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1070 [1069]

K. Hen. 8. The Kinges aunswere in his defence agaynst the pope.

MarginaliaStephen Gardiner Ambassadour to the French kyng. This message so done, shortly after was sent to the said Frenche king, Stephen Gardiner bish. of Wynchester, with the kings aunswere & message againe on this maner: that for so much as the saying of the Frenche king to the ambassadors was this: MarginaliaThe French kinges saying against the kinges succession. that notwithstanding all the kinges realme should agree & condescend neuer so much to that right & title, which the succession procreated of this his lawfull matrimonie hath in this his realme: yet when outwarde parties shal conceyue any other or cōtrary opinion therof, great trouble and vexation might ensue. &c. Whereunto the kyng made answere againe, declaring MarginaliaThe kinges aunswere to the French king. that he could not but greatly merueyle, that þe king hys brother being so wise a prince, and thereto so well expert and learned in Chronicles and histories, not onely of his owne realme, but also of al others, or any of his Counsaile, being men of suche experience as they were taken to be, woulde thinke that the opinion and consent of other outward Realmes was so highly to be cōsidered and regarded of any Prince or king, in stablishyng or in execution of thinges whiche might be lawfully done, and which touched the preseruation of the rightes, preeminences, dignitie, and state of his realme, and dyd also notably conferre vnto the singular benefite and tranquilitie of the same, so as the wordes both of the said king his brother, and of the great Maister did pretende. MarginaliaKynges in the ryght of their realmes are not bounde to the agreement of outwarde realmes. Who furthermore were not ignoraunt them selues, that many thinges haue bene by his noble progenitours kinges of Fraunce attempted & done, as wel in cases 

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This vague reference could refer to any number of problems, going back to Philip I and his many tangles with Pope Gregory VII.

of matrimonie, as otherwise which in some part in the opinion of þe popes of Rome then being, & in some part in the opinion of diuers other outwarde Princes, states, Seigniories, and common people haue bene thought not perfectly good, nor yet muche acceptable vnto them: and yet that notwithstanding his saide progenitors knowing thē selues þe prosecuting of those causes to be beneficial to thē & to þe realme, haue not therefore desisted from their said purposes, but diligently employing their owne strength and powers with the succours of their frendes, haue finally atchieued their said enterprises, without requiryng or greatly regarding the opinion or agrement therunto of outward princes.

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MarginaliaThe ouerture of the Chaūcellour of Fraunce, to the king, to take indifferent iudges by the Popes authoritie. Againe, wheras the Chauncelour of France made this ouerture to the saide Bishop of Winchester, whether the kyng would be content to haue indifferent Iudges to be appoynted by the authoritie of the Pope, to determyne his cause, with a commission decretal from the same, declaring Quid iuris. &c. The king by his ambassador therunto answearing, declared, MarginaliaThe kynges aunswere to the ouerture. that the Pope hauyng done vnto hym so notable and euident iniuryes, as he had donne, it were his office and duety, now to labour hym selfe to end this matter, and to study how to make due satisfaction to God & his iustice whiche he hath tam indignis modis offended and violated, and to deliuer hym self out of the daunger, and the perpetual infamie of the world, whiche he hath incurred by reason of these his most vngodly doynges, and not to looke that the kyng shoulde make any request or suite vnto hym therfore, or recompense for the same. &c.

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Furthermore, where as the Pope, at the request of the Frenche kyng, had in open Consistorie proroged execution of his censures and excommunciation against the king vnto the first day of Nouember, and word therof was sent to the king by his ambassadours, from the great maister of Fraunce, that the kyng might haue the saide prorogation made autentikely in writing, if he woulde: The kyng answearyng therunto, thought it not vnprofitable, that his ambassadours residēt in France, should receyue vnto their handes, þe possession of the saide newe prorogation conceyued and written in autentike forme and maner according to the order of the lawes.

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MarginaliaThe king requested by the french king to relent to the Pope. After this againe, came other letters to the king from France, namely frō the great maister of Fraunce, tendyng to this end, that if the king would do nothing for the Pope (meanyng by the reuocation of such actes of parlament, as were made in the Realme of Englande, to the Popes preiudice) it were no reason, neither should it be possible for the Frenche king to induce the Pope to any gratuitye or pleasure, for the king in his affayres.

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MarginaliaThe kinges aunswere to the French kinges request. Wherunto the king answearing againe, sendeth worde to the French king, trusting and hopyng wel of the perfect frendship of the French kyng his good brother, that he wyl neuer suffer any suche perswasion to enter into his breast, whatso euer the great maister or any other shal saye to the contrary thereof, nor that he wyll require anythyng more of hym to doo for the Pope, Chauncelour, or other, then his Counsaile hath already deuised to be done in this behalfe: especially consideryng the wordes of the said French kings promise made before, as wel to the Duke of Northfolke, 

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Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk, was in France to bring Anne Boleyn to Henry VIII's court.

