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1132 [1131]

K. Hen. 8. Iniunctions set out by the King.

And if they woulde, dooth not Paule hym selfe graunt that it should be an euyll president and an euyll President, an euyll example, to haue an armed Councell?

Howe so euer it shall be, we moste hartily desire you, that ye wyl vouchsafe to reade those thinges that we wrot this last yeare MarginaliaOf this writing read before pag. 1056. touchyng the Mantuan Councel. For we nothyng doubt, but you, of your equitie, wyll stande on our side against their subtiltie and fraudes, and iudge (excepte we be deceyued) that we in this busines, neyther gaue so much to our affections neither without great and most iust causes, refused their Councelles, their Censures, and Decrees.

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Whether these our writynges please all men, or no, we think we ought not to passe much. No, if þt which indifferētly is written of vs, may please indifferent readers, our desire is accōplished. The false & mistaking of thinges by mē parcial, shal moue vs nothyng, or els very litle. If we haue sayde ought against the deceites of the Bishop of Rome, that may seeme spoken too sharpely, we pray you, impute it to þe hatred we beare vnto vices, & not to any euyll wil that we beare hym. No, that he and al his may perceyue that we ar rather at strife with his vices, then with him & his: our prayer is, that it maye please God, at the laste to open their eyes, to make softe their hard hartes, & þt they once may with vs (their owne glorye set apart) study to set forth the euerlastyng glory of the euerlastyng God.

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Thus mighty Emperour, fare you most hartily well, and ye Christen Princes, the pyllers and stay of Christendome, fare ye hartyly wl. Also al ye, what people so euer ye are, which do desire that the gospel and glory of Christ may florishe, fare ye hartyly wel.

As the Lorde of his goodnes had raysed vp Thomas Cromwel to be a frende and patrone to the Gospell: so on the contrary side Sathan (which is aduersary and enemye to all good thinges) had hys organe also, which was Stephen Gardiner, by al wyles and subtile meanes to empeache and to put backe the same 

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Destruction of Becket's shrine

Foxe drew the text of these injunctions from Bonner's register (Guildhall MS 9531/12, fos. 27r-28v). Foxe omits the preamble and condenses most of the articles, but otherwise his version is accurate. To explain the contents of these articles Foxe relies on the basic schema he employs to explain events of the 1530s: if it is 'good', it was the work of Thomas Cromwell, if it is 'bad', it was the work of Stephen Gardiner. (Compare Foxe's introductory words to these injunctions, with those he supplied to the Ten Articles; regarding penance as a sacrament was anathema to Foxe, and he rushes by his text on the Ten Articles as hurriedly as possible). Here, as elsewhere, this explanation is inadequate. Although Foxe blames these injunctions on Gardiner, there is material in them, such as the lengthy denunciation of Thomas Becket (which was a preparation for the total destruction of his shrine at Canterbury that followed almost immediately), which were hardly Gardiner's work. In truth, the text of the injunctions reflects Henry VIII's distinctive theology, with his loathing of sacramentarians and married priests, his wariness regarding vernacular Bibles, together with his distaste for 'superstition' and for the cult of the saints - most particularly Becket. But Foxe, with hindsight, was aware that the Act of the Six Articles and the fall of Cromwell, will take place shortly and he is reading these injunctions in light of the supposed ascendancy that Gardiner and the conservatives were gaining over the king.

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Thomas S. Freeman

. Who after he had brought his purpose to passe, in burnyng good Iohn Lambert (as ye haue hearde) proccedyng styl in his craftes and wyles, and thinking vnder the name of heresies, sectes, Anabaptistes, & sacramentaries, to exterminate all good bookes, and faythful professours of Gods word out of England, so wrought with the kyng, that the next yeare folowing, which was of our Lord. 1539. he gaue out these Iniunctions, þe copy and contentes wherof I thought here also not to be pretermitted, and are these.

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Certayne other Iniunctions set forth by the authoritie of the kyng, against Englishe bookes, sectes, and Sacramentaries also, with putting downe the day of Thomas Becket.

Marginalia1539. FIrst, that none without special licence of the king, transporte or bring from outwarde parties into Englande, any manner of Englishe bookes, neyther yet sell, geue, vtter, or publishe any suche vppon payne to forfeyte all their goodes and cattelles, and their bodyes to be imprisoned, so long as it shal please the kynges maiestie.

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Item, that none shal print, or bring ouer any Englishe bookes with annotations or Prologues, vnles such bookes before be examined by the kynges priuie Counsayle, or others appoynted by his highnesse, and yet not to put therto those wordes: Cum priuilegio Regali, without addyng, Ad imprimendum solum: neither yet to print it, without the kinges priuilege be printed therewith in the Englishe tongue, that al men may reade it. MarginaliaNo bookes to be translated, without the name of the translator. Neither shal they printe any translated booke, without the plaine name of the translatour be in it, or els the printer to be made the translatour, and to suffer the fine and punishment therof at the kinges pleasure.

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MarginaliaEnglishe bookes of scripture forbydden to be printed. Item, that none of the occupation of Printyng shall within the Realme, print, vtter, sell, or cause to be published any Englishe bookes of Scripture, vnlesse the same be first viewed, examined, and admitted by the kings highnesse, or one of his priuie Counsaile, or one Bishop within the Realme, whose name shall therein be expressed, vppou paine of the kinges most high displeasure, the losse of their goods and cattels, and prisonment, so long as it shal please the king.

