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1085 [1084]

K. Henry. 8. The birth of Prince Edward. Doct. Boner Ambassadour in Fraunce.

whiche caused a Priest to preach, that all they that tooke parte with the Yorkeshyre men, whō he called Gods people did fight in Gods quarell: for the whiche both hee and the priest were apprehēded, and executed.

Diuers other Priestes also, with other, about the same tyme, committyng in lyke sorte treason agaynst the kyng, suffered the lyke execution. Such a busines had the kyng then to ridde the Realme from the seruitude of the Romish yokes.

Tantæ molis erat Romanam euertere Sedem.

But Gods hand dyd still worke with all, in vpholdyng his Gospell and trodē truth, agaynst all seditious slurres, commotions, rebellions, and what soeuer was to the contrary as both by these storyes afore passed, & by such also as hereafter followe, may notoriouslye appeare.

Marginalia1537. The yeare next after this, which was of the Lord. 1537. after that great execution had bene done vppon certeine rebellious Priestes and a fewe other lay men, with certeine noble persons also and Gentlemen, amongest whom was the Lord Darcy, the Lord Hussy, Syr Robert Constable, Syr Thomas Percy, Syr Fraunces Bygot, Syr Steuen Hamelton, Syr Iohn Bulmer, and hys wyfe, Williā Lomley, Nicolas Tempest, with the Abbottes of Ierney and of Ryuers &c. MarginaliaPrince Edward borne. in the moneth of October, the same yere folowyng, was borne Prince Edward. MarginaliaQueene Iane dyed in childebed. Shortly after whose byrth, Queene Iane his mother, the second day after, dyed in childbed, and left the kyng agayne a wydower, whiche so continued the space of two yeares together. Vpon the death of which Queene Iane, and vpon the birth of prince Edward her sonne, these 2. verses were made, which follow.

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MarginaliaThese verses were thought to be made by M. Armigyl Wade. Phœnix Iana iacet nato Phœnice, dolendum
Sæcula Phœnices nulla tulisse duas.

Here is by the way to be vnderstand, that duringe all this season, since the tyme that the king of England had reiected the Pope out of the Realme, both the Emperour, the French King, and the King of Scottes, with other forrein potentates (which were yet in subiection vnder the pope) bare to hym no great good fauour inwardly, what soeuer outwardly they pretended. Neither was here lackyng preuy setters on, nor secret workyng among them selues, how to compasse vngracious mischiefes, if God by contrary occasions had not stopped their intended deuises. MarginaliaThe Pope styrreth war agaynst England by Cardinall Poole. For first the Pope had sent Cardinall Poole to the Frenche kyng, to styrre hym to warre agaynst the Realme of England.

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Secondly where as the Frenche kyng, by treatie of perpetuall peace, was bound yearely to pay to the kyng of England at the first dayes of May, and Nouember about xcv. thousand crownes of the sunne, and odde money: and ouer that, x. thousand crownes at the sayd ij. termes, for recōpence of salt due, as the treates therof did purport: that pēsion remayned now vnpayed iiij. yeares and more.

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MarginaliaThe Emperour, the Frēch king, and the king of Scottes, set agaynst the king of England. Furthermore, the Emperour and the French kyng both reteined Grancetor a traiterous rebell agaynst the kyng, & condemned by Acte of Parlament, with certeine other traitors moe, and yet would not deliuer hym to the kyng at his earnest suite and request.

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The Frenche kyng also digressyng from his promise & treaty, made allyance with the Byshop of Rome Clement in marying the Dolphine to hys Niece, called Katherine de Medicis.

The sayd Frenche kyng moreouer, contrary to his contracte made, maryed his daughter to the kyng of Scottes. All which were preiudiciall: and put the kyng, (no doubt) in some feare and perplexitie (though other wise a stoute and valiaunt Prince) to see the Pope, the Emperour, þe Frēch kyng, and kyng of Scottes so bent agaynst hym.

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And yet all this notwithstandyng, the Lord still defended the iustnes of his cause agaynst them all. For although the French kyng was so set on by the Pope, and so lynked in mariage with the Scotts, and lacked nothyng now but onely occasion to inuade the Realme of England: yet notwithstandyng he hearyng now of the byrth of Prince Edward, the kynges sonne by Queene Iane, and vnderstandyng also by the death of the sayd Queene Iane, that the kyng was a wydower, and perceauyng moreouer talke to be that the kyng would ioyne in mariage with the Germaynes, beganne to waxe more calme and cold, and to geue much more gently wordes, and to demeane hym selfe more curtuously, labouryng to mary the Queene of Nauare hys sister to the kyng.