as to the other ambassadours, promising his fremdship to the king simplye without requiryng hym to reuocate or infringe any suche acte or constitution made by the Realme & Par lament to the contrary: Perswading moreouer and laying before the eyes, as wel of the Pope, as of the French king, howe much it should redoude to the Popes dishonour and infamie, and to the sclaunder also of his cause, if he should be seene so to pact and couenaunt with the kyng vpon such conditions, for the admininistration of that thyng, MarginaliaThe Pope seeketh not for iustice, but his owne lucre and commoditye. whiche he in his owne conscience hath reputed and iudged to be moste rightfull and agreeable to iustice and equitie, and ought of his office and duetie to do in this matter simpliciter & gratis, and without all worldly respectes, either for the aduauncement of his priuate lucre and commoditie, or for the preseruation of his pretensed power and aucthoritie. For surely it is not to be doubted, but that the Pope beyng mynded and determined to geue sentence for þe inualiditie & nullitie of the kinges first pretensed matrimonie, hath conceyued and established in his owne conscience a firme & certaine opinion and perswasion, that he ought of iustice and equitie so to do. MarginaliaThe Pope selleth iustice Then to see the Pope to haue this opiniō in deede, and yet refuse this to doo for the king, vnlesse he shalbe content for his benefit and pleasure, Cedere iuri suo, and to do some thinges preiudicial vnto his subiectes contrarye to his honour: it is easie to be foreseene, what the worlde and the posteritie shal iudge de tā turpi nundinatione iusticiæ, & illius tam fœda & sordida lucri & honoris ambitione. And as for the kynges part, if he shal not atteyne nowe iustice at þe mediatiō of his good brother, MarginaliaThe Pope doth against his owne conscience. knowing þe Pope to be of this disposition and determination in his hart, to satisfie all his desires beyng moued thereunto by iustice, and that the let therof is no default of iustice in the cause, but onely for that the kyng woulde not condescende to his request: it is to the kyng matter sufficient enough for discharge of his conscience to God and to the worlde, although he neuer dyd execute in deede his saide determination. For sith his corrupt affection is the onely impediment thereof, what neede either the kyng to require hym any further to doo in the cause, or els his subiectes to doubt any further in the iustnes of the same.

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MarginaliaThe Pope forgetteth his old benefactours and frendes. Albeit if respects to benefites & merites done towardes the Pope & the see of Rome, shoulde be regarded in the attainyng of iustice in a cause of so high consequencie as this is, reason would, that if it would please the Pope to consider the former kindnes of the kyng shewed vnto hym in tymes past (wherof he is very loth to enter the rehearsall, ne videatur velle exprobrare quæ de alijs fecerit bene) he should not now require of hym any newe benefite or gratuitie to be shewed vnto hym, but rather study to recompence hym for the old graces, merites, pleasures, & benefites before receyued. MarginaliaThe benefites of the king vpon the Pope, when he was takē by the Duke of Burbone. For surely he thinketh that the pope 

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This refers back to the king's offer of military assistance while the pope had been the virtual prisoner of the emperor after the sacking of Rome in 1527.

can not forget howe that for the conseruation of his person, his estate and dignitie, the king hath not heretofore spared for any respect in vsing the office of a most perfect and stedfast frend, to relinquish the lōg continued good will established betwene hym and the Emperour, & to declare openly to al the world, that for the Popes sake, and in default of his deliueraunce, he would become enemye to the sayd Emperour, & to make agaynst hym actual warre.

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Beside this, the kyng hath not fayled hym with right large and ample subuentions of money, for the better supportyng of his charges, agaynst the enterprises of the sayde Emperour combyndyng and knittyng hym selfe with the Frenche kyng, to procure the aduauncement of the sayde Frenche kynges armie into Italie, to the charges wherof, the kyng dyd beare litle lesse then the one halfe: MarginaliaOf this read before pag. 962. Besides notable losses susteyned as wel in his customes, subsidies, and other dueties, as also to the no litle hynderaunce and dammage of his subiectes and marchauntes, occasioned by discontinuance of the traffike and entercourse heretofore vsed with the Emperours subiectes. In dooyng of all whiche thynges, the kyng hath not bene thus respectiue, as the Pope nowe sheweth hym selfe towardes hym, but like a perfect frende hath bene alwayes contented frankly, liberally, and openly to expone all his studye, labour, trauayle, treasure, puisance, Realme and subiectes for the Popes ayde & þe mayntenaunce of the state and dignitie of the Churche and See of Rome. Which thynges although he doth not here rehearse animo exprobrādi, yet he doubteth not, but the same weighed in the ballance of any indifferent mans iudgement, shalbe thought to be of that weight & valure, as that he hath iustly deserued to haue some mutual corespondencie of kindenes to be shewed vnto hym at the Popes handes: MarginaliaAll is lost that is done for a churle. especially in the ministration of iustice, and in so reasonable & iust cause as this is, and not thus to haue his most rightful petition reiected and denyed because he wyll not folowe his desire and appetite in reuocatyng of such actes as be here made and passed for the weale & commoditie of his realme and subiectes.

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¶ Thus haue you hearde howe instantly the king had

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