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1043 [1042]

K. Henrty. 8. A Table of persons abiured, with their articles.


Richard
Iohnson of
Bockstede
and Alyce
his wife. 
Commentary  *  Close

In 1528, Richard Johnson was summoned before the ecclesiatical authorities in Colchester and did not appear (BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 30r). Richard and Alice are the 'Johnson and wife' whom Foxe mentions as being imprisoned at Fulham in 1534 (1570, p. 1168; 1576, p. 999 and 1583, p. 1026). In 1535, Richard Johnson wrote to Thomas Cromwell, complaining that in the previous year he and his wife had been arrested, tajken to Fulham and held there for months. They were released on Henry VIII's orders, But Stokesley had them sent to St. John's abbey in Colchester, for an informal - and illegal - detention. Johnson and his wife escaped, but they asked Cromwell to intercede with Stokesley so that they did not have to fear being apprehended again (L&P IX, p. 383).

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1531.

This Richard and his wife were
fauourers of Gods word, & had bene
troubled for the same of long tyme.
They came frō Salisbury to Bock-
stede by reason of persecution, where
they continued a good space. At lēgth
by resort of good men, they began to
be suspected, and specially for a booke
of Wickleffes Wicket which was in
their house, they were conuented be-
fore Stokesley bishop of London,
and there abiured.

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MarginaliaPerlious dayes. So great was þe trouble of those tymes, that it would ouercharge any story to recite the names of all them, whiche duryng those bitter dayes before the comming in of Queene Anne, either were driuen out of the Realme, or were cast out from their goodes and houses, or brought to open shame by abiuration. Such Decrees and Iniunctions then were set forth by the Byshopspe, such lawes and proclamations were prouided, such watch and narrow searche was vsed, such wayes were taken by force of othe to make one detect an other so subtelly, that vnneth any good man could or dyd escape their handes, but either his name was knowen, or els his person was taken. Yet neuerthelesse so mightely the power of Gods Gospell dyd worke in the hartes of good men, that the number of them dyd nothyng lessen for all this violence or policie of the aduersaries, but rather increased in such sorte, as our story almost suffereth not to recite the particular names of all and singular such as then groned vnder the same Crosse of affliction & persecution of those dayes as: of which number were these. 

Commentary  *  Close

The records that follow for the remainder of this section were generated in 1527 when Geoffrey Wharton, the vicar-general of Bishop Cuthbert Tunstall of London, made a visitation of the diocese. He uncovered a network ofheretics in Colchester and its environs, particularly the viallges of Boxted, Witham and Steeple Bumpstead. Much of this visitation was recorded in a register whosepages - apparently torn out by Foxe or his associates - form a significant portionof BL, Harley MS 421. Some pages of this register that now longer survive, were transcribed by John Strype, when he had custody of Foxe's papers and printed inhis Ecclesiaiastical Memorials.

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MarginaliaPersons of Bumsted abiured.
Arthur.
Geffray Lome. 
Commentary  *  Close

These articles are taken from Bishop Cuthbert Tunstall's register (Guildhall MS 9531/10, fos. 136v-137r).


Iohn Tibolde, his mother, his
wife, his two sonnes, and hys
two daughters. 
Commentary  *  Close

John Tyball was a figure of more significance than this terse mention would indicate, He converted Richard Foxe (Richard Foxe was the parish minister of Steeple Bumstead, Essex. He was a leading proponent of evangelical views in his parish and later informed on other evangelicals as part of his abjuration (BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 28r)), and was an avid collector of Lollard and evangelical works (BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 35r). He would bear witness, as part of his abjuration, in Colchester and its environs (BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 30r-v; Strype, EM, I, 1, p. 131 and I, 2, pp. 50-66)

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Edmond Tibold, and his wife. 
Commentary  *  Close

Edmund Tyball was John's brother and a churchwarden in Richard Foxe's church (Richard Foxe was the parish minister of Steeple Bumstead, Essex. He was a leading proponent of evangelical views in his parish and later informed on other evangelicals as part of his abjuration (BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 28r)). He would later abjure and denounce a number of Lollards in Colchester and its environs (Bl, Harley MS 421, fo. 28r-v; Strype, EM I, 1,p. 135 and I, 2, p. 56).

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Henry Butcher, and his wife.
William Butcher, and his wife. 
Commentary  *  Close

Butcher was a plowright of Steeple Bumstead, who abjured on 11 May 1528 in Colchester. Reading of the New Testament in English were held in his house (BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 34r; Strype, EM I, 1, p. 132 and I, 2, pp. 59-60).


