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1176 [1175]

K. Hen. 8. Lorde Cromwell. Abbayes suppreßed.
MarginaliaThe damnable doctrine and institutiono of religious sectes and orders.

much as it tendeth and soundeth directly agaynst the foundation of Christian religion, against the Testament of god, the Gospel of Iesus Christ, the freedome of our redemption, and free iustification by fayth, it is therfore to be condēned as execrable and horrible as euyl or worse then the lyfe of the persons, and not onely worthy to be suppressed to the foundation, but to be marueled rather that God would suffer it to stand so longe. Albeit Gods mighty vengeance and scourge hath not ceased frō tyme to tyme, to worke against such impious foundations from the tyme of their first settyng vp 

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Foxe's list of the destruction of the abbeys in basically accurate, except where noted, but it is a little counter-intuitive. Foxe is listing some of the wealthiest abbeys in England, and even if they did sustain damage over the course of the centuries (in many cases, the result of the Danish invasions), they flourished.

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. MarginaliaGods continuall plague agaynst Monasteryes. For besides the inuasions of the Danes (whiche may seme to be styrred vp of God, especially for the subuersion of Abbeys) let olde histories be searched, what Monasterie almoste in all this Realme, was eyther leafte by the Danes, or reedified againe after the Danes, but by some notorious casualtie of fire sent by Gods hand, it hath bene burnt vp.

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Fyrst, the Monasterie of Canterbury called the house
of S. Gregory 
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The reference is to St. Gregory's Priory in Canterbury. This was burned in 1145 and 1241, not 1174.

, was burnt an. 1145. and afterwarde
againe burnt, an. 1145. Ex hist. Geruasij. MarginaliaEx Chronicis. Geruasij.
The Abbey of Croylād also was twise burnt. Ex hist.
Ingulphi.
Marginalia[illegible text]
The Abbey of Peterborow twise set on fire, an.1070.
Ex Chron. Peterb. Marginalia[illegible text]
The Abbey of S. Maries in Yorke burnt, with the
hospital also. Marginalia[illegible text]
The Abbey of Norwich burnt. Marginalia[illegible text]
The Abbey of S. Edmunds Bury burnt and destroy-
ed. Ex Chron. S. Edmund.
The Abbey of Worcester burnt. Marginalia[illegible text]
The Abbey of Glocester was also burnt.[illegible text]
The Abbey of Chichester burnt.
The Abbey of Glastenbury burnt.
The Abbey of S. Mary in Southwarke burnt.
The Church of the Abbey of Beuerlay burnt.
The steeple of the Abbay of Euesham burnt.

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MarginaliaAbbayes burnt and plaged with fire. These, with many other monasteries mo, god brought downe to þe ground, so that fewe or none of all the Monastical foundations in all England, either before the Conquest escaped the handes of the Danes and Scottes, or els after the Conquest escaped destructiō of fire, MarginaliaThe doctrine of the Monkes worse then their lyues. and that not without iust cause deserued: for as the trade of their lyues was too too wretched and bestiall, so the profession of their doctrine was intollerable, fraught with al superstition, full of much Idolatrie, & vtterly contrary to the grace of the Gospel and doctrine of Christ.

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Furthermore, the more these Abbeyes multiplyed, and the longer they continued in tyme the more corruption styll they drewe vnto them. And albeit we reade the name of Monkes to haue continued from olde auncient tyme, yet notwithstanding the Monkes of those dayes were not like to the Monkes of our tyme, nor their houses then, like to our Abbayes nowe. So we reade of the Monkes of Bangor before the commyng of Augustine: but those monkes got their liuyng with toyle and labour of their handes, and had no other landes nor lordshippes to liue vpon. Againe, neither were they as ministers then, but as laye men: according as Hierome describeth the monkes of his time, saying: Monachus non docentis, sed plangentis habet officium. Marginalia16. q. 1. Monachus. And againe he saith: Alia causa est Monachi, alia Clerici. Clerici oues pascunt. Ego pascor. Marginalia[illegible text] That is: A Monkes office is not to preach, but to mourne. The state of a Monke is one thyng, and the state of a priest is an other. Priests feede the flocke of Christ. I am fedde. &c. Also in the storie of Ingulphus Abbot of Croylande, thus I finde, An. 1075. In Croylandiam primum installatus inueni tunc in isto Monasterio Croylandensi Monachos numero, 62. Quorum quatuor laici fratres erant, præter aliorum Monasteriorum Monachos nostri capituli conprefessos, &c. Marginalia[illegible text] That is, Being installed in the Abbay of Croylande, I founde there to the number of lxij. Monkes. MarginaliaLaye men receaued for Monkes into Monasteries. Of whiche Monkes, foure of them were laye brethren, besides the Monkes of other Monasteries, whiche were also professed to our Chapter. &c.

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MarginaliaMonkes forbidden to intermedle in ecclesiasticall matters. The like matter also appeareth in the fourth Canon of the Councel of Chalcedon, where it is prouided, Ne Monachi se Ecclesiasticis negotijs immisceant. &c. Et Leo Epist. 62. Vetat Monachos and laicos etsi scientiæ nomine glorientur, admitti ad officium docendi and concionanci. Wherof reade more 

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See 1570, p. 1202, 1576, p. 155 and 1583, p. 153.

pag. 155. col. 2.

