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1162 [1161]

K. Hen. 8. Olde Euidences declaring the auncientnes of Priestes Mariage.

bus, masculorum concubitonibus et omni denique genere immundorum? Marginalia[illegible text] That is, Take from the Churche honourable mariage & the bed vndefiled, shalt thou not replenishe it with Concubinaries, with incestuous persons. Sodomiticall vices, and finally with al kynde of beastly fylthynes?

The truth of whiche saying, lacketh no kynde of examples for confirmation, if we lysted here to ransacke the liues of these glorious despisers of matrimonie, euen from Lanfranke the first ryngleader of this daunce here in England, with Marginalia*[illegible text] * Paulus Monke of Cadone his nephewe, whom Matthewe Paris misdoubted to be his own sonne, vnto Steuen Gardiner with his goldylockes, the authour and workemaister of these sixe articles 

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Accusations that Stephen Gardiner, an articulate and outspoken defender of clerical celibacy, committed fornication and adultery were part of the polemical stock in trade of Protestant writers. For a sample of these, see John Bale Scriptorum Illustrium maioris Brytanniae Catalogus (Basel, 1557)), p. 730.

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. But to the reasons of Anselme hytherto sufficient: whiche of them selues be so friuolous and grosse, that onely to recite them, is enough to confute the same.

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Permittyng therefore the rest to the discussion of Diuines, it shal suffise for our purpose professing here to write Storyes, to declare and make manifest by MarginaliaNo publike law in England agaynst priestes mariage before [illegible text] processe of times and histories, that this cruel lawe compellyng ministers of the Church to abiure matrimonie entred not into this land before Lanfranke, and Anselme his successor, as both may appeare by the multitude of priestes sonnes lawfully begotten in matrimonie, and succeedyng in the Churches here of Englande, testified by the Epistle of Pope Paschalis to Anselme, before, pag. 197. and also may appeare likewise by the Councel of Anselme holden at Winchester, which partly was touched before, MarginaliaRead afore pag. [illegible text] 

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See 1570, p. 257; 1576, pp. 201-2 and 1583, p. 200.

and nowe the ful acte we haue more largely expressed to be read and seene of al posteritie, as vnder foloweth.

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The acte agaynst Priestes marryage concluded in the Councel at Winchester, vnder Anselme. an. 1104. 
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The council was held in 1108, not 1104.

MarginaliaActes concluded at the Councell in Winchester. HÆc sunt statuta de Archidiaconibus, Præsbyteris, & Canonicis in quocunque gradu constitutis, quæ Wintoniæ statuerunt Anselmus Archiepiscopus Cantuariensis & cum eo Girardus Archiepiscopus Eboracensis, & omnes alij Angliæ Episcopi, in præsentia gloriosi Regis Henrici, assensu omnium Baronum suorum. Statutum est vt Præsbyteri, & Diaconi caste viuant & fœminas in domibus suis non habeant præter proxima consanguinitate sibi iunctas, secundum hoc quod sancta Nicena Synodus definiuit. Illi verò presbyteri, diaconi siue subdiaconi qui post interdictum Londonēsis Concilij, fœminas suas tenuerint vel alias duxerint, si elegerint in sacris ordinibus remanere, iurent quòd cū eis carnale cōmertiū non habebūt amplius. Statutū est etiam vt prædictæ fœminæ in domo cū eis scienter non conueniant, neq; huiusmodi fœminæ in territorio Ecclesiæ habitent. Si autē propter aliquā honestā causam eos colloqui oporteat, cum duobus ad minus legitimis testibus extra domū colloquātur. Si verò in duobus aut tribus legitimis testibus vel publica parochinorū fama, aliquis eorum accusatus fuerit, quod hoc statutū transierit, purgabit se adiunctis secū ordinis sui idoneis testibus, sex si presbyter, quinq̀ si diaconus, quatuor si subdiaconus fuerit. Cui autem hæc purgatio defecerit vt transgressor sacri statuti iudicabitur. Illi vero præsbyteri qui diuini altaris & sacrorū ordinum cōtemptores præelegerint cū vxoribus suis habitare, à diuino officio remoti, extra Marginalia[illegible text] * hortum ponantur, infames pronunciati. Eadem sententia Archidiaconos et Canonicos omnes complectitur & de abiurandis vxoribus, et de vitanda earū conuersatione, & de districtione censuræ si statuta trāsgressi fuerint. Iurabūt et Archdiaconi omnes quòd pecuniānon accipient pro tolleranda transgressione huius statuti. Sed neq; vllo modo tolerabūt præsbyteros vxoratos cantare, vel vicarios habere, & quòd ipsi non dissimulabunt per Archidiaconos suos hoc inquirere, & fideliter episcopis suis renunciabūt, & attentè & fideliter de exequenda huius rei vindicta Episcopos suos adiuuabunt. Qui vero Archidiaconus vel Diaconus hoc iurare noluerit, Archidiaconatum vel Diaconiam irreperabiliter perdet. Præsbyteri verò qui relictis vxoribus Deo et sacris ordinibus seruire elegerunt, quadraginta dies ab officio cessantes, pro se vicarios habebunt, iniuncta eis pœnitentia secundum quod Episcopis eorum visum fuerit.

