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1055 [1054]

K. Henry. 8. The cēsure of the vniuersitie of Cābrige against the Popes supremacie.
In Englsh.

MarginaliaA letter of the vniuersitie of Cambrige. TO all and singular children of the holy mother Church, to whose hands these presentes shall come, the whole societie of Regentes and not Regentes of the Vniuersitie of Cābridge, sendeth greetyng in our Sauiour Iesu Christ. Where as now of late it hath risen vp in question amōg vs, concernyng the power of the Byshop of Rome, which he doth doth clayme to himselfe by the holy Scripture ouer all prouinces and nations in Christendome, and hath now of long tyme exercised in this Realme of England: and for asmuch as our censure concernyng the cause is required, to witte: whether the byshop of Rome hath any power or authoritie in this kingdome of England allotted to hym by God in the Scripture, more then any other foreine Bishop, or no: we thought it therfore good reason & our duety, for þe searchyng out of the veritie of the sayd question, that we should employ therin our whole indeuour and study, wherby we might render and publish to the world, what our reason and cēsure is, touchyng the premisses. For therfore we suppose, that Vniuersities were first prouided and instituted of Princes, to the ende that both the people of Christ might in the law of God be instructed, and also that false errours, if any dyd ryse, might through the vigilaunt care and industry of learned Diuines, be discussed, extinguished, and vtterly rooted out. For the which cause, we in our assēbles and conuocations (after our accustomed maner) resortyng and conferryng together vpon the question aforesayd, and studiously debatyng and deliberatyng with our selues, how and by what order we might best proceede for the findyng out the truth of the matter, and at length choosing out certaine of the best learned Doctours and Bachelers of Diuinitie, and other Maisters, haue committed to them in charge, studiously to ensearch and peruse the places of holy Scripture, by the viewyng and conferryng of which places together, they might certifie vs what is to be sayd to the question propounded.

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MarginaliaThe censure of the vniuersitie of Cambridge agaynst the popes supremacie. For asmuch therefore, as we hauyng heard, and well aduised, and throughly discussed in open disputations, what may be sayd on both partes of the foresayd question, those reasons and argumentes do appeare to vs more probable, stronger, truer, and more certaine, and soundyng much more neare to the pure and natiue sense of Scripture, which do deny the Byshop of Rome to haue any such power geuen him of God in the Scripture. By reason and force of which arguments, we being perswaded and conioyning together in one opinion, haue with our selues thus decreed to aunswere vnto the question aforesayd, and in these writynges thus resolutely do aunswere in the name of the whole Vniuersitie, and for a conclusion vndoubted, do affirme, approue, & pronounce, MarginaliaThe byshop of Rome hath no more state in England, thē hath any other foreine byshop. that the Byshop of Rome hath no more state, authoritie, and iurisdiction geuen him of God in the Scriptures, ouer this Realme of Englād, then any other externe Byshop hath. And in testimony & credence of this our aunswere and affirmation, we haue caused our common seale to be put to these our foresayd letters accordingly.

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At Cambrige in our Regent
house. an. Domini. 1534.

Steph. Wint. De Vera Obedientia.

MarginaliaSteph. Wint. agaynst the mariage of the king with his brothers wife, in hys booke De Vera obedientia. YOu haue heard before of Steuen Gardiner, of Lee, of Tonstall, & of Stokesley, how of their voluntary minde, they made their profession to the kyng, euery one seuerally, takyng and acceptyng a corporall othe, vtterly and for euer to renounce and reiect the vsurped superioritie of the Bishop of Rome. Now for a further testimonie and declaration of their iudgementes and opinions which then they were of, followyng the force both of truth and of tyme then present, ye shall heare ouer and beside their othes, what the forsayd Byshops in their own Bookes, Prologues, and Sermōs do write, and publish abroad in Printe touchyng the sayd cause of the Popes supremacie.

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MarginaliaSteph. Wint. De Vera obedientia. And first (God wyllyng) to begyn with Steuen Gardiners booke De vera Obedientia 

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Published in 1535 and available as STC 11587. Modern editions (translations) can be found in Obedience in Church and State. Three Political Tracts by Stephen Gardiner, ed. by Pierre Janelle (Cambridge, 1930), pp.67-171 and Bishop Gardiner's Oration on True Obedience, ed. by B A Heywood (London, 1870)].

