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1056 [1055]

K. Hēry. 8. Steph. Wint. De Vera obedientia. Boners Preface to Winchesters boke.

not be subiect to the same head likewise in this respect because they are Christians, that is to say, for the title of godlynes, as though that God which is the cause of all obedience, should now be the cause of rebellion?

At length thus he concludeth with an exclamation, saying: To say (sayeth he) 

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Gardiner is simply juxtaposing the idea of a king not entirely sovereign in his own realm. Foxe here quotes Gardiner at De vera obedientia, sig.Diijc (or see Janelle, True Obedience, p.97).

that a kyng is the head of the kyngdome, and not of the Church what an absurde, and a foolish saying is this?

MarginaliaThe king is as well the head of the church as of hys kingdome. And farther, 

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Foxe here quotes Gardiner at De vera obedientia, sig.Diija (or see Janelle, True Obedience, p.97).

adding for example, the subiection of the seruaunt and wife: If the seruaunt (sayth he) be subiect to his maister, or wife to her husbād beyng infidels, doth their conuersion afterward, or name of Christiās make them lesse subiectes, then they were before? As religion therfore doth not alter the authoritie of the Maister ouer the seruaunt, nor of the husband ouer the wife: no more (sayth he) doth it betwene the Prince and subiectes.

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Paule makyng no 

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This is one of the most commonly used passages from the Henrician apologists. Foxe here quotes Gardiner at De vera obedientia, sigs.Diijb - iiija (or see Janelle, True Obedience, p.99).

exception nor distinction of subiection, saue onely of that which belongeth to God, willeth all men to obey their Princes, and what Princes? Those Princes which beare the sword. And although we be bounde by the Scripture to obey our Bishops and spirituall Pastours of the Churche, yet that obedience diminisheth nothyng the chief & head anthoritie that ought to be giuē to the Prince, no more then the obedience of the seruaunt to his Maister, or of the wife to her husband exempteth them from subiection due to their superiour powers.

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MarginaliaA rule of the law. And herewithall he inferreth a principle of the law. Diuers Iurisdictions 

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Foxe here quotes Gardiner at De vera obedientia, sig.Ddvb (or see Janelle, True Obedience, p.103).

(sayth he) proceedyng from one person do not marre nor hinder themselues, but rather do cōfirme and fortifie one an other.

Agayne, where as the Bishop of Rome vnder the name of Peter doth appropriate to hymselfe the highest place in the Church, for that he is the successour of Peter: thereunto he aunswereth in one word, but in that one word he aunswereth enough and to the full: MarginaliaWinchesters wish, that the Pope were Peters successor. I would (sayth he) 

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Foxe here is paraphrasing Gardiner at De vera obedientia, sig.Fiia (or see Janelle, True Obedience, p.131).

he were: for so in very deede he might well exceede & passe all kynges and princes, if not in preheminence of dignitie, yet in admiration & excellencie of vertue. In which kynde of superioritie the Lord Christ would his Apostles and Ministers to go before all Kynges and Emperours in the whole world.

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MarginaliaArgument
The prerogatiue was geuen to hym which confessed.
Fleshe and bloud in Peter dyd not confesse Christ.
Ergo, the prerogatiue was not geuen to the fleshe and bloud of Peter.
After this, in prosecutyng the argument of Peters confession, he argueth thus and sayth: That as flesh and bloud 

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Foxe here quotes Gardiner at De vera obedientia, sig.Fiijb (or see Janelle, True Obedience, p.135).

did not reuele to Peter that confession: so neither was that prerogatiue giuen to the flesh and bloud of Peter, but to the better part, that is, to the spirite of Peter, whiche is to meane in respecte of the spirituall confession of Peter, and not in respect of any carnall place or person. &c.

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Item, if the scholar 

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Eusebius is one of the standard Henrician sources. Foxe is here quoting Gardiner at De vera obedientia, sig.Fiijb (or see Janelle, True Obedience, p.135). Gardiner makes reference to John 13, using this as evidence of equality among the disciples.

ought not to be aboue the maister, how then could either Peter take that vppon hym, whiche Christ his maister so constantly did refuse, or how can the Byshop of Rome now clayme that by succession, whereof no example is to be founde either in the head, or his predecessor before him? For so we read in Eusebius, both of Peter, Iames, and Iohn, that they did arrogate no such primacie vnto them, but were content that Iames surnamed Iustus, should be the Byshop of the Apostles.

