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1159 [1035]

K. Hen. 8. Allegations against the Vi. Articles. Auricular confession.

And further it foloweth in the same Synode: MarginaliaMaryed Priestes called Nicolaitās. Nicolaitarum quoq; hæresin nihilominus condemnamus, et non modo Præsbyteros, sed et Diaconos et Subdiaconos ab vxorum, vel cōcubinarum fædo consortio, nostris studijs, in quantum nobis possibilitas fuerit, arcēdos esse promittimus. &c.

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And after it followeth in this wise: Si hæc de Simoniaca et Nicolaitarum hæresi delenda et funditus destruenda fideliter non obseruauero, ab omnipotenti Deo, et omnibus Sanctis sim excommunicatus et anathematizatus, et ab omni Christianorum consortio inueniar alienus.

And moreouer it foloweth vpon the same: Anathematizo quoque omnes hæreses extollentes se aduersus sanctam Catholicam et Apostolicam Ecclesiam, specialiter verò et nominatim Simoniacam hæresin: deinde Nicolaitarum æquè abominabilem hæresin, quæ impudenter latrat, sacri altaris Ministros debere vel posse licenter vti coniugibus, quomodo et laicos. &c. MarginaliaIbidem. As muche to saye in Englishe, as, MarginaliaThe Sinode of Millane agaynst priestes mariage.
¶ 1067 

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The synod of Milan was actually held in 1059, not 1067.

. ¶ I doo accurse all heresies, extollyng them selues agaynste the holy Catholique and Apostolique church, but especially and namely, the heresie of Simonie: and in like manner, the abominable heresie of the Nicolaitanes, whiche impudently barketh, that the Ministers of the holy aultar may and ought to vse wyues lawfully, as well as laye men. &c. And thus much concerning the Synode of Millaine, vnder Pope Alexander 2. an. 1067.

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MarginaliaPope Hildebrand the greatest enemye to priestes mariage. Nexte  

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This material on Gregory VII, down through and including the quotation from Ralph Diceto, is from John Bale, Scriptorum Illustrium maioris Brytanniae Catalogus (Basel, 1557), p. 167.

after this Alexander, rose vp Pope Hildebrande, of al other, the chiefest and most principall enemie agaynst Priestes Marriage. For whereas all other approued Canons and Councelles were contented, that any Clergie man hauing a wife before his entryng into his ministerie, myght enioye the libertie of his marriage, so that he marryed not a wydowe, or a knowen harlotte, or kept a Concubine, or were twise marryed, nowe commeth in Pope Hildebrande, makyng Priestes Marriage to be heresie, and further enactyng: That what so euer Clerke, Deacon, or Mynister had any wyfe, what so euer shee was (mayde or other) eyther before his orders, or after, shoulde vtterly put her from hym, or elles forsake his Ministerie. &c.

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Although notwithstandyng the greatest parte of Ecclesiasticall Ministers seeyng this straunge doctrine and proceedinges (whiche Saint Paule expressely calleth the doctrine of Deuylles) Marginalia2 Tim. 4. dyd what they coulde to withstande the same. Of whom Lambertus Schafnaburgensis thus writeth: Aduersus hoc Decretum protinus vehementer infremuit tota factio Clericorum, hominem planè hæreticum et vesani dogmatis esse clamitans, qui oblicus sermonis Domini, quo ait: Non omnes capiunt hoc verbum: Qui potest capere capiat. &c. Et Apostoli: Qui se non continet, nubat: Melius est nubere, quam vri, Violenta exactione homines viuere cogeret ritu Angelorum. Quod si pergeret, malle se sacerdotium, quam coniugium deserere. &c. MarginaliaEx Lamberto Schafnaburgensi. In Englishe thus: Agaynste this Decree, the whole number of the Clergie dyd vehemently storme and grudge, crying out vppon hym, as a pernicious heretique, and one that maynteyned phantasticall doctrine: who forgettyng what the Lorde sayth: All men can not take this woorde: He that can take it, let hym take it. MarginaliaMath, 19. And also what the Apostle sayth: Who so can not otherwise conteyne, let hym marrye: better it is to marrye, then to burne. &c. Yet notwithstandyng would bynde men to lyue lyke Aungelles. Who if he continued as he beganne, they woulde (they sayde) sooner forsake the order of Priesthoode, then theyr order of Matrimonie, &c. MarginaliaThe Councell of Rome agaynst priestes mariage vnder Pope Hildebrand.
¶ 1074. ¶
Which Hildebrande, all this notwithstandyng, yet ceased not styll to call vpon them, and to sende to the Bishops euery where to execute his commaundement with all seueritie, threatnyng to laye the Apostolicall censure vppon thē, if otherwise they shewed not their diligence there in to the vttermoste. Ex Lamb. This was, an. 1074. Of the same Hildebrande, Radulphus de Diceto also writing hath these woordes:

