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1138 [1137]

K. Hen. 8. Allegations against the vj. Articles. Transubstantiation.

Elfricus, which was after hym Archb. of Caunterbury, the third from Dunstane, and fourth from Odo, not onely the Priestes of England, but also the Archbishop himself, wer not yet brought to the belief of this transubstantiation, but taught the very same doctrine of the sacrament then, which we do now? as most clearely appeareth both by the Epistles and Homelies of the foresayd Archbishop Elfricus 

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Foxe is confusing Aelfric of Eynsham (c. 950-c. 1010), the author of the epistles and sermons that he will quote, with Aelfric, who was archbishop of Canterbury from 995-1005.

, which here vnder, for the more euidence (Christ willyng) we wyll annexe 
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The quotations which follow are from A testimonie of antiquitie (London, 1566?), STC 159.5. This work, edited by Matthew Parker and John Joscelyn, includes a sermon by Aelfric, extracts from his letters and the Ten Commandments, the Lord's Prayer and the Creed, all printed in Old English, with English translations.

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MarginaliaÆlfricus Archbishop of Cant.
¶ An. 996.
 

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This paragraph is drawn from the preface to A testimonie of antiquitie, (London, 1566?), STC 159.5, fos. 7v-8v. Scholars believe that this preface was written by John Joscelyn.

This Elfricus, as sayth Capgraue, in the lyfe of Oswald bishop of Worceter, MarginaliaCapgraue in vita. Oswaldi Episc. Wigorn. was first Abbot of S. Albones, and after made Archbishop of Canterbury, about the yeare of our Lord. 996. in the tyme of kyng Etheldred, and of Wulffinus bishop of Scyrburne. Elfricus also (as witnesseth Wil. of Malmesbery, in Vita Aldelmi) MarginaliaW. Malmesberiens. in vita Aldelmi. was Abbot of Malmesbery. Furthermore the sayd Wil. of Malmesbery writyng of Elfricus Archbishop of Canterbury, saith that he was before bishop of Wels, and afterward Archbishop of Canterbury. So that Elfricus was Archbishop of Cāterbury, it is out of all ambiguitie. But whether Elfricus which was Abbot (of whom we do here entreate) were the same Archbishop, or not, by this diuersity of Capgraue and Malmesbery, it may be doubtfull. But whether he were or no, to this our present purpose is not greatly materiall, for somuch as the sayd Elfricus, & Elfricus, although they were diuers persons yet were they both in on age, and liued in one tyme together.

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Furthermore 

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This paragraph is drawn from the preface to A testimonie of antiquitie (London, 1566?), STC 159.5, fos. 10v-11v and 13v-14r. Scholars believe that this preface was written by John Joscelyn.

, the same Elfricus (of whome now we speake) of what callyng so euer he was, yet notwithstandyng he was of suche estimation and good likyng in those dayes among the most learned, that for hys learning, authoritie, and eloquence, MarginaliaThe writings of Ælfricus authentike. hys writings were accepted and authorised among the Canons and constitutions of the Church in that tyme, as hereby may appeare: MarginaliaA booke of Canons in the Saxons tounge. For where as the bishops and priestes before the commyng of William Conquerour had collected together a certayne booke of Canons and ordinances, to gouerne the Clergy, gathered out of generall and perticular councels, out of the bookes of Gildas, out of the pœnitentiall bookes of Theodorus Archbishop of Caunterbury, out of the writings of Egberthus Archbishop of Yorke, and out of the epistles of Alcuinus, as also out of the writinges of the olde fathers of the primitiue Church. &c. among the same Canons and constitutions be placed these two Epistles of the sayd Elfricus here vnder following, wherof the one was sent to Wulfsinus bishop of Scyrburne, the other to Wulfstane Archb, of Yorke, as yet are to be sene in ij. bokes belongyng to the Library of the Church of Worceter, MarginaliaEx Archiuis Ecclesiæ Wigornensis. the one written in the olde Saxones tongue intituled Be preost Sinoþe, the other for the most part in latine, with this title: Admonitio spiritualis doctrinæ. Which booke of Saxon Canons and constitutiōs belongyng sometyme to Wulfstane Byshop of Worceter, was geuen by hym as for a great iewell, to the Church of Worceter, as by the same booke appeareth.

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Moreouer, besides 

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This paragraph is drawn from the preface to A testimonie of antiquitie (London, 1566?), STC 159.5, fos. 11v-12v. Scholars believe that this paragraph was written by John Joscelyn.

this booke of Worceter aboue touched, there is yet extant also an other lyke booke of Canons belonging to the church of Exeter, MarginaliaEx archiuis ecclesiæ Exoniensis. wherin the same two epistles of Elfricus be conteyned in the olde Saxon tongue, and also in Latine, and prescribed yerely to be reade to the Clerkes and priestes of that Church: Which booke in lyke maner was geuē to the church of Exeter by Leofricus the first, and most famous Bishop of that sea.

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MarginaliaThe bookes of Sermons translated by Ælfricus out of Latine into the Saxons speach. Of this Elfricus further 

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These passages on Aelfric's sermons are drawn from the preface to A testimonie of aniquitie (London, 1566?), STC 159.5, fos. 3v-4r. Scholars believe that this preface was written by John Joscelyn.

is to be vnderstand, that he translated two bokes of lxxx. sermons out of Latin, into the Saxon speach, vsed then orderly to be read in Churches on sondayes and other festiuall dayes of the yere, as by his own wordes may appeare in the ende of one of the sayd bokes of sermons, whose woordes be these: Fela fægere godspell we forlætað on þisum dihte . þa mæg awendan se ðe wile ; Ne durre we ðas boc na micle swiþor gelængan . ðyles þe heo ungemetegod sy . & mannum æþræt ðurh hire micelnisse astirige ; We let passe many good gospels which he that lyst, may translate. For we dare not enlarge this booke muche further, lest it be ouergreat, and so be a cause of lothsomnes to men, through the bignes therof. &c.

