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1032 [1031]

K. Hen. 8. The Martyrdome of Iohn Fryth, and Andrewe Hewet.

thinke transubstantiation, although it were true in deed, to be established for an article of faith. 

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This is largely a close paraphrase of page 455 of the Russell edition. Frith here discusses the commonplaces of his own doctrine with those of the Lutherans ['Germaines'] and Zwinglians ['Helvesianes'] in that all of them deny the traditional Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation. Although the word itself was often left out of official proclamations, as supreme head of the church Henry VIII was devoted to two firm doctrines - the real presence and the value of infant baptism - and those who denied these in any way (called 'Sacramentarians' and 'Anabaptists') - were subject to arrest and heresy charges throughout his reign. Frith would have been considered a Sacramentarian. After this point Foxe mentions Frith's trial at bishop Stokesley's court at St Paul's once again.

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And thus muche hytherto as touching the articles and whole disputation of Iohn Frith, whiche was done with all moderation and vprightnes. But when as no reason would preuaile against the force and crueltie of these furious foes, the xx. day of Iune, in the yeare of our Lorde. 1533. he was brought before the Bishoppes of London, Winchester and Lincolne who sitting in Paules vpō Fryday, the xx. day of Iune, ministred certaine interrogatories vpon the Sacrament of the Supper and Purgatorie, vnto the saide Frith, as is aboue declared. To the whiche when he had answeared and shewed his mynd in forme and effect as by his owne wordes aboue doth appeare, he afterwarde subscribed to his answeares with his owne hande, in these wordes.

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MarginaliaThe subscription of Iohn Fryth.Ego Frithus ita sentio, & quemadmodum sentio, ita dixi, scripsi, asserui, & affirmaui.

That is to say.

¶ I Frith do thus thinke, and as I thinke, so haue I said, written, taught, and affirmed, and in my bookes haue published.

But when as by no meanes he coulde be perswaded to recant these articles aforesaide, neither be brought to beleue that the sacrament is an article of faith, but said, Fiat Iudicium & iustitia: MarginaliaIoh. Frith condemned. he was condemned by the Bishop of London to be burned, and sentence geuen against hym: the tenor wherof here ensueth. 

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Foxe's description of Frith's trial where he refused to recant his opinions on the two articles charged against him.

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¶ The sentence geuen against Iohn Frith.

MarginaliaSentence agaynst Iohn Frith IN the name of God. Amen. We Iohn by the permission of God, Bishop of London, lawfully and rightly proceedyng with all godly fauour by authoritie and vertue of our office, against thee Iohn Frith, of our iurisdiction before vs personally here present, beyng accused and detected and notoriously sclaunderedof heresie, hauing heard, seene, and vnderstande, and with diligent deliberation wayed, discussed, & considered þe merites of þe cause, all thinges being obserued which by vs in this behalfe, by order of law ought to be obserued, sittyng in our iudgement seate, the name of Christ beyng first called vppon and hauyng Marginalia* As they had which crucified Christ. * God onely before our eyes, because by the actes enacted, propounded and exhibited in this matter, and by thine owne confession iudicially made before vs, we doo finde that thou hast taught, holden, and affirmed and obstinately defended diners errours and heresies, and damnable opinions, contrarye to the doctrine and determination of the holy Church, and specially against the reuerende Sacrament, and albeit that we folowing the example of Christe, whiche woulde not the death of a sinner, but rather that he shoulde conuerte and lyue, haue oftentymes gone aboute to correcte thee, and by all lawfull meanes that we coulde, and moste wholesome admonitions that we did knowe, to reduce thee againe vnto the true fayth, and the vnitie of the vniuersall Catholique Churche, notwithstanding we haue founde thee obstinate and stiffe necked, willingly continuyng in thy damnable opinions and heresies, and refusing to returne agayne vnto the true fayth and vnitie of the holy mother Churche, and as the childe of wickednesse and darknesse, so to haue hardened thy harte, that thou wylt not vnderstande the voyce of thy sheepehearde, which with a fatherly affection doth seeke after thee, nor wylt not be allured with his godly and fatherly admonitions: We therefore Iohn the Bishop aforesaid, not willyng that thou whiche arte wicked, shouldest become more wicked, and infecte the Lordes flocke with thy heresie, whiche we are greatly afraide of, do iudge thee, and definitiuely condemne thee, the saide Iohn Frith, thy demerites and faultes beyng aggrauate through they damnable obstinacie, as gyltie of moste detestable heresies, and as an obstinate vnpenitent sinner, refusing penitently to returne to the lappe and vnitie of the holy mother Churche, and that thou haste bene, and arte by Lawe excommunicate, and pronounce and declare thee to be an excommunicate person: also we pronounce and declare thee being an heretique to be cast out from the Churche, and leaft vnto the iudgment of the secular power, and nowe presently so do leaue thee vnto the secular power, and their iudgement, moste earnestly requiring them in the bowels of our Lorde Iesus Christ, that this execution and punishment worthyly to be done vppon thee, MarginaliaModeration pretended but none shewed. may so be moderate, that the rigour thereof be not too extreme, nor yet the gentlenesse too muche mittigated but that it maye be to the saluation of thy soule, to the extirpation, terrour, and conuersion of heretiques, to the vnitie of the Catholique fayth, by this our sentence definitiue or finall decree, which we here promulgate in this forme aforesayde. 

