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1074 [1073]

K. Henry. 8. The storye and doinges of W. Tyndall Martyr.

hys intituled: the obedience of a Christian man: wherein with singular dexteritie he instructeth all men in the office and duetie of christian obedience, with dyuers other treatises: as The wicked Mammō: the Practise of Prelates, with expositions vpon certayne partes of the Scripture, and other bookes also aunswering to sir Thom. More and other aduersaires of the truth, no lesse delectable, then also most fruitfull to be read, which partly yet beyng vnknowen vnto many, partly also beyng almost abolished and worne out by tyme, the printer herof 

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I.e., John Day, the printer of the Acts and Monuments.

(good Reader) hath collected and set forth in print the same in one generall volume all and whole together, as also the workes of Iohn Frith, Barnes, and other, as are to be seene most speciall and profitable for thy readyng. 
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This is a reference to The whole workes of W. Tyndale, John Frith and Doct. Barnes, ed. John Foxe, STC 24436, which was printed by John Day in 1572.

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These bookes of William Tyndall beyng compiled, published and sent ouer into England, it cannot be spoken what a dore of light they opened to the eyes of the whole Englishe nation, which before were many yeares shut vp in darckenesse.

MarginaliaTyndall went into Saxonie. At hys first departing out of the realme, he tooke hys iorny into the further partes of Germany, as into Saxony where he had conferēce with Luther and other learned men in those quarters. MarginaliaTyndall came to Antwerpe. Where, after that he had continued a certaine season, he came down from thence into the netherlandes and had his most abiding in the towne of Antwerpe, vntill the tyme of his apprehension: wherof more shalbe said God willyng hereafter.

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Amongst his other bokes which he compiled, one worke he made also for the declaration of the sacrament (as it was then called) of the aulter: the which he kept by hym, considering how the people were not as yet fully persuaded in other matters tendyng to supersticious ceremonies and grosse idolatry. Wherefore he thought as yet tyme was not come, to put forth that worke, but rather that it should hinder the people from other instructions, supposing that it would seme to them odious to heare any such thyng spoken or set forth at that tyme, sounding agaynst their great Goddesse Diana, that is, against their masse, being had euery where in great estimation, as was the Goddesse Diana amongest the Ephesians whom they thought to come from heauen. 

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This is a reference to Acts 19: 24-41.

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MarginaliaTyndall bearing with tyme. Wherfore M. Tyndall beyng a man both prudent in hys doynges, and no lesse zelous in the settyng forth of gods holy truth, after such sort as it myght take most effect wyth the people, did forbeare the puttyng forth of that worke, not doubting but by gods mercifull grace, a tyme should come, to haue that abhomination openly declared, as it is at this present day 

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This a reference to William Tyndale, A brief declaration of the sacraments, STC 24445, which was not published until around 1548. In this work, Tyndale denied the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist, arguing instead that it is the inner faith of the communicants that makes the Lord's Supper a Sacrament. This view was not only objectionable to Catholics, but also to Henry VIII and (at this time) Thomas Cranmer.

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: the Lord almighty be alwayes praysed therefore. Amen.

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These godly bookes of Tindall, and specially the new Testament of his translation, after that they began to come into mens handes, and to spread abroad, as they wroughte great and singuler profite to the godly: MarginaliaDarcknes hateth lyght. so the vngodly enuiyng and disdainyng that the people should be any thing wyser then they, and agayne fearing lest by the shining beames of truth, their false hypocrisie & workes of darkenes should be discerned: began to stirre with no small adoe, lyke as at the birth of Christ, turbatus est Herodes & tota Hierosolyma cum eo. 

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See Matt. 2.

MarginaliaSathan an enemye to all good purposes, especially to the Gospell. But especially Sathan the prince of darkenes, maligning the happy course and successe of the Gospell, set to his might also, how to empeach and hinder the blessed trauailes of that mā: as by this, & also by sondry other wayes may appeare. For at what tyme Tindall had translated the fift booke of Moises called Deuteronomium, myndyng to print the same at Hamborough, he sayled thereward 
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David Daniell has cogently argued that this entire account of a voyage to Hamburg and a shipwreck is fictitious; see David Daniell, 'Tyndale and Foxe' in John Foxe: Historical Perspectives, ed. David Loades (Aldershot, 1999), pp. 26-8.

