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1033 [1032]

K. Hen. 8. The Martyrdome of Iohn Fryth, and Andrewe Hewet.

bounde with ropes, whiche Sergeant Weuer had brought with hym, and so carryed them vnto the Bishops house: 

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Stokesley's chancellor and vicar-general was Richard Foxford 'the persecutor and common butcher of good families of God' (BL Lansdowne MS. 979, fols.90,92v & 98). Chapman, Huet and Tibald were captured in possession of heretical books but taken to separate locations.

but Andrewe Hewet they sente vnto the Lollardes Tower 
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There were two prison-towers in London at this time, each known as Lollard's Tower. The old water tower at Lambeth Palace had been converted and was often used to hold accused heretics, often in stocks, and the bishop of London's prison within the precincts of St Paul's. Huet was probably taken to the latter.

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, and kept Chapman and Tibaulde asunder, watched with two Priestes seruauntes. The next daye Bishop Stokesley came from Fulham, and after they were examined with a fewe threatnyng woordes, MarginaliaChapman in the stocks Chapman was committed to the stockes with this threat, that he shoulde tell an other tale, or els he shoulde sitte tyll his heeles dyd droppe from his arse, and Tibaulde was shutte vp in a close chamber, but by Gods prouision he was well deliuered out of prison: albeit he coulde not enioye his house and lande, because of the Bishoppes Iniunction, but was fayne to sell all that he had in Essex, MarginaliaTibaulde inioyned, not to come within vii. myle of hys house. for the tenour of his Iniunction was, that he shoulde not come within seuen miles of his owne house, and the foresayde Chapman, after vfiue weekes imprisonment (whereof three weekes he sate in the stockes) by muche suite made vnto the Lord Chancelour, whiche at that tyme was Lord Audley, after many threatnynges was deliuered: 
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Chapman was eventually freed through the intervention of Sir Thomas Audley, More's successor as Lord Chancellor. Why he would put pressure on London's ecclesiastical machine is unknown, although Susan Brigden supplies a hint that Chapman and others had found favour with the new queen, Anne Boleyn (see, S. Brigden, London and the Reformation (Oxford, 1989), p.197). Huet had found no such favour, which suggests that he was a disciple of Frith and considered a sacramentarian (which condemned him in the eyes of the king).

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but the saide Andrewe Hewet after long and cruel imprisonment, was condemned to death, and burned with Iohn Frith: whose examination here foloweth.

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MarginaliaAndrewe Hewet brought and examined before the Byshop. The twentie day of the moneth of April, Andrew Hewet was brought before the Chauncelour of London 

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Huet's examination before Stokesley, Longland and Gardiner is very similar to Frith's, and his beliefs on the eucharist seem to feature heavily.

, where was obiected against hym, that he beleued the Sacrament of the aultar after the consecration, to be but a signification of the bodye of Christe, and that the host consecrated was not the verye bodye of Christe. Nowe for so much as this article seemed haynous vnto thē, they would doo nothing in it without the consent of learned counsayle. Whereupon the Bishop of London, associate with the bishops of Lincolne & Winchester, called hym agayne before them. Where he beyng demaūded what he thought as touchyng the Sacrament of the last Supper, answeared: euen as Iohn Fryth doth. Then said one of the Bishops vnto hym: dost thou not beleue that it is reallye the bodye of Christ, borne of the virgin Mary? 
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Foxe provides here some details of the Huet examination. It seems that he was being manoeuvred into admitting more than sacramentarian beliefs. There were many ancient heresies, like monophysitism, which denied one or the other aspect of Christ's dual nature and these accusations were often thrown around in controversial writings. It seems Huet fell into this trap, much to the bishops' amusement.

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So (saith he) do not I

woodcut [View a larger version]

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John Frith, a highly educated evangelical, had made a significant mark through his writings by the time of his death, aged thirty in 1533. He may already have known Tyndale before he went to the colloquy between Luther and Zwingli at Marburg in 1529 and (as a married man) he took up residence in Antwerp. It was there that he published in 1531 the work that reveals his powers of exegesis and that made him a marked man; his Disputacion of purgatorye. Frith was arrested in England that year, and Foxe tells the tale of how his knowledge of Homer gained his release from the stocks in Reading. But he was arrested and sent to the Tower before he could take ship back to Antwerp. Sentenced for heresies on the eucharist and purgatory, he recorded in prison the articles for which he died at Smithfield on 4 July 1533. It seems to have been a matter of accident, as recounted by Foxe, that Frith shared his fate with a still younger man, Andrew Hewet, a London apprentice of twenty-four who denied transubstantiation, saying he shared Frith's view of the sacrament of the altar. Foxe's illustrator represented a crowded scene in Smithfield, the people being reined back as the fire is prepared, while a friar is giving an admonitory address on the left. Others look on from the windows of shops or houses. This is the instructive moment before the pyre is lit, and the two martyrs pray inside the piled faggots. The woodcut has taken a hint from what Foxe says of Frith's suffering being prolonged by the wind 'which bare away the flame from him unto his fellow that was tied to his back', which prompted him to 'rejoice' for his co-sufferer, rather than think about himself. CUL copy: note that the hats and reins are in a very rich black.