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Gregorius Papa septimus Hildebrandus, celebrata Synodo, Symoniacos anathematizauit, vxoratos sacerdotes a Diuino remouit officio, et Laicis Missam eorum audire interdixit, nouo exemplo, et (vt multis visum est) inconsiderato præiudicio, contra sanctorum patrum sententiam. &c. MarginaliaEx Radulpho de Diceto. The Englishe is this. Pope Gregorie the seuenth called Hildebrande holdyng a Synode, accursed, suche as commytted Symonie, and remoued marryed Priestes from saying seruice, forbyddyng also the laye men to heare their Masse, after a newe and straunge example, and as manye thought, after an vnconsiderate preiudice, agaynst the sentence of holy fathers.

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And thus muche for the antiquitie of bryngyng in the single lyfe of priestes, whiche first springyng from the tyme of Pope Nicolas and Alexander. 2. began first with a custōe, & afterward was brought into a law, chiefly by Pope Hildebrand, and so spread from Italie into other coūtreys, and at length into England also, albeit not without muche adoo, as ye shall heare, the Lord willyng.

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In the meane while 

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This account of Lanfranc's council at Winchester is taken from Epistolae duae D. Voulusiani…(London, 1559), pp. 101-102.

as Pope Nicolas and Hildebrand were busie at Rome, so Lanfrancke Archb. of Cāterbury likewise was doing here in Englande about the same matter, although he beganne not altogether so roughly as pope Hildebrand dyd, for so it appeared by his Councell holden at Winchester: MarginaliaLanfranckes lawe for priestes not to marye. Where though he inhibited suche as were Prebendaries of Cathedrall Churches to haue wyues, yet dyd he permytte in his Decree, that suche Priestes as dwelt in townes and villages, hauyng wyues, shoulde retaine them still, and not to be compelled to be separate from them: and they which had none, should be inhibited to haue: enioynyng moreouer the Bishoppes thus, to foresee hereafter, that they presumed not to admit into order, any priests or Deacons, vnles they shoulde first make a solemne profession to haue no wyues.

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The woordes of the Councell be these: Decretumque est, vt nullus Canonicus vxorem habeat, sacerdotum vero in castellis et in vicis habitantium habentes vxores, non cogantur vt dimittant, non habentes interdicantur vt habeant: et deinceps caueant Episcopi, vt Sacerdotes vel Diaconi non præsumant ordinare nisi profiteantur vt vxores non habeant. &c. Marginalia[illegible text]

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And here to note by the way of the sayd Lanfranke, for all his glorious gaye shew of his monkishe virginitie and single lyfe, yet he escaped not altogether so vnspotted for his part but that the Storie of Mathewe Paris writyng of Paulus Cadonensis, whom Lanfranke preferred so gladly to be Abbot of S. Albans, thus reporteth of hym 

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Matthew Paris, Gesta abbatum monasteri Sancti Albani, ed. H. T. Riley, 3 vols., Rolls Series 28 (1867-9), I, p. 49.