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MarginaliaPrimatus or Primacie, what it signifieth. And as for 

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Gardiner was making a kind of primus enter pares argument here. Foxe is here quoting Gardiner at De vera obedientia, sig.Fvja (or see Janelle, True Obedience, p.143).

the name and signification the word Primatus. I, primacie, if it be taken for the first nomination, or the first place giuen, so he graunteth that Peter had the preferment of the first name and place in the order of the Apostles. But it foloweth not, that with this primacie he had also a kyngdome giuē. MarginaliaHe sayth, cōfirme thy brethren, but not thy subiectes. And though he were byd of the Lord to confirme his brethren: yet was he not byd to exercise an imperie vpon his brethren, for so were they not his brethrē, but his subiectes.

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MarginaliaPrimus.
Primatus.
1. Primacie meaneth as much as the first stādyng in a vocation, and is the name of vertue, and not of power.
That Peter was Primus 

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This is carrying on the primus enter pares discussion with specific examples - the renowned artist Apelles of Kos (4th century BC), the university of Paris. Foxe is here quoting Gardiner at De vera obedientia, sig.Fvab (or see Janelle, True Obedience, pp.141-3).

, that is, first or chief in the number of them which confessed Christ, it is not to be denyed. For first he confessed, first he taught the Iewes, first he stode in defence of the veritie, and was the first and chief prolocutor amongest them: but yet that maketh not, that he should therfore vendicate a generall primacie and rule ouer all other states, and potestates of the world, no more thē Apelles because he is noted the first and chief of all paynters, therfore he ought to beare rule ouer all Painters? or because the Vniuersitie of Paris is nominate for the first and chief of other Vniuersities, shall therefore the French kyng, and all other Princes in their publicke administratiō, wherein they are set of God, become subiectes and vnderlynges to that Vniuersitie?

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Thus after many other reasons and persuasions conteined in the sayd booke De obedientia (for I do but superficially skymme ouer the toppe onely of his probations and argumentes) finally in the end of hys peroration, he concludeth the whole summe of hys mynde, in this effect: first denying that 

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Foxe is here quoting Gardiner at De vera obedientia, sig.Giijb (or see Janelle, True Obedience, p.155).

the Byshop of Rome had euer any such externe iurisdiction assigned to him absolutely from God, to reigne ouer Kynges and Princes. For the probation whereof he hath alledged sufficiently (as hee sayth) the examples and doynges of Christ him selfe, whiche ought to be to vs all a sufficient document.

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And as concernyng the terme of primacie, albeit it be vsed sometyme of the fathers, yet the matter beyng wel considered & rightly expounded maketh nothing for the large dominion of the Byshop of Rome, which now he doth vsurpe.

Also as for the prerogatiues graunted vnto Peter, by the whiche prerogatiues our Sauiour would crowne his owne giftes giuen vnto him, crowning not the flesh & bloud of Peter, but the meruelous testimonie of his confession, all this maketh nothyng for the Popes purpose.

MarginaliaSuccession of Peter. Likewise as 

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Foxe is here quoting Gardiner at De vera obedientia, sig.Giijb (or see Janelle, True Obedience, p.155).

concernyng the locall succession of Peter, the pope hath nothyng thereby to clayme. If he will be successour of Peter, he must succeede him in fayth, doctrine, and conditions, and in so doyng, he neither will neither yet shall neede to seeke for honor, but shall be honored of all good mē, accordyng as a good man should be, and that much more thē he beyng a good man would require.

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MarginaliaStep. Wint. taketh hys vale of the Pope, but not hys vltimum vale. And thus Stephā Winchest. 

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Foxe is here quoting Gardiner at De vera obedientia, sig.Giiija (or see Janelle, True Obedience, p.157).

taking his leaue, & bidding the Pope farewell, endeth with a frendly exhortation, willyng hym to be wise and circumspect, and not to striue stubburnely against the truth. The light of the Gospell (sayth he) so spreadeth his beames in all mens eyes, that þe workes of the Gospell be knowen, the mysteries of Christes doctrine are opened: both learned and vnlearned, men and women beyng Englishmen borne, do see and perceiue, that they haue nothyng to do with Rome nor with the Byshop of Rome, but that euery Prince in his owne dominion, is to be taken and accepted as a Vicare of God, and Vicegerent of Christ in his owne boundes. MarginaliaThe office of teaching.
The office of ruling.
And therfore seyng this order is taken of God, that one in the Churche should beare the office of teachyng, an other should beare the office of rulyng, (which office is onely limited to Princes) he exhorteth him to consider the truth, and to folow the same, wherein consisteth our true and speciall obedience. &c.