¶ The burnyng of Iohn Frith, and Andrewe Hewet.
beleeue. Why not sayde the Bishop? MarginaliaChrist not to be beleued to be really in the Sacrament. Because (saith he) Christ commaunded me, not to geue credite rashly vnto all men, which saith: Behold, here is Christ, & there is Christ, for many false prophetes shal rise vp, saith the Lorde.

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Then certaine of the Bishoppes smiled at hym, and Stokesley the Bishop of London saide: why, Frith is an heretique, and already iudged to be burned, and except thou doo reuoke thine opinion, thou shalt be burned also with hym. Truely (said he) I am contended therewithal. Then the Bishop asked hym if he woulde forsake his opinions. MarginaliaHewet burned with Iohn Frith. Whereunto he answeared, that he woulde do as Frith did. Whereupon he was sent vnto the prison to Frith, and afterwarde they were caryed together to the fire. The Bishops vsed many perswasions to allure this good man frō the truth, to folowe them: MarginaliaHewet constant in the Fayth. but he manfully persisting in the truth, would not recant. Wherfore, the fourth day of Iuly at after noone, he was caryed into Smithfield with Frith, and there burned. MarginaliaHewet holdeth with Iohn Fryth. When they were at the stake, one Doctor Cooke a person in London, openly admonished all the people, that they should in no wise pray for them, no more then they would do for a dogge. 

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Foxe mentioned Dr John Coke here, the rector of All Hallow's Honey Lane, who had been imprisoned with Frith for a time. Coke was not a heretic, however, but a reactionary Catholic who opposed the royal supremacy and the divorce. He was probably well aware of Frith and Huet's opinions and considered them dangerous subversives.

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At which woordes Frith smilyng, desired the Lord to forgeue hym. These his wordes did not a little moue the people vnto anger, and not without good cause. Thus these two blessed martyrs cūmitted their soules into the handes of God.

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¶ The historie of the persecution and death of Thomas Benet, burned in Exeter, collected and testified by Iohn Vowell, alias Hoker. 
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Thomas Benet

This account of Thomas Dusgate provides a striking example of the important contribution individual informants made to Foxe's book. Dusgate (or Benet) had not been previously mentioned by any Protestant writer, including Bale. And, in fact, Foxe did not mention Dusgate in the Rerum or in the 1563 edition. Yet sometime between 1563 and 1570, two informants sent accounts to Foxe of this Henrician martyr. One of these informants was John Vowell (or Hooker), a celebrated antiquary and local historian. This account forms the basis for Foxe's entire account of Dusgate; it was never changed by the martyrologist. The other account of Dusgate was sent to Foxe by Ralph Morice, who had been Thomas Cromwell's principal secretary and became an important source for Foxe. (Morice's account of Dusgate survives among Foxe's papers as BL, Harley MS 419, fo.125r-v). Although Foxe did not make use of Morice's account, it contains important information about the martyr. Most notably, it was Morice who established that the Thomas Dusgate who attended Cambridge was the same person as Thomas Benet the martyr. (Upon resigning his fellowship at Corpus Christi College, Dusgate changed his name to Benet. This was a reference to his former college, which was also known as Benet's College, because its fellows were attached to the neighbouring church of St Benet. Hooker knew of Dusgate's Cambridge background, but he did not know that Benet's real name was Dusgate). Morice also relates that Dusgate, while still a fellow at Corpus, visited Martin Luther and that Dusgate resigned his fellowship because he was unwilling to take holy orders and remain celibate.

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Thomas S. Freeman

MarginaliaTho. Benet of Exeter, Martyr. THis Thomas Benet 

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Thomas Dusgate changed his name to Thomas Benet upon leaving Cambridge (see the ODNB article on Thomas Dusgate).

was borne in Cambridge, and by order of degree of the Vniuersitie, there made maister of Arte, and (as some thinke) was also a Priest 
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Dusgate certainly did not become a priest; Morice makes it clear that he left Cambridge to avoid taking holy orders (stating that Dusgate was 'very moche combered with the concupissence of the fleshe' and refused to enter holy orders, then obligatory for all fellows (BL, Harley MS 419, fo. 125r)). A Dusgate (no first name given) proceded MA at Cambridge in 1524 (Grace Book B. ii. 94).

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, a man doubtles very wel learned, and of a godly disposition, beyng of the acquaintaunce and familiaritie of Thomas Bilney, the famous and glorious martyr of Christe. 
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Bilney was active in Cambridge at this time and Dusgate's visit to Luther certainly indicates his evangelical sympathies.

This man, the more he dyd growe and encrease in the knowledge of God and his holy word, the more he dyd mislike and abhorre the corrupt state of Religion then vsed, 
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Ralph Morice states that Dusgate left Cambridge because he was 'very moche combered with the concupissence of the fleshe' and refused to enter holy orders, then obligatory for all fellows (BL, Harley MS 419, fo. 125r).

and therfore thinkyng his owne countrey 
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'Country' in the sixteenth century could mean county or region, as it does here.

to be no safe place for hym to remayne in, and beyng desirous to liue in more freedome of conscience, MarginaliaTho. Benet comming from Cambridge to Deuonshyre. he dyd forsake the Vniuersitie, and went into Deuonshire, in the yere of our Lord. 1524. and first dwelled in a market towne named Torriton, both towne and countrey beyng to hym altogether vnknowen, as he also was vnknowem to al men there. Where for þe better main-

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