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1047 [1046]

K. Henry. 8. Matter of the kinges mariage. The Clergie in the Premunire.

I will not name, sparyng the reuerēce of chast eares: which demonstrations otherwise in those Recordes beyng named and testified, do sufficiently put the matter out of all doubt and question.

Besides that, in the same recordes appeareth that both he and she not onely were of such yeares as were meete and hable to explete the côsummation hereof, but also they were and did lye together both here and in Wales by the space of three quarters of a yeare.

Out of a written booke of Recordes, containyng certaine conferences betwixt the Cardinall and Queenes Catherines Amner about this matter, remainyng in our custody to be sene.

Thus when the Diuines on her side, were beaten from that ground, then they fell to perswasions of Naturall reason, how this should not be vndone for three causes. MarginaliaThree reasons for Queene Catherine. One was because, if it should be broken, the onely child of the kyng should be a Bastard, which were a great mischief to the realme. Secondly, the separation should be cause of great vnkyndnes betwene her kinred and this Realme. And the thyrd cause was, that the continuaunce of so long space, had made the Mariage honest. These perswasions with many other, were set forth by the Queenes Counsaile, MarginaliaFisher Bish. of Rochester a great doer for Queene Catherine. and in especiall by the Byshop of Rochester, which stode stiffe in her cause. But yet Gods precept was not aunswered, wherefore they left that ground and fell to pleadyng that the court of Rome had dispenced with that Mariage. To this some Lawyers sayd, that no earthly person is able to dispence with the positiue law of God.

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When the Legates heard the opinions of the Diuines, and saw wherunto the ende of this question MarginaliaThe searching of the kings mariage brought moe thinges to light. would tende, for asmuch as men began so to dispute of the authoritie of the Court of Rome, & especially because the Cardinall of Yorke perceaued the kyng to cast fauour to the Lady Anne, whō he knew to be a Lutheran, they thought best to winde them selues out of that brake by tyme, MarginaliaCardinall Campeius slippeth frō the kyng. & so Cardinal Campeius dissemblyng the matter conueyed himselfe home to Rome agayne, as is partly aboue touched, pag. 967. The kyng seyng himselfe thus to be differred & deluded by the Cardinals, tooke it to no litle grief: wherupon, the fall of the Cardinall of Yorke folowed not long after.

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This was in the yeare of our Lord. 1530. Shortly after it happened the same yeare, that the king by his Ambassadours was aduertised that the Emperour and the Pope were both together at Bononie: Wherfore he directed Syr Tho. Bulleyn late created Earle of Wiltshyre, and Doct.Stokesley (afterward Byshop of London) and Doct. Lee (afterward byshop of Yorke) MarginaliaThe kyng sendeth to the Emperour and the Pope. with his message to the popes Court, where also the Emperour was. Pope Clemēt vnderstandyng the kynges case and request, and fearyng what might follow after, if learnyng and Scripture here should take place agaynst the authoritie of their dispensations, and moreouer doubtyng the Emperours displeasure, bare hym selfe straunge of from the matter, MarginaliaThe Popes aunswere to the king. aūsweryng the Ambassadours with this delay: that he presently would not define in the case, but would heare the full matter disputed when he came to Rome, and accordyng to right he would do iustice.

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MarginaliaThe king gaue more to the Pope thē he needed. Although the kyng ought no such seruice to the Pope, to stand to his arbitremēt either in this case, or in any other, hauyng both the Scripture to leade him, and his law in his owne handes to warrant him: yet for quietnes sake: and for that he would not rashly breake order (which rather was a disorder in deede) he bare so long as conueniently he might. At length, after long delayes and much dissemblyng, when he saw no hope of redresse, he began somewhat to quicken and to looke about him, what was best both for his owne conscience, and the stablishment of his Realme, to do.

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MarginaliaGods prouidence working meruelously in this matter. No man here doubteth, but that all this was wrought not by mans deuise, but by the secrete purpose of the Lord himselfe, to bryng to passe further thinges (as afterward folowed) which his diuine prouidēce was disposed to worke. For els as touchyng the kynges intent and purpose, he neuer meant nor mynded any such thyng as to seeke the ruine of the Pope, but rather sought all meanes contrary, how both to stablish the Sea of Rome, & also to obteine the good will of the same Sea and Court of Rome, if it might haue bene gotten. And therfore intendyng to sue his diuorse from Rome, at the first begynnyng, his deuise was, by Steuen Gardiner his Ambassadour at Rome, to exalte the Cardinall of Yorke, MarginaliaVid. Supr. pag. 965. (as is before shewed pag. 965.) to be made Pope and vniuersall Byshop, to the end that he rulyng that Apostolicke Sea, the matter of his vnlawfull Mariage, which so troubled his conscience, might come to a quiet conclusiō, without any further rumor of the world. Which purpose of his if it had taken effect as he had deuised it, and the English Cardinall had once bene made pope, no doubt, but the authoritie of the Sea had neuer bene exterminate out of England. But God being more mercyful vnto vs, tooke a better way then so. MarginaliaMan purposeth but God disposeth. For both without, and contrary to the kynges expectation, be so brought to passe, that neither the Cardinall of Yorke was Pope (which shoulde haue bene an infinite cost to the kyng) and yet neuertheles the kyng sped of his purpose too, and that much better then he looked for: For he was ridde, by lawfull diuorcement 

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The final decision in England was made by Archbishop Cranmer at his tribunal at The Priory of St Peter at Dunstable on 23 May 1533 (for which, see Andrew A Chibi, Henry VIII's Conservative Scholar [Bern, 1997], pp.82-4).

, not onely from that vnlawfull mariage which clogged his conscience, but also from the miserable yoke of the Popes vsurped dominion, which clogged the whole realme, and all at one tyme.