George Preston, and his wife.
Ioane Smith, widow 
Commentary  *  Close

These two Joan Smiths are apparently different people.

.
Robert Smith her sonne.

Richard Smith, her sonne.
Margaret Smith, her daughter.
Elizabeth Smith, her daughter.
Rob. Hempstede, and his wife 
Commentary  *  Close

They abjured in Colchester on 11 May 1528. The pair was from Steeple Bumpstead, Essex and Robert claimed that Richard Foxe (Richard Foxe was the parish minister of Steeple Bumstead, Essex. He was a leading proponent of evangelical views in his parish and later informed on other evangelicals as part of his abjuration (BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 28r)) had worked to convert him to heresy. Robert was the brother of Thomas Hempstead. See BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 34r).

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.
Tho. Hemestede, and his wife. 
Commentary  *  Close

They abjured in Colchester on 11 May 1528. Thomas was one of Richard Foxe's churchwardens (Richard Foxe was the parish minister of Steeple Bumstead, Essex. He was a leading proponent of evangelical views in his parish and later informed on other evangelicals as part of his abjuration (BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 28r)). He testified that his wife taught him the Lord's Prayer and Apostle's Creed in English (BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 34r). Thomas was the brother of Robert Hempstead.

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Iohn Hemestede, his sonne.
Robert fayre.
William Chatwals.
Ioane Smith widow, otherwise
called Agnes widow.

Iohn her sonne.
Thomas her sonne.
Christopher her sonne.
Alyceher daughter.
Ioane her daughter.
Iohn Wiggen.
Nicolas Holdens wife.
Alyce Shypwright.
Henry Browne.
Iohn Craneford.

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¶ All these were of the towne of Bumstede, who beyng detected by Syr Richard Foxe their Curate, and partly by Tibolde 

Commentary  *  Close

William was a husbandman of Braintree, Essex. He and his wife were associates of leading Lollards in Essex (Strype, EM, I, I, p. 117 and I, 2, p. 53).

, were brought vp to the Byshop of London, and all put together in one house, to the number of xxxv. to be ex amined and abiured by the sayd Byshop.

Moreouer in other townes about Suffolke and Essex, other also were detected, as in the towne of Byrbrooke, these followyng.


MarginaliaMen & wemen of Essex and Suffolk troubled for the Gospell.
Isabell Choote widow.
Iohn Choote her sonne.
William Choote her sonne.
Christopher Choote her sonne.
Robert Choote her sonne.
Margarete Choote her daughter.
Katherine her mayde.
Thomas Choote, and his wife. Haruy, and his wife.

Agnes his daughter.
Thomas his sonne.
Bateman,and his wife.
Iohn Smith, and his wife.
Thomas Butcher, and his wife.
Robert Catlyn, a spone maker.
Christmas, and his wife.
William Bechwith, his wife 
Commentary  *  Close

Of St. Nicholas parish, Colchester. He supplied other Lollards with books and owned an extensive collection of Lollard works (Strype, EM I,1, pp. 115, 118-23, 126-9, 132-3 and I, 2, p. 53; BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 19r).

and

his two sonnes.
Iohn Pickas, and his wife 
Commentary  *  Close

See Strype, EM I, I, pp. 124-31 and I, 2, p. 53; also see BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 19r.

.
William Pickas, his brother. 
Commentary  *  Close

See BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 19r.


Girlyng, his wife & his daughter.
Mathewes wife and his sonne.
Iohnson, his wife.
Thomas Hilles. 
Commentary  *  Close

He was a servant to Christopher Ravin of Witham, Essex. Heattended Lollard meetings, bought and sold heretical books, and had extensive ties to Lollards and evangelicals in Steeple Bumpstead (Strype, EM, I, 1, p. 114 and I, 2, p. 54; BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 19r and James Oxley, The Reformation in Essex[Manchester, 1965], pp. 13-14).

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Roger Tanner. 
Commentary  *  Close

This is a mistake. This was Roger, a tanner of Bowers Gifford, not a man named Roger Tanner. He bought and sold an English New Testament (BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 34r).

