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1175 [1174]

K. Henry. 8. Lorde Cromwell. Boston Pardons.
MarginaliaThe Lorde Russell commendeth Cromwell to the kyng.

to take vpon hym the defence of Thomas Cromwel, vtteryng before the kyng many commendable words in the behalfe of hym, and declaryng withall how by his singular deuice and policie, he had done for hym at Bononie, beyng there in the kynges affayres, in extreme peryl. And for as much as nowe his maiestie had to do with the Pope, his great enemie, there was (he thought) in all England, none so apt for the kynges purpose, which coulde say or do more in that matter then coulde Thomas Cromwel, and partly gaue the kyng to vnderstand wherein. The king hearing this, and specially marking the latter end of his talke, was contented and willyng to talke with hym, to heare & know what he could say.

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This was not so priuily done, but Crōwel had knowledge incontinent, that the king would talke with him, and whereuppon: and therefore prouidyng before hande for the matter, had in readynes the copie of the Bishoppes othe, which they vse commonly to make to the Pope at their cōsecration, MarginaliaCromwell brought to talke with the kyng. and so being called for, was brought to the king in hys garden at Westminster, which was about the yeare of our Lord. 1530.

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MarginaliaCromwels words to the king, concerning the premunire of the Clergie. Cromwel after most loyall obeysaunce 

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It is extremely unlikely that Cromwell unveiled this master plan in his first interview with the King. Cromwell's first services for Henry were in dealing with the lands that Wolsey had confiscated from monastic houses for his colleges and Cromwell may well have advised Henry regarding those.

, doing his duetie to the king, according as he was demaunded, made his declaration in all pointes, this especially making manifeste vnto his highnes, howe his princely authoritie was abused within his owne Realme, by the Pope and his Clergie, who beyng sworne vnto hym, were afterwarde dispensed from the same, and sworne anewe vnto the Pope, so that he was but as halfe kyng, & they but halfe his subiectes in his owne land: which (sayd he) was derogatorie to his crown, and vtterly preiudiciall to the common lawes of his realme: Declaryng therupon howe his maiestie might accumulate to hym selfe great riches, so muche as all the Clergie in his Realme was worth, if it so pleased hym to take the occasion nowe offered. The kyng geuyng good eare to this, and liking right wel his aduice, required, if he could auouch that which he spake. All this he could (he said) auouche to be certaine, so wel, as that he had the copie of their owne othe to the Pope, there present to shewe, and that no lesse also he coulde manifestly proue, if his highnes would geue hym leaue: and therewith shewed the Bishoppes othe vnto the kyng.

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MarginaliaCromwell sent by the king to the conuocation house. The kyng folowing the veyne of his counsayle, tooke his ryng of his finger, and firste admittyng hym into his seruice, sent hym therwith to the Cōnuocation house among the Bishops. Cromwel commyng with the kynges signet boldlye into the Clergie house, and there placyng hym selfe among the Bishops (W. Warrham being then Archbishop) began to make his Oration, declaryng to them the authoritie of a kyng, and the office of subiectes, and especially the obedience of Bishops and Churchmen vnder publique Lawes, necessaryly prouided for the profite and quiet of the common wealth. Which lawes notwithstandyng they had al trāsgressed, and highly offended in derogation of the kynges royall estate, fallyng in the Lawe of Premunire, in that not onely they had consented to the power Legatiue of the Cardinal, but also in that they had al sworne to the Pope, contrarye to the fealtie of their soueraigne Lord the king, and therfore had forfeyted to the king all their goodes, catteles, landes, possessions, and what soeuer lyuinges they had. The Bishops hearing this, were not a litle amased, and first began to excuse and denye the fact. But after that Cromwel had shewed them the very copie of their othe made to the Pope at their consecration, MarginaliaFor the copie of the Byshops othe to the pope, read before pag. 1025. and the matter was so plaine, that they could not denye it, they began to shrinke, and to fal to entreatie, desiring respite to pause vpon the matter. MarginaliaThe Clergie condemned in the Premunire. Notwithstanding the end therof so fel out, that to be quitte of that Premunire, by Acte of Parlament, it cost thē to the kyng for both þe prouinces, Caunterbury and Yorke, no lesse then. 118840. poundes, which was about the yeare of our Lord. 1530. wherof before you may reade more at large 

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See 1570, p. 1125; 1576, p. 1027 and 1583, p. 1056.

pag. 1025.

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MarginaliaSyr Tho. Cromwell made knight and M. of the kinges Iewel house. After this an. 1522. Syr Thomas Cromwel growyng in great fauour with the kyng, was made knight & maister of the kynges Iewel house 

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Cromwell was, in fact, made master of the jewels on 14 April 1532.

, and shortly after was admitted also into the kyngs Counsaile, which was about the commyng in of Queene Anne Bullen. MarginaliaCromwell made M. of the Rolles. Furthermore within two yeares after the same, an. 1524. he was made maister of the Rolles, Doct. Taylor being discharged.

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MarginaliaCromwell made knight of the Garter. Thus Cromwel springyng vp in fauour and honour, after this, in the yeare. 1527. a litle before the byrth of kyng Edward, was made knight of the Garter, MarginaliaL. Cromwell made Earle of Essex, great Chamberlaine of England, and Vicegerent to the kyng. and not long after 

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Cromwell was not made earl of Essex and lord great chamberlain until 18 April 1540.