: MarginaliaWilliā Tyndall lost his bokes and copies by shipwracke. where by the way vpon the cost of Holland, he suffred shipwrak, by the which he lost all his bokes, writings, and copies, and so was compelled to begin all agayne a new, to his hinderāce and doubling of his laboures. Thus hauyng lost by that ship both money, his copies, and time, he came in an other ship to Hamborough, MarginaliaM. Couerdale a helper of M. Tyndall in the translation of the testament. where at his appointment M. Couerdale taried for hym, and helped him in the translatyng of the whole. v. bookes of Moises, from easter till December in the house of a worshipfull widow Maistres Margaret van Emmerson, an. 1529. a great sweating sicknesse beyng the same tyme in the towne. So hauyng dispatched hys busines at Hamborough, he returned afterwarde to Antwerpe agayne.

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Thus as Sathan is and euer hath bene an enemy to all godly endeuors, and chiefly to the promoting and furtherance of Gods word, as by this and many other experimūts may be sene: so his ministers and members followyng the like qualitie of their maister, be not altogether idle for their partes: as also by the Popes Chapleins and Gods enemies, and by their cruell handlyng of the said M. Tyndall the same tyme, both here in England and in Flanders, may well appeare.

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Whē Gods will was, that the new Testament in þe cō mon tongue shoulde come abroade, Tyndall the translator therof added to the latter ende a certayne Epistle, wherin he desyred them that were learned to amend, if ought were found amysse 

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For what followers see William Tyndale, Doctrinal Treatises and Introductions to Different Portions of the Holy Scriptures, ed. Henry Walter, Parker Society (Cambridge, 1848), pp. 396-8.

. Wherefore, if any such default had bene, deseruyng correction, it hadde bene the parte of courtesy and gentlenes, for men of knowledge and iudgement to haue shewed their learnyng therein, and to haue redressed þt was to be amended. But the spirituall fathers thē of the clergye beyng not willing to haue that booke to prosper, cryed out vpon it, bearyng men in hand, that there were a thousand heresies in it, and that it was not to be corrected, but vtterly to be suppressed. MarginaliaThe practise of popishe Prelates to keepe the Scripture from the people. Some said it was not possible to translate the Scripture into Englishe: some that it was not lawfull for the lay people to haue it in their mother tongue, some þt it would make them all heretickes. And to the intent to induce the temporall rulers also vnto their purpose, they made more matter, and sayd, that it woulde make the people to rebell & rise agaynst þe king. All thys Tyndall himselfe in hys own prologue before the first booke of Moses declareth: and addeth further, shewyng what great paynes was taken in examining that translatiō, and comparyng it with their own imaginations and termes, that with lesse labour (he supposeth) they myght haue translated themselues a great parte of the Bible: Shewyng moreoer, that they scanned and examined euery tytle and poynt in the sayde translation, in such sort and so narrowlye, that there was not one. i. therin, but if it lacked a pricke ouer hys head, they dyd note it, and numbered it vnto the ignoraunt people for an heresie. So great was then the froward deuises of the Englishe Clergye (who shoulde haue bene the guides of light vnto the people) to dryue the people from the texte and knowledge of the Scripture, which neyther they would translate themselues, nor yet abyde it to be translated of others: MarginaliaThe causes why the popes clergy could not abyde the Scripture in the common tounge. to the intent (as Tyndall sayth) that the world beyng kept still in darknes, they myght sit in the consciences of the people through vayne superstition and false doctrine, to satisfie their lustes, their ambition, and vnsaciable couetousnes, and to exalte their owne honour aboue Kyng and Emperour, yea and aboue God him selfe. Hæc ille.