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MarginaliaThe cruell lawe of Anselme toke no great place. And yet this vnreasonable statute of Anselme, so diligently defenced with sharpe censures and penalties, had no great speede, neyther in the lyfe tyme of the saide Anselme, nor long after his death, but that diuers priestes notwithstandyng kept styl their wyues, or that after his death, they returned to their wyues againe, through the sufferance of the famous & learned kyng named then Henry Bewclark 

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Henry I of England was nicknamed 'Beauclerc'.

, who somethyng stayed the oportunitie of this Monkishe prelate, and wylled that priestes should kepe both their wiues and their Churches, as they did before in Lanfrankes MarginaliaEx epist. Ansel. 77. dayes. 
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See 1570, p. 257; 1576, p. 197 and 1583, p. 195.

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MarginaliaRadulphus Archiepisc. Cā Then after Anselme, folowed Radulphus Archbishop of Canterbury, in whose tyme was no great sturre against the Priestes that were marryed. About the tyme of this Archbishop, kyng Henry called a Conncsaile at London, where he obtayned of the spiritualtie a graunt to haue the punishment of maryed Priestes (which the spiritualtie afterward did much repēt) wherby þe priestes paying a certaine to the king, were suffered to retaine their wyues styl, MarginaliaRead afore pag. 200. as is aboue storied, pag. 200 

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See 1570, p. 256, 1576, p. 203 and 1583, p. 199.

.

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MarginaliaRichardus de Turbine Arch. Cant. Nexte after this Radulphe, then succeeded William Turbile, surnamed De Turbine, who renued againe the constitution of Anselme, agaynst maried priestes, especially by the helpe of Ioannes Priest and Cardinall of Crema the Popes Legate, MarginaliaOf this Cardinall Cremensis read before pag. 200. col 2. sent the same tyme into Englande. ann. 1129. Of which Cardinall Cremensis, because enough hath ben before declared, how after his stoute replying in þe Coūcell of Londō, against the maryed state of priestes, exclaming what a shamefull thing it was, to rise from the sides of an whoore to make Christes body, the night folowing was shamefully taken with a notable whore. &c. as is apparant before, pag. 200 

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See 1570, p. 256, 1576, p. 201 and 1583, p. 199.

.