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Also in an other place he confesseth the same of hymselfe: whose wordes in the preface before hys gremmer be these.Ic Ælfric wolde ða listlan boc awendan to engliscum gereorde of ðam stæf cræfte ðe is gehaten grammatica . syþþan ic twa bec awende on hund eahtatigum spellum ; MarginaliaLxxx. sermons translated by Ælfricus into the Englishe or Saxon tounge. I Elfricke was desirous to turne into our English tongue from the arte of letters, called grammer, this litle boke, after that I had translated the two bokes of fourescore sermons. &c.

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Marginalia4. Epistles written of Ælfricus in the Saxon or Englishe tongue. Of hys Epistles especially 

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The passages which follow, on the letters of Aelfric, are drawn from the preface to A testimonie of antiquitie (London, 1566?), STC 159.5, fos. 7v-8r.

we read of foure, which he wrote. One to the monkes of Egnesham, De consuetudine monachorum. An other to Wulfstane Archb. of Yorke, wherin is touched the matter of the Sacrament. The third, he wrote agaynst priestes mariage, to one Sygeferth, wyth whom there was a certayne Anker abidyng, which defended the mariage of priestes, affirmyng it to be lawfull. The fourth, he wrote to Wulfsinus B. of Scyrburne, touching the matter of the sacramēt. In the which epistle he taking occasion by a certayne abuse in his tyme, which was, that priestes on Easter day filled their housell boxe, and so kept it for the space of the whole yeare, till Easter came agayne, for sicke persons, writeth vpon that occasion, in these wordes as follow in hys own Saxons tongue.

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A writing of Ælfrike to Wulfsine.

MarginaliaThe wordes of Ælfricus written to Wulfsinus bishop of Scyrburne, against transubstantiation. 

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This extract from a letter from Aelfric to Wulfsige (not, as Foxe has it, 'Wulfsine') is reprinted from A testimonie of aniquitie (London, 1566?), STC 159.5, fos. 62v-64r.

Man sceal healdan þæt halige husel mid mycelre gymene & ne forhealdan hit . ac halgian oþer edniwe to sceocum mannum . a . embe vii. niht . oððe embe xiiii . niht þt hit huru synig ne sy forðon ðe eal swa halig bið þt husel ðe nu to dæg wæs gehalgod . swa þt þe on easterdæg wæs gehalgod ; Ðæt husel is Cristes lichama na lichamlice ac gastlice . Na se lichama ðe he on ðrowode . ac se lichama ðe he embe spræc . ða ða he bletsode hlaf and win to husel anre nihte ær his ðrowunge . & cwæþ be þam gebletsode hlafe . ðis is min lichama . and eft be ðam halgan wine . ðis is min blode þe bið for manegum agoten on synna forgyfenesse ; Vnderstandaþ nu þt se drihten ðe mihte awendon ðone hlaf ær his ðrowunge to his lichaman . and þt win to his blode gastlice . ðæt se ylca dæg hwamlice bletsaþ ðurh sacerda handa hlaf & win to his gastlican lichaman . and to his gastlican blode .

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The same in English.

MarginaliaAn Epistle of Ælfricke to Wulfstan. Men shal reserue more carefully that holy housell, & not reserue it to long, but hallow other of new for sicke men alwayes within a weke or a fortnight, that it be not so much as hory. For so holy is the housell which to day is hallowed, as that which on Easterday was halowed, MarginaliaThe Sacrament is the Lordes bodye, not bodely, but ghostly. That housel is Christes body not bodily, but ghostly. Not the body which he suffred in, but the body of which he spake, when he blessed bread and wine to housell the night before hys suffryng, and sayd by the blessed bread: this is my body, & agayne by the holy wyne, this is my bloud, which is shed for many in forgeuenes of sinnes. Vnderstand now that the Lord, who could turne that bread before his suffering to hys body, and that wyne to his bloud ghostly, that þe self same Lord blesseth dayly through the priestes handes, bread and wyne to hys ghostly body, and to his ghostly bloud.

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After this Epistle aboue prefixed of Elfricus, written to Wulfsinus B. of Shyreburne, concerning the sacramentall bread, how it is not Christes body, lichamlice that is bodily, or (as we terme it now) really: and also how the same ought not to be ouerlong kept in the pixe: here foloweth further an other epistle of the sayd Elfricus written to Wulfstane Archb. of Yorke, both reprehendyng þe sayd abuse aboue touched, and also conteyning matter more at large agaynst þe bodily presence in the sacramentall bread. The copy of his epistle, both in hys owne Saxon, and in our English here followeth. 

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This extract from a letter from Aelfric to Wulfstan is reprinted from A testimonie of antiquitie (London, 1566?), STC 159.5, fos. 65v-72r.

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An other Epistle of Ælfricus against the bodily presence to Wulfstane Archbishop of Yorke.

MarginaliaAn Epistle of Ælfricke to Wulfstane SVme preostas gefyllað heora husel box on eastron . & healdað ofer twelf monaþ to untrumum mannum . swylce ðæt husel sy haligere ðonne oþer . Ac hi doþ unwislice . forðam he hit wannað . oððe mid ealle forrotað on swa lāgum fyrste . and hi bið þonne scyldig swa swa us

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