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The Ambassadours resident thē in Fraunce for the kyng were Ste. Gardinar, with Doctor Thyrleby, &c. Whiche Steuen Gardinar, what he wrought secretly for the popes deuotion, I haue not expressely to charge him. Whether hee so dyd, or what he dyd, the Lord knoweth all. But this is certeine, that when Doct. Boner Archedeacon thē of Leicester, was sent into Fraunce by the kyng (through the meanes of the Lord Cromwell) to succede Steuen Gardinar in Ambassie, MarginaliaAn. 1538. which was about the yeare of our Lord. 1538. he found such dealyng in the sayd Byshop of Winchester, as was not greatlye to be trusted, beside the vnkynde partes of the sayd Byshop agaynst the foresayd Boner, MarginaliaDoct. Boner the kinges Ambassadour in Fraunce. commyng then from the kyng and the Lorde Cromwell, as was not to be lyked. 

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Edmund Bonner's career

The letter from Tyndale to Frith obviously came into Foxe's hands after the first edition was published, and the original of it has now been lost. It was printed by Henry Walter in the Parker Society edition of Tyndale's Works [1848] (vol 1, p. liiii [54]). Wilkins cites Corpus Christ College, Cambridge MS 8, fol 401 - and Foxe is known to have had access to Parker's collection.

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The king's answer to the rebels of Lincolnshire, and the story of the rising there, are taken from Hall (fols 229-232). The source of Bonner's letter is now known, but Foxe was clearly working from originals or a close copy. They are calendared in the Letters and Papers¸ but the editor cites Foxe as their source [XII, 2, 144; 269]. The Articles devised by the Kynges Highnes Maiestie to stablyshe Christen quietnes and vnitie amonge vs, and to auoyde contentious opinio[n]s (London: Thomas Berthelet, 1536 - STC 10033) would have been available to Foxe in the printed edition. There is a copy of Bonner's oath against the pope in BL Add MS 38656 fol 3b, although this was probably not the copy which Foxe used. The form of oath was common to all bishops. The description of the 'evil behaviour' of Stephen Gardiner 'in trembling and leaping of his flesh' in the 1583 edition carries the comment that Bucer had also noted it in De Coelibatu. This is a reference to Martin Bucer's Gratulatio … ad Ecclesiam Anglicanam de Religionis Christi ... Angli conviciatrices Epistolas, De coelibatu sacerdotum et coenobitarum. The work was published in 1548, and promptly translated into English by Thomas Hobye, then residing with Bucer as a pupil in Strasbourg (the translator signing off 'At Argentyne, Kalendis Februarii'), and published by Richard Jugge under the title: The gratulation of the mooste famous clerke M. Martin Bucer: a man of no lesse learninge and lyterature, then godlye studie and example of lyuing, vnto the churche of Englande for the restitucion of Christes religion. And hys answere vnto the two raylinge epistles of Steue[n], Bisshoppe of Winchester, concerninge the vnmaried state of preestes and cloysterars, wherein is euidently declared, that it is against the lawes of God, and of his churche to require of all suche as be and must be admitted to preesthood, to refrain from holye matrimonie (STC - 3963). The issue at stake was the theological and scriptural justification for celibacy, discussed at length, and with reference to the disputation in Strasbourg to which Foxe refers. In the treatise, Bucer answered Gardiner with progressively greater demonstrations of righteous anger, giving as good as he got; 'Herin therefore let Wynchester do the office of a bishop, & shewe (yf he can) thy trewe arguments that we are in an erroure, and cease to depraue by suche trifling and ungodly tawntes the dyuine and holie fathers sentences and to peruerte and mistake with his rayling sophistrie … & to scrape together with moche a do (wynking at our perfecte & sounde arguments here and there a worde by his scoffinges …. with that currishe and dogishe eloquence, whereof he coulde in thes his writings against me, make no ther measure nor ende' [no sig]. Bucer accused Winchester of having accused him of 'ignoraunce and arrogantye' [sig. G] in attributing interpretations of Greek pre-Christian writers that he had not advanced. He finally contended, in the passage to which Foxe no doubt referred, that Gardiner had not written or acted in a manner becoming a bishop during their disputation in Strasbourg: 'He denieth that he made anye contention with me, in thys disputation. But I sawe hym in suche an heat throughe consention, that his verye vaynes in hys hands shooke and trembled (whyche I never saue in all my luye tyme in anie man before) as oft and he herde ought of us that offended and myslyked hym ….' [sig. Giiii vo].