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The bishops and Prelates of the realme, thus (as ye haue heard) incensed and inflamed in their mynds, although hauyng no cause, agaynst the olde and new Testament of the Lord newly translated by Tindall, and conspiring together with all their heds and counsails, how to repeale the same, neuer rested before they had brought the kyng at last to their consent. MarginaliaThe popishe prelates procured not onely the cōdemnatiō of M. Tyndals bookes, but also burned both them & the Testamēt, calling it Doctrinam perigrinam, straunge doctrine. By reason wherof a proclamatiō in all hast was deuised and set forth vnder publike authoritie: but no iust reason shewed, that the testament of Tindals translation, with other workes moe both of his and of other wryters, were inhibited and abandoned, as he heard before 

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In concentrating upon the prohibition of the circulation of the scriptures in English, issued by Cuhbert Tunstall on 23 October 1527 (not 24 October 1527, as Foxe states) were crystal-clear. It was a golden opportunity to emphasise the opposition to the spread of evangelical truth among the English ecclesiastical hierarchy on the eve of the events that Foxe will shortly describe, and which led to the reformation. Cuthbert Tunstal, bishop of London, had been consecrated there on 19 October 1522 (provided on 10 September and the temporalities assigned 7 October). He would be translated to the see of Durham on 21 February 1530. The archdeacon, to whom the prohibition was addressed, was Geoffrey Wharton, collated 29 March 1526 (see Tunstal's register at London Guildhall MS, 9531/10: Episcopal Register Tunstal: 1522-29/30, fol.14b). Wharton died two years later on c.30 October 1529 (fol.28). His vicar-general, also mentioned in the prohibition, was Richard Foxford. The translated and printed New Testament, whose circulation it sought to prevent was Tyndale's New Testament, completed by February 1526 at the Peter Schoeffer printer in Worms, the first to be printed in the English vernacular. It is interesting that, for all the trouble Chancellor Thomas More and Bishop Stokesley would put him through, the major influence upon Tyndale's translation had been Erasmus' own Greek New Testament, which was available to him in its third edition of 1524 (with its Latin translation and notes). Stokesley had defended an earlier edition of Erasmus before Henry VIII in 1521 (Collected Works of Erasmus, 67 vols. (Toronto, 1974-91), vi, p.63 (no.855), viii, pp.8ff, 19; L&P, ii/ii, 4340) while More's relationship with Erasmus is well known. Tyndale had also used Luther's 1521 September Testament (see, Brian Moynahan, William Tyndale [London, 2002], p.6). Tyndale would make much of the fact that Erasmus had been his major influence.

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, pag. 991. Which was about the yeare of our Lord. 1527. And yet not contented herewith, they proceded further, how to entangle hym in their nettes, and to bereft hym of his lyfe. Which how they brought to passe, now it remayneth to be declared.

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MarginaliaPriuie conspiration of the Bishops agaynst M. Tyndall. In the registers of London it appeareth manifest, how that the 

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'Coram' means 'court'; in this case, the people summoned before an episcopal court.

Bishops and sir Tho. More hauyng any poore mā vnder Coram, to be examined before them, namely, such as had bene at Antwerpe, most studiously would search & examine all things belonging to Tindall, where and with whō he hosted, where aboutes stood the house, what was his stature, in what apparell he went, what resort he had. &c. All which things when they had diligently learned (as may appeare by the examination of Symon Smith, and others) 
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Foxe only mentions a crucial fact later in his narrative: Smith was Patmore's curate and Benmore his maidservant. Patmore's active support, if not outright instigation, of this marriage was necessary.

then began they to worke their feates, as you shall heare by the relation of his owne host.

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MarginaliaThe order & maner of taking of Tindall, testified by Poyntz his host. William Tyndall being in the town of Antwerpe, had bene lodged about one whole yeare in the house of Thomas Pointz an Englishman, who kept there an house of english merchantes 

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Thomas Poyntz was a merchant in the English House at Antwerp and a kinsman of Lady Walsh, the wife of Tyndale's first patron.

. About which tyme came thether one out of England, whose name was Henry Philips, hys father beyng customer of Poole, a comely fellow, lyke as he had bene a Gentleman, hauyng a seruaunt with hym: but wherfore he came or for what purpose he was sent thether, no man could tell.

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MarginaliaThe frendship of Tyndall shewed to Philips his betrayer. Maister Tyndall diuers tymes was desired forth to dinner and supper amongst merchantes: by the meanes wherof this Henry Philips became acquainted with hym, so that within short space M. Tyndall had a great confidence in hym: and brought him to his lodging to the house of Tho. Pointz, and had hym also with him once or twise to dinner and supper, and further entred such frendship with him that through his procurement, he lay in the same house of the sayd Pointz: To whom he shewed moreouer hys bookes and other secrets of hys study, so little did Tindall then mistrust thys traytour.

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