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MarginaliaAgaynst Sacramentaries. Item, those that be in any errours, as Sacramentaries, Anabaptistes, or any other, or any that sel bookes, hauyng such opinions in them, being once knowen, both the bookes and such persons shalbe detected and disclosed immediatly vnto the kinges Maiestie, or one of his priuie Counsaile, to the intent to haue it punished without fauor, euen with the extremitie of the lawe.

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MarginaliaNo man to dispute of the sacrament. Item, that none of the kinges subiectes shal reason, dispute, or argue vpon the sacrament of the aultar, vpon paine of loosing their lyues, goodes and cattels, without all fauor, onely those excepted that be learned in Diuinitie: they to haue their libertie in their scholes and appoynted places, accustomed for such matters.

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MarginaliaHoly bread and holy water, with other rites of the church established. Item, that holy bread and holy water, procession, kneeling, and creeping on good Fryday to the crosse and Easter day, setting vp of lights before the Corpus Christi bearing of candles on Candlemas day, Purification of women deliuered of chyld, offering of Crisomes, keeping of the foure offeryng dayes, paying their tithes, and such like ceremonies must be obserued and kept, tyl it shal pease the king to chaunge or abrogate any of them. This 

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This sentence is Foxe's insertion into the text. Foxe is trying to establish that there was popular resistance to the retaining of these traditional ceremonies.

Article was made for that the people was not quieted and contented (many of them) with the ceremonies then vsed.

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MarginaliaMaryed priestes punished. Finally, all those Priests that be maryed, and openly knowen to haue their wiues, or that hereafter do intend to marrye, shall be depriued of all Spirituall promotion, and from doyng any duetie of a Prieste, and shal haue no maner of office, dignitie, cure, priuilege, profite or commoditie in any thyng appertainyng to the Clergie, but from thence foorth shall be taken, had, and reputed as laye persons, to all purposes and intentes: and those that shall after this proclamation marry, shal runne in his graces indignation, and suffer punishmente and imprisonment at his graces wyll and pleasure.

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Item, he chargeth all Archbishops, Bishops, Archdeacons, Deacons, Prouostes, persons, Vicars, Curates and other Ministers, and euery of them in their owne persons, within their cures diligently to preach, teache, open, and set forth to the people, the glory of God, and truth of his word: and also cōsideryng the abuses and superstitions that haue crept into the hartes and stomackes of many, by reason of their fonde ceremonyes, MarginaliaDifference to be taught betwen thinges commaunded of God, and ceremonies vncommaunded. he chargeth them vpon paine of imprisonment at his graces pleasure, not onely to preache and teach the woord of God accordingly, but also sincerely and purely, declaring the difference betwene things commaunded by God, and the rites and ceremonies in their Church then vsed, least the people therby might growe into further superstition.

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MarginaliaThomas Becket vnsancted. Item, 

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This lengthy denunciation of Becket is a preparation to the total destruction of his shrine at Canterbury which followed almost immediately. These injunctions are part of the propaganda blitz which preceded the demolition of the shrine and they clearly reflect Cromwell's hand in these injunctions.

for as muche as it appeareth now clearely, that Thomas Becket sometyme Archbishop of Canterburye, stubburnely withstandyng the wholesome lawes established against the enormities of the Cleargie, by the kynges highnes noble Progenitour kyng Henry the second, for the common wealth, rest, and tranquillitie of this Realme, of his frowarde mynde fledde the Realme into Fraunce, and to the Bishop of Rome mayntayner of those enormities, to procure the abrogation of the sayd Lawes (whereby arose much trouble in this sayd Realme) and that his death whiche they vntruely called Martyrdome, happened vpon a rescue by hym made, and that (as it is written) he gaue opprobrious wordes to the Gentlemen, MarginaliaThomas Becket noted of stubbernesse. whiche then counsayled hym to leaue his stubbernesse, and to auoyde the commotion of the people rysen vp for that resene, and he not onley called the one of them bawde, but also toke Tracie by the bosome, and violently shooke hym, and plucked hym in suche manner, that he had almoste ouerthrowen hym to the pauement of the Churche, so that vpon this fray, one of their companye perceyuyng the same, strake hym, and so in the throng Becket was slayne: and further, that his canonization was made onely by the Bishop of Rome, because he had bene a champion to maynteyne his vsurped authoritie, and a bearer of the iniquitie of the Clergie.

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For these and for other great and vrgent causes long to recite, the kynges Maiestie by the aduice of his Counsayle, hath thought expedient to declare to his louyng subiectes, MarginaliaTho. Becket a rebell rather then a Sainct. that notwithstandyng the sayd canonization, there appeareth nothyng in his life and exterior conuersation, wherby he should be called a Saint, but rather esteemed to haue beene a rebel and traytour to his Prince.

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Therefore his grace straytly chargeth and commaundeth, that from henceforth the sayde Thomas Becket shal not be esteemed, named, reputed, and called a Sainte, but Bishop Becket, and that his Images and Pictures throrowe the whole Realme shalbe pluckt downe and auoyded out of all Churches, Chappels, and other places, MarginaliaThe canonization of Tho Becket rased. & that from henceforth the dayes vsed to be festiuall in his name, shal not be obserued, nor the seruice, office, Antiphons, Collectes, and prayers in his name read, but rased and put out of al the bookes: and that al other festiual dayes already abrogated, shalbe in no wise solemnized, but his graces, ordinauuces, and Iniunctions therupon obserued, to the intent his graces louyng subiectes shalbe no longer blyndly ledde and abused to cōmit Idolatrie, as they haue done in tymes passed, vpō payne of his maiesties indignation, & imprisonment at his graces pleasure.

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Finally,
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