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This is the judgement of Bishop Stokesley made against Frith, prior to turning him over to the temporal authorities for execution. Stokesley was a rather doctrinaire conservative and Foxe probably rightly suspected that where the bishop speaks of charity he was rather quite pleased to see another 'heretic' removed.

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MarginaliaIohn Fryth deliuered to the secular handes. This sentence thus readde, the Bishop of London directed his letter to Syr Steuen Pecocke, Mayor of London, and the Sheriffes of the same Citie, for the receyuyng of the foresaide Iohn Frith into their charge. Who beyng so deliuered ouer vnto them the fourth daye of Iulie in the yeare aforesaide, was by them carryed into Smithfielde to be burned, MarginaliaThe constant death of Iohn Frith.  

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This is Foxe's description of Frith's burning.

and when he was tyed vnto the stake, there it sufficiently appeared with what constancie and courage he suffered death: for when as the fagottes and fire were put vnto hym, he willyngly embraced the same, therby declaryng with what vnprightnesse of mynde he suffered his death for Christes sake and the true doctrine, whereof that daye he gaue with his bloud, a perfecte and firme testimonie. The wynde made his death somewhat the more longer, whiche bare away the flame from hym vnto his felowe that was tyed to his backe: but he had established hys mynde with suche pacience, God geuing hym strength, that euen as though he had fealt no paine in that long torment, he seemed rather to reioyse for his felow, then to be carefull for hym selfe.

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This truely is the power and strength of Christe, striuing and vanquishing in his Saintes: who sanctifie vs together with them, and direct vs in al thinges to the glorye of his holy name. Amen.

This daye, before the burnyng of these woorthy men of God, the Bishop of London certified king Henry the eight of his worthy, yea rather wooluish proceedyng against these men: the tenour whereof for as muche as it proceedeth as the other do before, we therefore omit it, referring the reader to the same.

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¶ Andrewe Hewet burned with Maister Frith.

MarginaliaAndrewe Hewet, Martyr.
1533.
ANdrewe Hewet borne in Feuersham, in the countie of Kent, a yong man of the age of foure and twentie yeares 

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These limited biographical details do not appear in the 1563 edition.