: Paulus (inquit) Monachus Cadonensis Archiepiscopi Lanfranci nepos, iure, aliquorum relationibus, consanguinitate propinquior. &c. Marginalia[illegible text] That is, MarginaliaLanfrancke supposed not to be a pure virgine. Paul a Monke of Cadune, and nephewe of the Archbishop Lanfranke, yea and as some saye further, more neare in bloud to hym then so. &c.

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MarginaliaAnselme Archb. of Canterburie and constant doer agaynst priestes mariage. Then after Lanfranke, came Anselme into the See of Canterburye, who takyng to hym a stouter stomacke, more fiercely and egerly laboured this matter, in abrogatyng vtterly the Marriage of Priestes, Deacons, Subdeacōs, and of the vniuersal Clergie, not permittyng, as Lanfrāke dyd, Priestes that had wyues, in villages and townes, to keepe them styll, but vtterly commaunding, and that vnder great paine, not only Priests and Deacons, but Subdeacons also (which is against the Councell of Laterane) MarginaliaConcil. Lateran. Can. 14. De Clericis matrimonio copulatis. which were already maryed, to be separated, and that none should be receyued into order hereafter, without profession of perpetuall chastitie.

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And yet notwithstandyng, for all this great blustering and thundering of this Romishe xxx, the Priestes yet styll holdyng their owne, as well as they coulde, gaue not muche place to his vnlawfull Iniunction, but kept styll their wyues almost two hundred yeares after, refusing and resisting of long tyme, the yoke of that seruile bondage, to keepe styl their freedome from such vowing, professing, and promising: as may ewell appeare by those Priestes of Yorke, of whom Gerardus Archbishop of Yorke speaketh, writyng to Anselme in these woordes 

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Gerard's letter is printed in Epistolae duae D. Volusiani…(London, 1559), pp. 103-6. This quotation is formed from separate sentences being pieced together. Moreover the sentences are not always rendered accurately.

: Sitio Clericorum meorum integritatem, sed præterquam in paucis admodum, vt Aspidis surditatem, vel fabulosi cuiusdam Prothei mutabilitatem inuenio. Varijs linguarum aculeis, minas, modò conuitia infligunt. Sed hoc facilius in his qui remotiores sunt, tolero. Illud omninò graue genus mali est, quod hi qui quasi in sinu meo sunt, qui Canonicorum nomine gaudent canones aspernāt, aduersus cōcilij nostri statuta, quasi Sophistici disputatores argumētantur: professiones vero mihi penitus abnegant Canonici illi, qui sine professione ad sacros ordines inordinabiliter sunt prouecti, and qui in præsbyteratu vel Diaconatu constituti, vxores siue Concubinas in publico hactenus habuerunt, ab Altari nulla se reuerentia continuerunt. Cùm verò ad ordines aliquos inuito, dura ceruice nituntur, ne in ordinando castitatem profiteantur. In Englishe thus. I muche desire the puritie of my clergye men. Howbeit, except it be in very fewe, I finde in thē the deafenes of the serpēt aspis, & the incōstācie of Protheus that the Poetes fable speake of. With their stinging tonges they caste out some whyle threates, some whyle tauntes and rebukes. But this greeueth me lesse in them that be further of. This greeueth me most of all, that they whiche be of myne owne Churche, as in myne owne bosome, and Prebendaryes of myne owne See, contemne our Canons, and argue lyke Sophisticall disputers, againste the statutes of our Councel. The Prebendaryes whiche vnordinatly haue bene taken into orders heretofore without makyng vowe or profession, MarginaliaHereby appeareth that priestes in the olde time here in England neuer made vow of chastitie at their orders, before thys tyme. refuse vtterly to make any profession to me. And they that be priestes or Deacons, hauyng maryed before openly wiues or Concubines, wyll not be remoued for any reuerence from the Aultare. And when I cal vpon any to receyue order, styffely they deny to professe chastitie in theyr orderyng. &c.

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Thu
III.ii.
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