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I wyll therefore passe ouer that matter, returnyng againe to William the Archbishop who with the Cardinall Legate aforesayde, although he busily occupyed hym selfe in repriuyng þe matrimonie of priestes: in so muche, that he woulde geue them no longer respite to put away their wyues but from Michaelmas to Saint Andrewes daye folowyng, yet could he not bryng his purpose to passe, but that the priestes styl continued with their wyues by the kyngs leaue, as the Saxon storie plainly recordeth in these words: Marginalia[illegible text] Þis bebed se Arcebiscop william of Canterbriges . and ealle þa leod Biscopes ða ða wæron on Engelonde . and ne forstod noht ealle ða bodlaces . eall heoldon her wifes be ðæs Kinges leue . swa swa hi ear didon ; that is to say in eng. MarginaliaThe priestes kept their wyues contrarie to the Archbishops commaundement. This Wil. the Archb. of Caunterbury & the Bishops which wer in Englād did cōmaūd, & yet al these decres & biddings stood not: all hold theyr wyues by the kyngs leaue, euen so as they before dyd. &c. So hard was thys cause to be won, that the Archb. at length gaue it ouer, & leaft the cūtrouersie wholy vnto the kyng. Marginalia¶ An. 25. Henr. Whereupon he decreed that þe priestes should remaine with their wyues styl 

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Technically Henry I, in 1129, upheld the prohibition against clerical wives and declared that married priests were to be deprived of their livings by 30 Nov. 1129. But, in practice, were allowed to keep both wives and livings upon payment of a fine to the Exchequer.

. And so continued they after that, in the tyme of Theobaldus after him, of Tho. Becket, Rich. Baldwyne, Steuē Longton, Rich. Edmunde, Boniface, Peccham, and other, during welnere the tyme after Anselme. 200. yeares.

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And least the quarrellyng aduersarye being peraduenture disposed here to cauyll, should obiecte and saye, that suche marryage among the Spirituall men might be priuate and secrete, but not openly knowen, nor quietly suffered by any lawe of this Realme: to auoyde therefore what maye be by them obiected, I thought it good, and as a thyng neyther impertinent nor vnprofitable to this storye, and for the further satisfying of the Readers mynde herein, MarginaliaPriestes with their wyues how long they cōtinued in Englād after Anselme. to inferre and make knowen by good recorde, not onely that the libertie of marriage amongest spirituall men, hath continued within this Realme duryng the tyme aforesayde (videlicet) two hundred yeares or theraboutes, after Anselme, and that not in secrete wise, but also openly, and being knowen, the same too be suffered and lawfully allowed of, in such sorte, as both they, their wyues, children, and assignes myght inherite and enioye landes, tenementes, and other hereditamentes, by way of feoffament, deede of gyfte, or any other assuraunce, in suche sorte, manner, and fourme, as laye men, their heyres and assignes at this daye lawfully may doo. As by diuers writynges and instrumentes shewed vnto vs at the writyng hereof, by diuers men (whose names hereafter folow) some to this daye remaynyng fayre sealed, some by antiquitie and long kepyng, much worne, and their seales moulderd and wasted, is very euident and manifest to be seene. The copies whereof beyng by vs truely and faythfully excerpted out of the very originalles (beyng yet extant) we haue here vnder inserted 

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Here Foxe is reprinting 18 charters to demonstrate that there were married priests as late as the early fourteenth century. Foxe acquired 11 of these charters from a student at the Inner Temple named John Ford (who may not only have provided Foxe with the eleven charters, but he may also have provided the knowledge of English law displayed at points in this 'allegation'), while seven of came from John Hunt of Little Bradley, Suffolk (lord of the manor of Little Bradley Suffolk). Hunt was John Day's brother-in-law, the latter of whom was the printer of the Acts and Monuments.

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, as foloweth.

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¶ Certayne instrumentes and euidences of auncient recorde, declaryng the marryage of priestes to haue stande in tymes paste, both with auncient custome, and publique Lawes of this Realme.

MarginaliaCarta feoffament Williel de Blunwille milit. fact. Stephan de Saxlinghā Clerico & Matildæ vxori suæ, de terris in Newton in Com Nortf. S Ciant præsentes et futuri quod ego Williel. de Blundeuille miles, concessi, dedi, & hac præsenti charta mea confirmaui Stephano de Saxlingham Clerico, et Matildæ vxori suæ pro homagijs & seruitijs suis, et pro sex marcis argēti quas mihi

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