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Christopher Rauen, and hys wife 
Commentary  *  Close

Of Witham, Essex. Ravin had already abjured back in 1511. His household was apparently a center of Lollard activity and a number of his servants were also Lollards (Roger, a tanner of Bowers Gifford, bought and sold an English New Testament (BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 34r), the Chapman brothers, servants to Christopher Ravin, also were Lollards: see BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 34r and Strype, EM, I, I, p. 114 and I, 2, p. 54). He was apparently survived long enough to relate a story about this visitation to Foxe or one of Foxe's associates (since he seems to be the source for stories about the harsh treatment of his servants).

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.
MarginaliaIoh. Chapmn. Iohn Chapman, his seruaunt.
Who 
Commentary  *  Close

I.e., Christopher Ravin, who seems to be the source for this story about the harsh treatment of his servant.

remayneth yet aliue, and hath bene of a long time a great
harberour of many good men and wemen that were in trouble and
distresse, and receiued them to his house, as Thomas Bade 
Commentary  *  Close

Robert Bate is meant; Foxe's account of Edward Freeze and 'father' Bate is based on material sent to Foxe by an informant; very probably an informant in Colchester (this account contains quite a bit of detail on people from Essex and Colchester). But there is quite a bit of corroboration for Foxe's account. First of all, A. G. Dickens uncovered information on Edward Freese's family. Edward's father Frederick was a Dutch immigrant (the family name was probably Vries or de Vries), who settled in York and made a living as a bookbinder and stationer (A. G. Dickens, Lollards and Protestants in the diocese of York 1509-1558 [Oxford, 1959], p. 30). This Dutch background may explain the pronounced evangelical convictions of Valentine and Edward Freese. Another major piece of corroboration is a letter, almost certainly sent to Thomas Cromwell, which is now in the TNA. Although the signature has been cut off of the letter, the biographical details related in it fit Edward Freese so closely that is virtually certain that he wrote it. The author of the letter, detained in London for religious offences, admits that he had been a monk since the age of 13, but claims that he was 'sold' by his master to the abbot of Jervaulx. The author of the letter declared that he attempted to flee the abbey several times but was recaptured. Finally he fled to Colchester and he got married (TNA SP 1/73, fos. 175r-176r).

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, Sy-
mon Smyth, the Priestes wife 
Commentary  *  Close

I.e., Simon Smith, the curate of Much Hadham and his wife (Smith was Patmore's curate and Benmore his maidservant. Patmore's activesupport, if not outright instigation, of this marriage was necessary.).

, Roger Tanner, with a number
moe, which ye may see and read in our former edition 
Commentary  *  Close

Foxe's unwillingness to describe the abjurations of Henrician evangelicals (and, earlier in his work, the Lollards) contrasts starkly with his desire to conceal such submissions in the case of the Marian martyrs. This an indication of the extent to which an earlier tolerance of recantations had eroded among Protestants, and also of Foxe's conviction that those born before the full onset of the Reformation had both lesser spiritual knowledge and lesser obligations to God.

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, pag. 419.
Richard Chapman, his seruaunt
and brother to Iohn Chapman. 
Commentary  *  Close

On the Chapman brothers, servants to Christopher Ravin, see BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 34r and Strype, EM, I, I, p. 114 and I, 2, p. 54.

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MarginaliaRich. Chapman. ¶ Touchyng this Richard Chapman, this by the way is to be noted, that as he was in his coate and shyrt enioyned bare head, bare foote, and bare legge to go before the procession, and to kneele vpon the colde steps in the Churche all the Sermon tyme, MarginaliaCrueltie shewed for mercy. a litle ladde seeing him knele vpon the colde stone with his bare knees, and hauing pitie on hym, came to him, and hauing nothing els to geue him, brought

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him his cappe to kneele vpō. For the which the boy immediatly was taken into the Vestry and there vnmercifully beaten for his mercy shewed to the poore penitent.

Besides these, diuers other were about London, Colchester and other places also partakers of the same Crosse and affliction for the like cause of the Gospell, in which number commeth in these which hereafter follow.


Peter Fenne, Priest.
Iohn Turke.
Robert Best.
William Raylond of Colchester 
Commentary  *  Close

William was a tailor of Colchester and one of the leaders of the local network of Lollards; see BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 19r and Strype, EM I, 1, pp.117-20 and 124-32.

.
Henry Raylond hys sonne.
Marion Mathew, or Westden. Dorothe Long. 
Commentary  *  Close

Of St. Giles, Colchester; see BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 19r and Strype, EM I, I, p. 116.

Thomas Parker. 
Commentary  *  Close

See BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 19r and Strype, EM, I, I, pp. 121, 129, 132-3 and I, 2, p. 54.

