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1146 [1145]

K. Hen. 8. Allegations against the vj. Articles. Transubstantiation.

Berengarius: wyth whom Lancfranck also was supposed at the first beginnyng to holde and take part, but afterward to cleare hymselfe, he stoode openly agaynst him in the Councell, and wrote agaynst him.

It foloweth then in the Acte of the Coūcell, 

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This account of Berengar's career, somewhat contradicting the account based on Bullinger, just given and given in more detail below (see next comment), is derived from William of Malmesbury. (See William of Malmesbury, De gestis regum Anglorum, ed. R. A. B. Mynors, R. M. Thomson and M. Winterbottom, 2 vols. [Oxford, 1998-99], I, p. 515. For the actual course of events see first comment.

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that whē the Synode of Archbyshops, Byshops, Abbots, & other Prelates were together assembled, þe greater number (saith the story) MarginaliaEx VV. Malmesb. did hold, that the bread and wyne were turned substantially into the body and bloud of Christ. Notwithstanding (sayth he) diuers there were in the sayde Councell which helde the contrary with Berengarius, but at last were driuen to geue ouer. Berengarius among the rest, after he had long stand in the constant defence of the truth, at last relented to their willes, confessing hys errour where none was, and desired pardon of the Councell. And thys was (as seemeth to W. Malmesb.) hys first geuing ouer. Who afterwarde returning to hymselfe agayne after the death of Pope Leo, and prickte with the stinge of conscience, was driuen agayne to recognise the truth, which he before had denyed.

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MarginaliaThe story and recantation of Berengarius declared by W. Malmesb. De gestis Anglorum. Lib. 3. The Pope (sayth Malmesb.) perceauing this, would not leaue hym so, but sent into Fraunce Hildebrande hys Cardinall Chapleine (as meete a mate for such a feate, as was in all Satans courte) and made hym with a wanyand to come agayne coram nobis: who so handled Berengarius and bringing hym before the face of the Councell holden at Turon, that he made hym to say, erraui, once agayne: against whom stoode vp in that Councell Lancfrancus, and Guimundus aforesayd, impugning hys assertion. And thus stādeth the narration of W. Malmesbery. But by the Actes of the Councell of Rome appeareth an other declaratiō, MarginaliaThe order of his recantation declared
Ex Actis Romani Concilij.
which is, that this latter recantation of Berengarius should be at Rome vnder Hildebrand, beyng then Pope, in the yeare of our Lord. 1076. and in the moneth of February, and that in the sayd Councell holden in Ecclesia Saluatoris, thys recantation of, Ego Berengarius, was made, and he enioyned by the sayde Pope Hildebrand, vpon his othe, neuer hereafter to teache or dispute contrary to that fayth of the Sacrament, there holden. &c.

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Agayne, Henry Bullinger in hys booke, De origine erroris, folowing 

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This long account of Berengar's ordeals, culminating in the inaccurate report that Berengar became a labourer, is taken (virtually word-for-word) from Heinrich Bullinger, De origine erroris libri duo (Zurich, 1568), fos. 122v-123r. For the correct sequence of events see first comment.

belyke some other author, expresseth the order of the forsayd recantation after thys sort, MarginaliaThe order of the sayd recantation reported out of Henr. Bulling. De origine erroris. ca. x. and sayth, that in the tyme of Pope Leo. 9. Anno. 1051. there was a Romane Councell holden at Vercellense, in the whiche Councell Lancfrancke beyng then present, the booke of Ioh. Scotus was openly read, and there condemned. MarginaliaConcilium Vercellense. Also Berengarius was sent for, who seeing the preiudiciall proceedyng of that Councell, refused hymselfe to come, but sent two Clerkes, which openly there defended his cause and quarell, and were for the same cōmitted vnto prison. Such is the freedome of the popes generall Councels, with prisons and violence to defend their verities. Agaynst the doyngs of this Councell notwithstanding, the French men stoode stiffe, both at Angew, and Turon 
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, ioyning and consenting with Berengarius.

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Not long after this, dyed Pope Leo, and after him succeeded Pope Victor, by whom MarginaliaConcilium Florentinum. an other Synode was kept at Florence, where the Actes and doyngs of the foresayde Councell of Vercellense, were confirmed, and a Legate also appointed to be sent to Turon in Fraunce. MarginaliaConcilium Turonense. This legate was Hildebrand aboue mentioned, who callyng the clergie of Fraunce together in a Synode, fell there in hand wyth the cause of the Sacrament. Berengarius not beyng ignoraunt of these Romaine Councels, so kept himselfe, that in all his action, he would geue none other aunswere, but that he beleued and consented wyth the fayth of the Catholicke Church: and so for that tyme did frustrate the purpose of þt Councell, rather deluding the pretenses of hys enemyes, then freely confessing the simple truth.

