (sayth he) an enmious & an enuious laughing, ioyned with grynnyng and gnashyng of teeth. And immediatly vpō the same, was contriued this scoffing and raylyng supplication of the pewlyng soules of Purgatory, as hee hym selfe doth terme thē. So then here was enmying, enuying, laughing, grinning, gnashyng of teeth, pewlyng, scoffing, raylyng, and begging and altogether MarginaliaA blacke Santus in Purgatory. to make a very blacke Sanctus in Purgatory. 
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A reference to a 'black mass' or 'satanic mass', which is a ceremony supposedly developed in mediaeval European witch circles as a parody of the Christian ceremony featuring the profanation of the Host.

In deede we read in Scripture, that there shall bee wepyng and gnashyng of teeth in hell, where the soules & bodyes of men shall be tormented. 
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Matthew 8.12 or 25.30.

But who woulde euer haue thought before, that the euill aungell of this man, that made the booke of Beggers, beyng a spirituall and no corporall substance, had teeth to gnashe, & a mouth to grynne? But where then stode M. More I meruell al this meane while, to see the deuill laugh with his mouth so wyde, þt the soules of Purgatory might see all hys teeth? Belyke this was in Vtopia, where M. Mores Purgatory is founded. But because M. Moore is hence departed, 
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Thomas More was executed on 6 July 1535.

I leaue hym with his mery Antiques. And as touchyng hys booke of Purgatory, 
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Another reference to Thomas More's The Supplycatyon of Soulys (October 1529) written over two books.

whiche he hath lefte behynde, MarginaliaThe aunswere of Ioh. Frith against M. Mores Purgatory. because Iohn Frith hath learnedly and effectuously ouerthrowne the same, I will therfore referre the reader to hym, while I repayre agayne (the Lord willyng) to the hystorye.

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After that the Clergye of England, and especially the Cardinall, vnderstode these bookes of the Beggars supplication aforesayd, to be strawne abroade in the streetes of London, and also before the kyng, the sayd Cardinall caused not onely his seruauntes diligently to attend to gather them vp, that they should not come into the kynges handes but also when he vnderstode, that the kyng had receaued one or two of them, he came vnto the kynges Maiesty saying: If it shall please your grace, here are diuers seditious persons which haue scattered abroad books conteyning manifest errours and herisies, desiryng his grace to beware of them. Wherupon the kyng puttyng his hand in his bosome, tooke out one of the bookes and deliuered it vnto the Cardinall. MarginaliaProuision by the byshops, agaynst Englishe bookes. Then the Cardinall, together with the Byshops, consulted, how they might prouide a spedy remedy for this mischief, & therupon determined to geue out a Commission to forbid the readyng of all Englishe bookes, and namely this booke of Beggars, and the new Testament of Tyndals translation: which was done out of hand by Cutbert Tonstall Byshop of London, who sent out his prohibitiō vnto his Archdeacons, with all spede, for the forbiddyng of that booke and diuers other more: the tenor of whiche prohibition here foloweth.

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¶ A prohibition sent out by Cuthbert Tonstall Bishop of London, to the Archdeacons of his diocesse, for the callyng in of the new Testaments translated into English, with diuers other bookes: the Cataloge wherof hereafter ensueth. 
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Tunstall's anti-heresy edicts

In concentrating upon the prohibition of the circulation of the scriptures in English, issued by Cuhbert Tunstall on 23 October 1527 (not 24 October 1527, as Foxe states) were crystal-clear. It was a golden opportunity to emphasise the opposition to the spread of evangelical truth among the English ecclesiastical hierarchy on the eve of the events that Foxe will shortly describe, and which led to the reformation. Cuthbert Tunstal, bishop of London, had been consecrated there on 19 October 1522 (provided on 10 September and the temporalities assigned 7 October). He would be translated to the see of Durham on 21 February 1530. The archdeacon, to whom the prohibition was addressed, was Geoffrey Wharton, collated 29 March 1526 (see Tunstal's register at London Guildhall MS, 9531/10: Episcopal Register Tunstal: 1522-29/30, fol.14b). Wharton died two years later on c.30 October 1529 (fol.28). His vicar-general, also mentioned in the prohibition, was Richard Foxford. The translated and printed New Testament, whose circulation it sought to prevent was Tyndale's New Testament, completed by February 1526 at the Peter Schoeffer printer in Worms, the first to be printed in the English vernacular. It is interesting that, for all the trouble Chancellor Thomas More and Bishop Stokesley would put him through, the major influence upon Tyndale's translation had been Erasmus' own Greek New Testament, which was available to him in its third edition of 1524 (with its Latin translation and notes). Stokesley had defended an earlier edition of Erasmus before Henry VIII in 1521 (Collected Works of Erasmus, 67 vols. (Toronto, 1974-91), vi, p.63 (no.855), viii, pp.8ff, 19; L&P, ii/ii, 4340) while More's relationship with Erasmus is well known. Tyndale had also used Luther's 1521 September Testament (see, Brian Moynahan, William Tyndale [London, 2002], p.6). Tyndale would make much of the fact that Erasmus had been his major influence.

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Andrew ChibiUniversity of Leicester

MarginaliaA prohibitiō against English bookes. CVthbert by the permission of God, Byshop of London, vnto our welbeloued in Christ the Archdeacon of London, or to his Official, health grace and benediction. By the duety of our pastorall office, we are bounde diligently with all our power, to foresee, prouide for, roote out, and put away all those thynges, which seeme to tend to the peril & daunger of our subiectes, and specially the destruction of their soules. Wherefore we hauyng vnderstandyng by the report of diuers credible persons, and also by the euident apparaunce of the matter, that many children of iniquitie, maintayners of Luthers sect, blynded throughe extreme wickednes wandryng from the way of truth and the Catholicke fayth, craftely haue translated the new Testament into our English tongue, entermedlyng therwith many hereticall Articles & erroneous opinions, pernicious and offensiue, seducyng the simple people, attemptyng by their wicked and peruerse interpretations, to prophanate the maiestye of the Scripture, which hetherto hath remained vndefiled, & craftely to abuse the most holy worde of God, and the true sence of the same: of the which translation there are many bookes imprinted, some with gloses and some without, contayning in the Englishe tongue that pestiferous and most pernicious poyson dispersed throughout all our diocesse of London in great number: which truly without it be spedely foreseene, wythout doubt, wyll contaminate and infect the flock committed vnto vs, with most deadly poyson and heresie, to the grieuous peril and danger of the soules committed to our charge, and the offence of gods diuine maiesty. Wherfore we Cuthbert the bishop aforesayd, greuously sorowyng for the premisses, willyng to withstand the craft and subteltie of the auncient enemy and hys ministers, which seeke the destruction of my flock, and with a diligēt care, to take hede vnto the flock cōmitted to my charge, desiring to prouide spedy remedies for the premisses, do charge you ioyntly and seuerally, & by vertue of your obedience, straightly enioyne and commaunde you, that by our authority you warne or cause to be warned

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