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, we will briefly note out a few of his owne wordes, wherein with great Scriptures and good deliberation he not only confuteth the Popes vsurped authoritie, but also proueth the Mariage betwene the Kyng and Queene Katherine his brothers wife, not to be good nor lawfull, in these wordes:

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MarginaliaSt. Wint. De Vera obedientia. Of the which morall 

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Foxe quotes Gardiner (on the annulment issue), from De vera obedientia, sigs.C.vja-vija (or see Janelle, True Obedience, pp.85-7).

preceptes in the old lawe, to speake of some (for to rehearse all it needeth not) the Leuiticall preceptes 
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The marriage prohibitions are found in Leviticus 18.6-18.

touchyng forbiddē and incestuous mariages, as farre as they concerne chaste and pure wedlocke, wherein the Original of mans increase cōsisteth, are alwayes to be reputed of suche sorte, that although they were fyist giuen to the Iewes: yet because they apperteine to the law of nature, & expound the same more playnly vnto vs, therfore they belong as well to all maner of people of the whole world for euer more. MarginaliaSt. Wint. agaynst the kinges mariage wyth his brothers wife. In which doubtles, both the voyce of nature & Gods Commaundement agreeing in one, haue forbidden that which is contrary and diuers from the one, and from the other. And amongest these, sithe there is a commaundement that a man shall not mary hys brothers wyfe 
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A paraphrase of Leviticus 18.16.

, what could the kinges excellent maiestie doe otherwise, then he did by the whole consent of the people, and iugement of his Church, that is, to be diuorced from vnlawfull mariage, and vse lawfull and permitted copulation, and obeyng (as meete it was ) conformably vnto the commaundement, cast of her whom neyther lawe nor right permitted hym to retayne, and take hym to chaste and lawfull mariage? Wherin although the sentence of Gods worde (whereunto all thynges ought to stoupe) myght haue sufficed: yet his Maiestie was content to haue the assisting consentes of the most notable graue men, and the censures of the moste famous Vniuersities of the whole worlde: and all to the entent, that men should see he did that, both that he myght doe and ought to do vprightly, seeing the best learned and most worthy men haue subscribed vnto it, shewing therein such obedience, as Gods word requireth of euery good and godly man: so as it may be sayd, that both he obeyed God, and obeyed hym truely. Of which obedience forasmuch as I am purposed to speake, I coulde not passe this thyng ouer with silence, wherof occasion so commodiously was offered me to speake.

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¶ Winchesters reasons agaynst the Popes supremacie.

MarginaliaSt. Wint. a mere Lutherane in his booke De Vera obedientia. Moreouer, the said Gardiner in the fornamed booke De vera obedientia, what constancie he pretendeth, what arguments he inferreth, how earnestly and pythely he disputeth on the kynges side agaynst the vsurped state of the Byshop of Romes authoritie, by the wordes of his booke it may appeare: wherof a briefe collection here followeth.

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MarginaliaThe sword of the Church how farre it extendeth. IN the processe of hys foresayd booke, he alledgyng the old distinction of the Papistes, wherein they geue to the Prince 

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These are selections from De vera obedientia, sigs.D.vjb-viija, showing where temporal authority figures (mostly biblical figures) had exercised authority over the church (mostly with regard to the appointment of priests or the setting of doctrine).

the regiment of thyngs temporall, and to the church of thynes spirituall, comparing the one to the greater light, the other to the lesser light, he confuteth and derideth the same distinction, declaring the sworde of the Church to extende no farther then to teaching and excommunication, & referreth all preheminence to the sworde of the Prince, alleadging for this the Psal. 2. 
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Quote from Psalms 2.10 [found at De vera obedientia, sig.D.viija].

And now you kyngs be wise, and be learned you that iudge the earth. &c.
MarginaliaPsal. 2.

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Also the example 

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Quote from II Chronicles 8.14 [found at De vera obedientia, sig.D.viija (or see Janelle, True Obedience, p.109)].

of Salomon: who beyng a king, accordyng to his fathers appointemēt ordeined the offices of the Priestes in their ministeries, and Leuites in their order, that they might geue thankes, and minister before the Priestes, after the order of euery day, and porters in their diuisions gate by gate. &c. Marginalia2. Par. 28.

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And speaking more of the sayd Salomon, he sayth: 

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Quote from II Chronicles 8.15 [found at De vera obedientia, sig.D.viijb (or see Janelle, True Obedience, p.109)].

For so commaunded the man of God, neither did the Priestes, nor Leuites omitte any thing of all that he had commaunded. &c.