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David Loades

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Long it were to recite frō the begynning, and fewe men peraduenture woulde beleue, the braulyng matters, the priuy complaintes, the contentious quarels, and bitter dissensions betwene these two, and especially what despightfull contumelies D. Boner receiued at the hands of Winchester. MarginaliaDoct. Boner in the beginning a fauourer of the truth, and a Lutherane. For vnderstand (good reader) that this doctor Boner all this while remayned yet (as he semed) a good man, and was a great furtherer of the kinges procedinges, and a fauourer of Luthers doctrine, and was aduaunced onely by the Lord Cromwell. Whose promotions here to reherse: first he was Archdeacon of Leicester, person of Bledon, of Dereham, Cheswike, and Cheriburton. Then was made Bishop of Hereford, and at last preferred to be Bish. of London. MarginaliaL. Cromwell the onely setter vp of Doct. Boner. The chiefe of which prefermentes and dignities were conferred vnto him only by the meanes and fauour of the L. Cromwell, who was then his chiefe and only Patrone, and setter vp: as the said Boner himselfe in all his letters doth manifestly protest and declare. The Copies of which his letters I could here produce and exhibite, but for prolonging my story with superfluous matter. Yet that the world and all posteritie may see, MarginaliaD. Boners cōming vp was by the Gospell. how the commyng vp of D. Boner was onely by the gospell (how so euer he is now vnkynd vnto the Gospell) this one letter of hys, which I wyll here inferre, written to the Lord Cromwell out of Fraunce, may stand for a perpetuall testimonie, the tenour whereof here ensueth.

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A letter of Doctor Boner the kinges Ambassadour resident in France, sent to the Lord Cromwell declaring the order of his promotions and comming vp.

MarginaliaOut of Boners owne hand writing. MY very singular especiall good Lord, as one most bounden, I most humbly commend me vnto your honorable good Lordship. And where as in tymes passed it hath lyked the same, without any my desertes or merites, euen only of your singular excedyng goodnes, to bestow a great deale of loue, beneuolence, and good affection vpon me so poore a man and of so small qualities, expressyng in deede, sondry wayes, the good effectes therofto my great preferment, MarginaliaD. Boner confesseth himselfe much bound to the L. Cromwel. I was very much bound thereby vnto your honourable good Lordship, and thought it alway my dutie (as in dede it was) bothe to beare my true harte agayne vnto your Lordship, and also, remembryng such kyndnes, to do vnto þe same all such seruice and pleasure as might then lie in my small power to do.

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But where of your infinite and inestimable goodnes, it hath further lyked you of late, first to aduaunce me vnto the office of Legation from such a Prince as the kyng my soueraigne Lord is, vnto the Emperour and French kyng, and next after to procure and obtayne MarginaliaBoner preferred to the byshoprick of Hereforde, by the L. Cromwel. myne aduauncement to so honourable a promotion as is the bishopricke of Herford: I must here knowledge the excedyng greatnes of your Lordships benefite, with myne owne imbecillite to recompence it, and saye (as Virgil writeth) Grates persoluere dignas nō opis est nostræ.

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Surely my good Lord, I neither am, neyther shall bee hable to requite thus your Lordshyps most speciall kindenes and bountifull goodnes at any tyme, vnlesse I shoulde vse MarginaliaAcceptilation. that ciuile remedye called in lawe acceptilation whiche great detters especially, are accustomed to procure at the handes of theyr creditours: wherby yet neuerthelesse your goodnes the onely doer therof, shoulde rather bee encreased then my duetye towardes the same, therby diminished. And cessio Bonorum (the onely extreme refuge and help of poore detters deuised also in Marginalia* Here semeth to lacke some word, but that I would not alter any thyng in hys owne copie. ciuile) myght somwhat helpe herein, sauyng that it is not possible that I shall come Ad tam pinguem fortunam (wherupon that remedye is grounded) whereby I may recompence and requite this dette worthelye.

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So that in conclusion there resteth this, that vnlesse your Lordshyps self doe lose me as you haue bound me, I shall (and that full gladly) remayne continually your most bounden beadesman. And Syr I most humblye besech your good Lordshyp, in the honour of God, seyng thys thyng is begonne and auaunced onely by your goodnes & meanes you will to the entent the acte may bee wholy your owne, stretch out your goodnes, not sufferyng the rest to be perfited otherwise then by your owne handes: wherein as I must and shall knowledge my selfe to be excedyngly beholden vnto your good Lordshyp, so shall the same more e-

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steme
CCC.j.
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