, was aduaunced to the Earledome of Essex, and made great Chamberlaine of Englande. Ouer and besides all which honours, he was constitute also Vicegerent to the kyng, representyng his person. Whiche office although it standeth wel by the Law, yet seldome hath there bene seene any besides this Cromwel alone, eyther to haue susteyned it, or els to haue so furnished the same with counsayle and wisedome, as Cromwell dyd. And thus much hytherto concernyng the steppes and degrees of the Lord Cromwels rising vp to dignitie, and high estate.

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Now somewhat would be sayd likewise of the noble Actes, the memorable examples, and woorthy vertues not drowned by ease of honour in him, but encreased rather and quickened by aduauncement of authoritie & place, to worke more abundantly in the common wealth. MarginaliaThe actes and doinges of the L. Cromwell described. Among þe which his worthy actes and other manyfolde vertues, in this one chiefely aboue al othe ryseth his commendation, for his singular zeale and laborious trauaile bestowed in restoryng the true Church of Christ, and subuertyng the Synagogue of Antichrist, the Abbeys I meane, and religious houses of Fryers and Monkes. For so it pleased almighty God, by the meanes of the said lorde Cromwel, to induce the kyng, to suppresse first the Chauntreys, then the Fryers houses, and smal Monasteries, tyl at length all the Abbeys in Englād both great and lesse, were vtterly ouerthrowen and pluckt vp by the rootes. The which acte and enterprise of hym, as it may geue a president of singular zeale to all Realmes christened, which no Prince yet to this day scarse dare folow: so to this realme of England it wrought such benefit and commoditie, as the fruite therof yet remaineth, and wyl remaine still in the Realme of England, though we seeme litle to feele it. Rudely & simply I speake what I suppose, without preiudice of other which can inferre any better reason. MarginaliaThe L. Cromwell a profitable instrument in suppressing Abbayes. In the meane tyme my reason is this: that if God had not raysed vp this Cromwell as he dyd, to be the instrument of rootyng out these Abbeys and Celles of straunge religion, what other men see, I knowe not: for my part I neuer yet saw in this Realme any such Cromwel since Cromwels tyme, whose hart and courage might not sooner haue bene subuerted with the money and brybes of Abbots, then he to haue subuerted any Abbey in all England.

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MarginaliaThe defence of the L. Cromwell for ouerthrowing the Abbayes. But here I must of necessitie answeare the complaynt of certayne of our countrey men. For so I heare of many, the subuersion of these Monasteries to be reprehended, as euyl and wicked. The buildyng (say they) might haue bene conuerted vnto schooles and houses of learnyng. The goodes and possessions might haue bene bestowed to much better and more godly vse of the poore and maynteynyng of hospitalitie. Neyther doo I denye, but that these thynges are wel and godly spoken of them, and could wyllyngly embrace their opinion with my whole hart, if I dyd not consider herein a more secrete and deeper meanyng of Gods holy prouidence, then at þe first blush perauenture to all men doth appeare.

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MarginaliaThe abhominable lyfe in Monasteries, bewrayed by their owne confession. And first to omyt the wicked and execrable lyfe of these religious orders, full of all feditie, & found out by the kynges visitours and in their Registers also recorded, so horrible to be heard, so incredible to be beleued, so stinking before the face of God and man, that no marueyle it is if Gods vengeance from heauen prouoked, woulde not suffer any stone or monument of these abominable houses to be vnplucked vp. But (as I sayde) lettyng these thynges passe vnder chaste silence, which for very shame wyll abhorre any storie to disclose: let vs nowe come to the first institution of these orders and houses of Monkerye, and consider howe and to what ende they were firste instituted and erected here among the Saxons, at the first foundation of them, about the tyme. 666.

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In the former parte of this Historie, MarginaliaRead afore pag. 134. 135.
The first beginning of religious houses in the tyme of the Saxons.
declaration was made before, pag. 134. 135. firste by whom and at what tyme these Monkishe houses here in England among the Saxons (flowyng no doubt out of the order of S. Benet, and brought in by Augustine) beganne first to be foūded 

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See 1570, pp. 177-8; 1576, pp. 134-5 and 1583, pp. 132-4.

, as by Augustine the Monke, Furseus, Medulphus, Aidanus, Ceadda, kyng Vlferus, Oswius, Elfreda, K. Oswys daughter, Kineburga, Hilda, Botulphus, Edeldreda, kyng Oswald, Edgar, Erkenewaldus Bishop Ethelwoldus Bishop of Winchester, Osketellus Archbishop of Yorke, Oswaldus Bishop of Worcester, Leswinus bish. of Dorcest. Dunstane, and diuers other,

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MarginaliaThe ende and cause of building religious houses. The end and final cause why they were builded appeareth in stories to be, pro remissione et redemptione peccatorum: pro remedio and liberatione animæ: pro amore cœlestis patriæ: in eleemosinam animæ: in remissionem criminū: pro salute Regnorum: pro salute et requie animarum patrū et matrū, fratrū et sororū nostrarum parentū, & omnium benefactorum: in honorem gloriosæ Virginis. &c As may appeare in auncient histories, in old Charters and donations vnto religious houses, & in the Chronicle of Ingulphus, as also al other storyes be full of the same.

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So king Ethelstane for kyllyng his brother Edwine, buylded two Monasteries, Midleton and Michelneye, for his soule 

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See 1570, p. 197; 1576, p. 150 and 1583, pp. 148-9.

, pag. 153. Which doctrine and institution, for so

much
KKK.iiij.
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