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MarginaliaConcilium Romanum sub. Nicol. 2. Agayne, after Victor came Pope Nicolas. 2. who cōgregating an other Councell at Rome, An. 1058. sent for Berengarius there to appeare, who beyng present, argued what he could, for the iustnes of his cause, but all woulde not serue: MarginaliaMight beareth downe right. In the Popes generall Councels, such a stroke and mastershyp beareth authority aboue veritie. Berengarius beyng thus borne downe on euery side by might & superioritie, when no remedye would serue, MarginaliaThe last recantation of Berengarius. but he muste needes recant agayne, (for the law of relapse was not yet in season) he desired to know what other confession of the sacrament the Pope woulde require of hym, besydes that which he had there confessed. Then Pope Nicolas committed that charge to MarginaliaHumbertus author of the decree. Ego Berengarius. Humbart a Monke of Lotharinge, & after a Cardinall, that, he should drawe out in formable wordes, the order of his recantion, after the prescription of Rome, which he should read and publickely professe before the people. The forme of which wordes is registred in the Decrees, MarginaliaDe consecra. Dist. 2. cap. Ego Berengarius. De consecrat. dist. 2. Ego Berengarius. &c. The effect whereof is thys: That he pretendeth wyth hart and mouth, to professe, that he acknowledging the true, catho licke, and Apostolicall fayth, doth execrate all heresie, namely that, wherewith he hath lately bene infamed, as holding that the MarginaliaThe effecte of Berengarius recantation. bread and wyne vpon the Altar, after the consecration of the Prieste, remayne onely a Sacrament, and are not the very selfe body and bloud of our Lord Iesu Christ, neyther can be handled or broken with the priestes handes, or chewed with the teeth of the faythfull, otherwise then onely by maner of a Sacrament. Consenting now to the holy and Apostolicall Church of Rome, he professeth wyth mouth and hart, to hold the same faith touching the Sacramentes of the Lordes masse, which the Lord pope Nicolas, with his Synode here present doth holde, and commaundeth to be holden by his Euangelicall and Apostolicall authoritie, that is, that the bread and wyne vpon the Altar, after consecration are not onely a Sacrament, but also are the very true and selfe body and bloud of our Lord Iesu Christ, and are sensibly felt and broken with handes, and chewed with teeth: swearing by the holy Euangelistes, that whosoeuer shall hold or say to the contrary, he shall hold them perpetually accursed, and if he himselfe shall hereafter presume to preach or teach agaynst the same, he shall be content to abyde the seueritie and rigour of the Canons. &c.

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MarginaliaTransubstātiatiō in his triumphe. This cowardly recantation of Berengarius, as it offended a great number of the godly sort: so it gaue to the contrary part no litle triumphe, wherby euer since they haue taken the greater courage to treade downe the truth.

It happened shortly after this, that Hildebrande the Popes graunde Captaine, in the behalfe of hys Master pope Nicolas, went in warfare agaynst the Normandes. Which warre beyng finished, shortly after, he set vpō a new viage to fight for Pope Alexander, agaynst Cadolus: which victory beyng also atchieued, it was not long, but he put the new pope Alexander beside the cushion, and was made pope hymselfe: so that during the busie styrre of these warres, the popes holynes had no laysure to attend the debatyng of thys controuersie of the Sacrament.

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MarginaliaConcilium Romanum. 3. At length, when all was quieted, and Pope Hildebrand now was where he would be, hys restlesse brayne coulde not be vnoccupyed, but eftsoone summoneth a new Councell at Rome in the Church of Laterane, to reuiue agayne the olde disceptation of Berengarius, about the yeare (as some holde) 1079.

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Thus, Berengarius beyng toste by these Monkes and Phariseis, was so confounded, and bayted on euery side, that partly for worldly feare, strayning him on the one side, partly for shame and griefe of conscience, that he had now twise renyed the truth, on the other side, that the man (as is of him reported) after these such turbulent tragedies, forsaking his goods, his studies, learnyng, and former state of life, became a laborer, and wrought with his handes for liuing, all the residue of hys lyfe 

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After his final retraction of his beliefs, Berengar retired to a life of solitude and contemplation on the island of St Cosme, near Tours.

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The opinion which Berengarius susteyned touchyng the Sacrament (as by his owne wordes in Lancfranckes booke may appeare) was this 

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Foxe derived Berengar's opinion, as quoted by Lanfranc, from De veritate corporis et sanguinis Domini nostri Iesu Christi, ed. Johann Vlimmer (Louvain, 1561), fos. 10v-11r.

: MarginaliaThe true opinion and iudgement of Berengarius of the Sacrament. Ex lib. Lancfranci. Archepisc. contra Bereng. The sacrifice of the church consisteth of two thinges: The one visible: the other inuisible, that is, of the Sacrament, and of the thing or matter of the Sacrament. Which thyng (which is to meane, the body of Christ) if it were here present before our eyes, it were a thyng visible and to be sene: but beyng lyfte vp into heauen, and syttyng on the right hand of his father, to the tyme of restoryng of all thing (as S. Peter sayth) it cannot be called downe from thence. For the person of Christ consisteth of God and man: the Sacrament of the lordes table consisteth of bread and wyne, which beyng consecrate are not chaunged, but remayne in their substances, hauyng a certayne resemblance or similitude of those things, wherof they be sacraments, &c. Ex lib. Lancfranci.

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By these wordes of Berengarius doctrine, all indifferent readers may see and iudge, that he affirmed nothyng but that was agreable to the holy scripture, beleuing with S. Austen, & all other auncient elders of the Church, that in the holy supper all faithfull beleuers be refreshed spiritually, with the body and bloud of the Lord, vnto euerlasting lyfe. MarginaliaThe doctrine of Berengarius falsely sclaundered. Wherefore most impudently they doe mysreporte hym (as they doe many other besides) which falsely lay to hys charge, as though his teaching should be, that in þe sacrate supper of the Lord nothing els were receaued of þe faythfull, besides onely þe bare signes, which is the bread & the wyne.

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And now that you haue sene the doctrine of Berengarius, let vs also take a vewe of the contrary teachyng of Lancfrancus and his felowes, conferring and comparyng together the institution of þe one side, with the institution of the other, to marke and consider which of them soundeth nearer to the truth of the scriptures. The wordes of Lanfrancke be these 

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This quotation from Lanfranc comes from De veritate corporis et sanguinis Domini nostri Iesu Christi, ed. Johann Vlimmer (Louvain, 1561), fo.18v.

:

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I beleue the earthlye substances, which vpō the Lords table are diuynlye sanctified, through the ministratiō of the

Priest
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