Alyce Gardiner.
Iohn Tompson.
Iohn Bradley, and his wife.
Of Colchester

Iohn Hubert of Estoonland 
Commentary  *  Close

Of East Donyland, ESSex. The case against the Huberts wasdismissed and they did not abjure (BL, Harley MS 421, fos. 19r and 30r).

, and

hys wife.
M. Forman, Bacheler of Diuini-
tie Parson of Hony Lane 
Commentary  *  Close

Thomas Forman, the rector of All Hallows Honey Lane was one of the leading evangelicals in London and one of the capital's most popular preachers. He was also the head of a network disseminating heretical books in London and Cambridge (Susan Brigden, London and the Reformation [Oxford, 1982], pp. 112-115).

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.
Robert Necton. 
Commentary  *  Close

Robert Necton disseminated heretical literature throughout East Anglia, under the aegis of Thomas Forman. Necton abjured in 1528, but was re-arrested in 1531 and sent to Newgate (See Strype, EM, I, 2, pp. 62-3 and ThomasMore, The Confutation of Tyndale's Answer, ed. L. A. Schuster, R. C. Marius,J. P. Lusardi and R. J. Schoeck, CWTM8, 3 vols. [New Haven, CT, 1973], I, p. 18 and III, pp. 813-15).

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Katherine Swane. 
Commentary  *  Close

Of Colchester. See Strype, EM I, 1, pp. 121, 129 and 133.


Masters Cowbrige, of Colchest.

William Butcher, whose fathers
grandfather was burned for
the same Religion. 
Commentary  *  Close

Edmund Tyball was John's brother and a churchwarden in Richard Foxe's church (Richard Foxe was the parish minister of Steeple Bumstead, Essex. He was a leading proponent of evangelical views in his parish and later informed on other evangelicals as part of his abjuration (BL, Harley MS 421, fo. 28r)). He would later abjure and denounce a number of Lollards in Colchester and its environs (Bl, Harley MS 421, fo. 28r-v; Strype, EM I, 1,p. 135 and I, 2, p. 56).

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Abraham Water, of Colchest.

MarginaliaAll these in this table were troubled & abiured, an. 1527. 1528.
Robert Wygge.
William Bull.
George Cooper.
Iohn Toy, of S. Fayth.
Richard Foster.
of London.
MarginaliaThys Parker was abiured 24. yeares before thys.
Sebastian Harrys, Curate of
Kensington.
Ex Regist. Lond.
¶ All these in this table contey-
ned, were troubled and abiured.
an. 1527. and 1528. 
Commentary  *  Close

Foxe's presentation of this material makes it appear that the Wilys were accused of all the charges listed and abjured in 1528. However, John Wily, the elder, possessed a copy of the examinations of William Thorpe and John Oldcastle, a work which was not printed until 1530. The date of 1532 is also given by Foxe in his account of the Wilys. The most likely explanation is that the Wilys wereaccused and abjured in 1528 and were charged again in 1532. The articles Foxe lists are from 1532.

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Marginalia Persons abiured.
1532.

Ioh. Wyly the elder.
Catherine Wyly,
hys wife.
Io. Wyly, his sonne.
Christian Wyly, his wyfe.
W. Wyly, his sonne.
Magaret Wyly, his wife.
These 8. persons were accu-
sed, an. 1532. for eating po-
tage & fleshmeate fiue yeares
before, vpon S. Iames euē.
Also an other time, vpō S.
Peters euen, as Catherine
Wylye did lie in childbed, þe o-
ther wiues, wt the ij. gyrles,
were found eating altogether
of a brothe made with þe fore-
part of a racke of Mutton.
Item, the foresayd Iohn Wyly
the elder, had a Prim-
mer in English in his house,
and other bookes,
Also, he had a younge

Lucye Wylye,
Agnes Wylye, two younge gyrles. An. 1532.
daughter of x. yeares olde,
which coulde rēder by hart þe
most part of the 24. chapt. of
S. Mathewe: also coulde re-
hearse without booke, þe dis-
putation betwene the clarke
and the Frier.
Item, the sayd Ioh. Wy-
ly had in his house a treatise
of William Thorpe, and Sir
Iohn Oldcastell

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¶ A note of Richard Bayfide, aboue mentioned.

MEntion was made before of Richarde Bayfilde Monke of Burye, pag. 996. who in these perillous dayes, amongest other good saynctes of God, suffered

death
XXxiiij.
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