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Thus Gods holy prouidence rulyng the matter (as I sayd) when the kyng coulde get no fauorable graunt of the Pope touching hys cause beyng so good and honest, he was enforced to take the redresse of his right into his owne handes, and seeing this Marginalia* Gordium was a Citie in Asia, where there was a knotte so fast tyed, and folded so many wayes, that (as the saying was) who soeuer could loose it should haue all Asia. So Alexander cōming to it, when he coulde not loose it wyth his handes, he cutte it a sunder with his sworde. * Gordian knotte would not be loosed at Rome, he was driuen agaynst hys will (as God would) to play the noble Alexander hymselfe, and wyth the sworde of hys princely authoritie knapt the knotte at one stroke cleane asunder, loosing, as it were wyth one solution, infinite questions. For where the Doctours and Canonistes had long disputed, and yet coulde neuer throughly discusse the largenes and fulnes of the Popes two swordes both temporall and spirituall: the kyng with one sworde dyd so cutte of both hys swordes, that he dispatched them both cleane out of England, as ye shall see more anone. But first the kyng lyke a prudent Prince, before he would come to the head of the sore, thought best to pare away such ranke fleshe and putrified places as were about it, and therefore folowyng his owne prouerbe, MarginaliaThe kings prouerbe. Loke before pag. [illegible text]. lyke as one goyng about to cast downe an olde rotten wall, wyll not beginne wyth the foundation first, but wyth the stones that lye in the toppe: so he to prepare hys way better vnto the Pope, first beganne with 

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Wolsey died at Leicester Abbey on 28/9 November 1530. Cavendish kept a record of the cardinal's last days and this is generally accepted as accurate (for which, see Two Early Tudor Lives, ed. by Richard S Sylvester and Davis P Harding [Yale, 1962], pp.178-86; Peter Gwyn, The King's Cardinal [London, 1990], pp.638-9). The question of possible suicide was raised vaguely by Edward Hall (one of the reasons for Cavendish's extensive treatment) and this has been generally dismissed as exaggeration. Sybil M Jack makes no mention of the idea in her ODNB biography of the cardinal. For further details, see L R Gardiner, 'Further news of Cardinal Wolsey's end, November-December 1530', in Historical Research 57 (May 1984), pp.99-107; Edward Hall, The Union of the Two Noble and Illustre Families of Lancastre & York, 2 vols., ed. by H Ellis (London, 1809), 2, p.774.

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the Cardinall, castyng him by the lawe of Premunire, out of goods and possessions, & so at lēgth by poysoning himselfe, he procured his owne death: which was in the yeare 1530. This done, shortly after about the yeare 1532. the kyng to prouide by time agaynst myschiefes that might come from Rome, gaue forth eftsoones this proclamation, as foloweth.

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MarginaliaA restraynt of the king that nothing should be purchased from Rome. THe kynges hyghnes straightly chargeth and commaundeth, that no maner of person, what estate, degree or condition soeuer he or they be of, do purchase or attempt to purchase from the Court of Rome or els where, nor vse and put in execution, diuulge or publishe any thing heretofore within this yeare passed, purchased, or to be purchased hereafter contayning matter preiudiciall to the hygh authoritie, iurisdiction and prerogatiue royall of thys hys sayd realme, or to the let, hynderaunce or impechment of his graces noble and vertuous intended purposes in the premises, vpon payne of incurryng his highnes indignation and imprisonment, and further punishment of their bodies for their so doyng, at his graces pleasure, to the dreadfull example of all other.

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MarginaliaEx Edw. Hallo. After this was done the king then proceeding farther, caused the rest of the spirituall Lordes to be called by proces into the kinges benche to make their appearaunce, MarginaliaThe whole clergie of England in the Premunire. for somuch as the whole Clergie of England, in supportyng & mainteynyng the power Legatiue of the Cardinall, by the reason thereof were all entangled likewise in the Premunire, and therfore were called into the kinges bench, to aūswere. But before the day of their appearaunce, the Prelates together in their conuocation, concluded among themselues an humble submission in writing, and offered the kyng for a subsidie or contribution, that he would be their good Lord and release them of the Premunire by act of Parliament, MarginaliaThe clergie geueth to the king 11840. pound to be released from the Premunire. first to be gathered in the prouince of Caūterbury a C.M. poundes. And in the Prouince of Yorke, xviij. hundreth, and xi. pound, x. pence. The whiche offer with much labour was accepted, and their pardon promised. In this submission the clergie called the king supreme head of the Church of England, which thing they neuer confessed before: wherupon many thinges folowed, as after (God willing) ye shall heare.

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But first 

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Foxe refers here to the agreed penalty paid by the two English convocations for their participation in the late cardinal's praemunire offence - southern and northern bought pardons at £100,000 and £18,840 respectively on 22 January and 4 May respectively [for which, see Wilkins, Concilia, iii, p.744; L&P, iv/iii, no.6047 (iii); Public Records Office, State Papers 1/56, fols.84-7v].

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, for somuch as we are in hand now with the matter, we will borow by the way, a few wordes of the reader, to speake of this clergie money, of a 118840. poundes & x. pence, to be leuied to the king, as is aboue touched. For þe leuying of which summe, an order was taken among the prelates that euery byshop in his Dioces should call before him 
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This is examined in Hall's Chronicle [for which, see Edward Hall, The Union of the Two Noble and Illustre Families of Lancastre & York, 2 vols., ed. by H Ellis (London, 1809), ii, p.783.]

all the Priestes, Parsens, and Vicars amongest whom D. Stokesley B. of London, a man then counted to be of some witte and learning, but of litle discretion and humanitie (which caused hym to be out of the fauour of the common people) called before hym all the Priestes wythin the Citie of London, whether they were Curates or Stipendaries, the first day of Semptember being Friday,

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