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To this booke of Stephen Wintchester De obedientia, we wil adioyne for good felowship, the Preface also of Edmund Boner Archedeacē then of Leycester 

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Edmund Bonner would be created bishop of Hereford (26 October 1538) and bishop of London (20 October 1539). The Janelle edition of De vera obedientia does not include the preface. A modern edition of this can be found in Heywood's edition. [See, Bishop Gardiner's Oration on True Obedience, ed. by B A Heywood (London, 1870), pp.29-34]. Foxe paraphrases the preface very closely here (without too much variation).

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, prefixed before the same, to the entent that the reader seyng the iudgemētes of these men, as they were then 
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Foxe is more or less complaining here that the Henricians - Gardiner, Bonner, Tunstal and a few others - all at one time or other opposed reformation under Edward VI and re-conformed to papal supremacy under Mary I.

, and agayne the sodein mutation afterward of the sayd parties to the contrary opinion, may learne thereby what vayne glory and pompe of this world can worke in the frayle nature of man, where Gods grace lacketh to susteyne. The Preface of Boner before the sayd booke of Winchester De odedientia, proceedeth thus in effect, as foloweth.

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¶ The preface of Edmunde Boner Archdeacon of Leycester, prefixed before Stephen Gardiners booke, De obedientia.

MarginaliaBoners preface before Winchesters booke of Obedience. FOrasmuch as some there be, no doubt (as the iudgemēts of men be alwayes variable) which thinke the controuersie which is betwene the kyngs royal Maiestie, and the Bishop of Rome consisteth in this poynt, MarginaliaQueene Anne. for that his Maiestie hath taken the most excellēt and most vertuous Lady Anne to wife, which in very deede is farre otherwise, and nothyng so: to the intent therfore that all true harty fauourers of the Gospell of Christ, which hate not, but loue the truth, may the more fully vnderstand the chief poynt of the controuersie, & because they shall not be ignoraūt what is the whole voyce and resolute determination of the best and greatest learned Byshops, with all the nobles and commons of England, not onely in that cause of Matrimonie, MarginaliaThe doctrine of the Gospell. but also in defendyng the doctrine of the Gospel: here shall be published the Oration of the Byshop of Winchester 

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There can be little doubt that Gardiner was one of the premier scholars of his time. He appears to have been studying at Paris when he met Erasmus in 1511 (age 15); studied Greek at Trinity Hall Cambridge (where he gained doctorates in both canon and civil law c.1520/1). He was also an able theologian. [See, Andrew A Chibi, 'The Intellectual and Academic Training of the Henrician Episcopacy', in Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte 91 (2000), pp.354-72].

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(a man excellently learned in all kynde of learnyng) entituled DE VERA OBEDIENTIA, that is, concernyng true obedience. MarginaliaSee how these clawbackes can clunge together in truth and in falshode, and all to fashion themselues to the world and the time present. But as touchyng this Byshops worthy prayses, there shalbe nothyng spoken of me at this tyme, not onely because they are infinite, but because they are farre better knowē to all Christendome, thē becōmeth me here to make rehearsal. And as for the Oration it selfe (which as it is most learned, so it is most elegant) to what purpose should I make any wordes of it, seyng it prayseth it selfe inough, and seyng good wyne needeth no tauerne bushe to vtter it? But yet in this Oratiō, whosoeuer thou art, most gētle Reader, thou shalt beside other matters, see it notably & learnedly hādled of what importaunce and how inuincible the power and excellencie of Gods truth is: which as it may now and then be pressed of the enemyes, so it can not possibly be oppressed and darkened after such sorte, but it sheweth it selfe agayne at length, more glorious and more welcome. Thou shalt see also touchyng obedience, that it is subiect to truth, and what is to be iudged true obedience. MarginaliaMens traditions.
The contēts of Winchesters booke De Vera obedientia.
Besides this of mens traditions, whiche for the most part, be most repugnaunt agaynst the truth of Gods law. And there by the way, he speaketh of

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