, was apprentise with one maister Warren Taylor, in Watlyng streate. And as it happened that he went vppon a holy daye into Fleete streate, towarde Saint Dunstanes, he met with one William Holt, whiche was foreman with the kinges Taylor at that present, called mayster Malte: and being suspected by the same Holt, (which was a dissembling wretche) to be one that fauoured the Gospell, after a litle talke had with hym, he wente into an honest house aboute Fleete Bridge, whiche was a bokesellers house. MarginaliaAndrew Hewet apprehended. Then Holt thinking he had founde a good occasion to shewe foorth some fruite of his wickednesse, sent for certayne officers and searched the house, and findyng the same Andrewe, apprehended hym, and carryed hym to the Bishoppes house, where he was cast in yrons, and being there a good space, by meanes of a certayne honest man, he had a File conueyed vnto hym, MarginaliaThe man that gaue him this file was Valentine Freese the Painters brother, who was afterward with his wife burned in Yorke. wherewith he filed of his yrons, and when he spyed his tyme, he got out of the gate. 
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Foxe is suggesting here that William Holt, one of the chancellor's spies, set up Andrew Huet (or Hewet) as part of a seemingly wider scheme to uncover a brethren cell. The story of the Freez family is an interesting side bar to Huet's release. Valentine Freez was the brother of Edward (an apprentice painter), the two sons of Frederick (a book printer of York). Foxe relates the story of Edward's arrest for heresy (c.1529) and his going insane while imprisoned in Lollard's Tower. Valentine evaded capture in London, but was taken by bishop Rowland Lee of Coventry and Lichfield after 1534 (L & P, vii, p.514) later to be executed as a sacramentarian in York, condemned not by the church courts but by the council in the North under the terms of the recent 'Act of Six Articles' - see 'Tudor York: Religion and the Reformation', in A History of the County of York: the City of York (London 1961), pp.142-155, which can be found on-line at http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=36342.

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But beyng a man vnskilfull to hyde hym selfe, for lacke of good acquaintaunce he wente into Smythfielde, and there mette with one Wythers, which was an hypocrite as Holt was. Whiche Wythers vnderstandyng howe he had escaped, and that he knewe not whether to goe, pretendyng a fayre coūtenaunce vnto hym, willed hym to goe with hym, promising that he should be prouided for, and so kept hym in the countrey wher he had to doo, from Lowe sonday tyll Whitsontide, & then brought hym to Londō, to the house of one Iohn Chapman in Hosier lane beside Smithfelde, and there leaft hym by the space of two dayes.

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MarginaliaIohn Chapman. Then he came to the saide Chapmans house againe, and brought Holt with hym. And when they mette with the sayde Andrewe, they seemed as though they meante to do hym very muche good: and Holt for his part saide, that if he should bring any man in trouble (as the voyce was that he had done the saide Andrewe) it were pitie but that the earth should open and swalow hym vp: in so much that they would needes sup there that night, and prepared meate of their owne charges. MarginaliaW. Holte playeth the Iudas. At night they came and brought certaine geastes with them, because they would haue the matter to seeme as though it had come out by others. When they had supped, they went their waye, and Holt tooke out of his purse two groates, and gaue them to the sayde Andrewe, and embraced hym in his armes. 

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Huet must have been rather naïve and Holt and his accomplice played him skilfully. John Chapman was a 'known man' (a member of the Christian Brethren or Lollards) and provided a safe-house/cell near Smithfield. 'Wythers' could be another tailor, Christopher Ravyns of Witham who had previously abjured his radical beliefs.

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MarginaliaIohn Tibauld five tymes in bandes for Christ. As they were gone out, there came in one Iohn Tibaulde, whiche was banished from his owne house by an Iniunction, for he had bene foure times in prison for Christes Cause. 
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John Tibald (Tybal) was a Lutheran sympathizer of Steeple Bumpstead in Essex, who had abjured his beliefs before Tunstal in 1528, had been in London since c.1526 when he and his Thomas Hills had come to purchase an English New Testament from Robert Barnes - see J E Oxley, The Reformation in Essex (Manchester, 1965), pp.10-14; Davis, pp.61-2.]. Tybal was not allowed to return to his home by virtue of injunction.

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And within an houre after that Holt and Wythers were gone, the Bishops Chauncelour, and one called Sergeaunt Weuer came and brought with them the watche, ann searched the house, MarginaliaAndrewe Hewet againe taken. where they founde the sayde Iohn Chapman and the forenamed Andrewe, and Iohn Tibaulde, whom they

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