Beside this he alleageth also the example 

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Quote from II Chronicles 29 3-5 [found at De vera obedientia, sig.D.viijb (or see Janelle, True Obedience, p.109)].

of kyng Ezechias 2. Paralip. 28. He alledgeth moreouer the example & facte 
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The example of emperor Justinian (527-65) was used by all the Henrician apologists as the prime example of the ruler as both 'king and priest' or 'supreme head' of both church and state. Foxe here quotes Gardiner at De vera obedientia, sig.E.iiija (or see Janelle, True Obedience, p.117), but the interested scholar could also see the work of Edward Fox, De vera differentia regiae potestatis et ecclesiasticae, et quae sit ipsa veritas ac virtus utrusque (1534) [which was translated by Henry, Lord Stafford as The true dyfferis between y regall power and the ecclesiasticall power, etc. (1548)].

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of Iustinian, which made lawes touching the faith, Byshops, Clerkes, heretickes, and such other.

Aaron, (sayth he) obeyed Moses. 

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The source is Exodus 32. Aaron 'the Levite' (brother to Moses) represented the priestly functions of the Levite tribe and was high priest to the Hebrews while Moses was a judge, military and temporal leader. Foxe here quotes Gardiner at De vera obedientia, sig.Fa (or see Janelle, True Obedience, p.129).

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MarginaliaExod. 32. Salomon gaue 
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The source is I Kings 22. Solomon, son of David, was a great king (or sometimes emperor) and ruled a vast kingdom centred on Israel in the 10th century B.C. Foxe here quotes Gardiner at De vera obedientia, sig.Fa (or see Janelle, True Obedience, p.129).

sentence vpon Abiathar the hygh Prieste. Marginalia1. Reg. 22.

Alexander the kyng 

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The source is I Maccabees 10. Another example of a military leader and temporal ruler appointing priests (in this case Jonothas) and establishing canon. Foxe here quotes Gardiner at De vera obedientia, sig.Fa (or see Janelle, True Obedience, p.131).

in the first of Machabees, writeth thus to Ionathas: Now haue we made thee this day the high priest of thy people. &c. Marginalia1. Mach. 10 So did Demetrius to Simō. 
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The source is I Maccabees 14 and refers to the works of Demetrius I (Soter). Foxe here quotes Gardiner at De vera obedientia, sig.Fa (or see Janelle, True Obedience, p.131).

Marginalia1. Mach. 14

Then commyng to the wordes of Christ spokē to Peter, MarginaliaMath. 16. Mat. 16. vpon which 

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The source is Matthew 16.18. Gardiner echoed the standard Henrician understanding of the famous quote that Christ's words do not refer to Peter, the man, specifically. Foxe here quotes Gardiner at De vera obedientia, sig.Fijb (or see Janelle, True Obedience, p.133).

wordes the Pope pretendeth to builde all his authoritie: to thys he aunswereth, that if Christ by those wordes had limited vnto Peter any such speciall state or preheminence aboue all princes, then were it not true that is written, Cæpit Iesus docere & facere: for asmuch as 
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This carries on the deconstruction of Matthew 16.18. Foxe here quotes Gardiner at De vera obedientia, sig.Fijb (or see Janelle, True Obedience, p.133).

the wordes of Christ should then be contrary to his owne factes and example, who in all his lyfe neuer vsurped eyther to himselfe any such domination aboue Princes, shewing hymselfe rather subiecte vnto Princes nor yet did euer permitte in hys Apostles any such example of ambition to be seene: but rather rebuked them for seeking any maner of maioritie amongest them.

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MarginaliaThe kings stile and title approued by St. Wint. And where he reasoneth of the kynges stile and title, being called the king of England 

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Gardiner was here making the not unreasonable but standard Henrician argument that the members of the temporal and spiritual spheres were not distinct societies but were both of the same realm - England. Foxe here quotes selections from Gardiner at De vera obedientia, sigs.Cviijb-Db (or see Janelle, True Obedience, pp.91-3).

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, and of Fraunce, defendour of the faith, Lord of Irelād, and supreme head in earth of the Church of England immediatly vnder Christ. &c. thus he addeth his minde, & censure, saying that he seeth no cause in this title, why any mā should be offended, that the king is called head of the church of England, rather then of the realme of England, and addeth his reason therunto saying: If the Prince and kyng of England be the heed of his kyngdome, that is, of all englishe men that be his subiects, is there any cause why the same Englishe subiectes should

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