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Thus it appeareth about or before the time of Hierome, that Monkes in the firste persecutions of the Primitiue Church were lay men, and companies of Christians associatyng them selues together, either for feare of persecution, or for eschewing the companye of heathen Gentles. Afterward in continuaunce of tyme, when the Gentles began to be called to Christianitie, MarginaliaMonkes diuers [illegible text] of lyfe. the monkes yet keepyng their names, and growing in superstition, woulde not ioyne with other Christians, but keepe styll their brotherhoodes, diuidyng them selues from other Christians, and professing a kinde of lyfe straunge and diuers from the common trade. MarginaliaMonkes diuers from other in apparell. Vpon this diuersitie of lyfe and profession, folowed also like diuersitie of garmentes and attyre differyng from their other brethren. After this moreouer came in the rule of S. Benedict, enioynyng to them a prescribed fourme of going, of wearing, of watching, sleeping, rising, praying, of silence, sole life and diet, and all thinges almost differing from the vulgar sort of common Christians.

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Whereby men seeing their austeritie, beganne to haue them in great admiration. MarginaliaMonkes of lay men, made Clergye men. And thus growyng vp in opinion of holynes, of lay men and laborers they came at length to be Clergie men, and greatest doers of all other in Christes religion: In so muche that at last there was none reputed almost for a religious man or perfect christiā, vnlesse he were a monke: neyther almost was any aduaūced to any dignitie of the Church, but eyther he was a monke, or afterward he put on a monkes weede: Accordyng as in the stories of this Realme is to be seene, howe in the tyme of Dunstane Archbishop of Canterbury, of Ethelwold Bishop of Worcester, and of Oswald Bishop of Winchester, MarginaliaPope Iohn 13. wrote to k. Edgar, that none should be made Byshops but Monkes. Pope Iohn. 13. writyng to kyng Edgar, wylled hym in his letters, to see in his Cathedral Churches none to be promoted to be Bishops, but such as were of the Monasticall religion, and wylled hym moreouer to exclude the secular prebendaries at Winchester, and to place in monkes, and that none of the secular Clerkes there shoulde be chosen Bishop, but eyther taken out of the same Couent of that Church, or out of some other Abbey.

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MarginaliaSecular Priestes put out, and Monkes intruded into Churches. So was also kyng Henry the seconde commaunded to do in the house of Waltham, where the secular Chanons were remoued out, and regular Chanons intruded. The same dyd Oswald Bishop with the Churche of Worceter, likewise in their Sees dyd Dunstane Archbishop of Canterbury, Osketellus Archbishop of Yorke, Ethelwold Bishop of Worcester (who in story is reported to be Multorum fundator Monasteriorum,) Leswinus also Bishop of Dorcester, with other Bishoppes moe about the tyme and raigne of kyng Edgar. Odo Archbishop of Canterbury before Dunstane, an. 934. after his election refused to take that dignitie vpon hym, before he had receyued the habite of a monke in the Abbey of Florence in Fraunce: because as the story telleth (if it be true) Nullus ad id tempus nisi monochali schemate indutus, Archiepiscopus fuisset. &c. MarginaliaEx Guliel. Malmeso. in vita Odonis. That is, Because all the Archbishops of Canterbury before hym, had bene Monkes. &c. In like maner Baldwinus also an. 1114. after he was elected Archbish. of Canterbury, tooke vppon hym the habite and profession of Mereton Abbey. 

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Archbishop Baldwin became a monk at Ford, not Merton, abbey.

MarginaliaEx Neaburgens. Lib. 4. cap. 33. And so dyd Reginaldus his next successour after hym. &c.

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MarginaliaMonkes first lay men, then made regulars and votaryes, at length made Churchmen by Pope Boniface.
Read be pag. 156.
As concernyng therefore the origine of Monkes, ye haue heard how first they began of lay men onely, leadyng a strayter lyfe from the societie of other persons, who then folowyng the rule of S. Benet, were called regulars & votaries, and yet all this whyle had nothyng to doo with anye Ecclesiastical ministerie, tyll the tyme of Pope Bonifacius the fourth, an. 606. who then made a decree, MarginaliaDifference betwene Monkes Priestes. that monkes might vse the office of preachyng, of christenyng, of hearing confessions, and assoylyng men of their sinnes, differing frō priestes onely in this, that they were called Regulares, and priestes were called Seculares: the monkes were votaries, the priestes had free libertie to haue wyues, tyl the tyme of Lanfranke and Anselme, as is aforesayd, Albeit Athanasius in his Epistle Ad Dracontium, witnesseth also, that he knewe Monkes in the old tyme and Bishops, which wer marryed and had children. Furthermore, as iguoraunce & superstition with tyme increased, so the number & swarme of monkes styll more and more multiplyed in such sort, as not onely they thrust out secular Priestes from their houses, but also out of them were made, Popes, Cardinalles, Archbishops, and Bishoppes, to gouerne Churches. Of which number began Austen the first Archbishop of the See of Cant. and the most part of al other Archbishoppes after hym, vntyl the tyme of the Conquest, and after.

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MarginaliaThe comming in of the fryers.
Read afore pag. 263.
Al this whyle the Fryers were not yet come, neyther the discipline of S. Dominike, nor the Testament of S. Fraunces, nor the order of the Austen brothers, nor of the Carmelites was yet hearde of. Whiche laste of all came in with their pageans, and played their part likewise, an. 1220 beyng much more ful of hypocrisie, blindnes, Idolatrie, and superstition, then were the monkes: So that, what with monkes of þe one side, and wt þe fryers of þe other side, while al thynges were ruled by the Rules of Saint Benet, by the Canons of the Pope, by the doctrine of S. Dominike, and by the Testament of saint Fraunces, Christes Testament was trode vnder foote, the rule of Gods word neglected, true Christen religion defaced, fayth forgotten, the right way of saluation abolished, sound doctrine oppressed, Chri-

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