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1184 [1183]

K. Henry. 8. The story and life of the Lord Cromwell. Iuggling with Idolles.

there be whom nothyng doth please, whiche is dayly sene & receaued) vsed to go with his heare hangyng about hys eares downe vnto hys shoulders, after a straunge monstruous maner counterfeiting belyke the wilde Irishe men, or els Crinitus Ioppas 

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This note refers to 'crinitus Iopas', the long-haired musician in Virgil's Aeneid [1, 740-747] who plays after a banquet of Trojan and Carthaginian chiefs. It has been suggested that Virgil intended Iopas to be a reference to himself, making an appearance in the text.

, whiche Vergill speaketh of, as one wery of his owne Englishe fashion: or els as one ashamed to be sene lyke a man, woulde rather go lyke a woman, or lyke to one of the Gorgon sisters, but most of al lyke to him selfe, that is, lyke to a ruffin, that coulde not tel howe to go.

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MarginaliaThe Ruffin wyth the long heare. As this ruffine ruffling thus with his lockes, was walkyng in þe streates, as chaunce was, who should meete him but the Lord Cromwell, who beholdyng the deforme and vnseemely maner of his disguised goyng, full of muche vanity, & hurtfull example, called the mā to question wt him whose seruaunt he was, whiche beyng declared, then was it demaunded, whether his master, or any of his felowes vsed so to goe, with such heere about their shoulders as hee dyd, or no? Whiche when hee denyed, and was not able to yelde any reason for refuge of þt his monstruous disguising at length he fel to this excuse that he had made a vowe. To this the Lord Cromwell aunswered agayne, þt for so much as he had made him selfe a votarie, he would not force hym to breake his vowe, but vntill his vowe should be expired, he should lye the meane tyme in prison, & so sent him immediatly to the Marshalsey: where hee indured, till at length, this intonsus Cato 

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Literally 'untrimmed Cato'. This is a reference to Marcus Porcius Cato Uticensis (95-46 BC), a Roman politician notorious for his intransigence and inability to compromise.

beyng persuaded by his master to cut his heare, by suyte and petition of frendes, hee was brought agayne to the Lord Cromwell wth his head poled accordyng to the accustomed sorte of his other felowes, and so was dismissed.

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MarginaliaFrier Barteley casteth away hys Friers coule. Hereunto also perteineth the example of Frier Barteley, who wearyng still his Friers coule after the suppresion of religious houses Cromwell commyng through Paules churche yarde, and espieng him in Rheines his shop yea said he, wil not that coule of yours be left of yet? And if I heare by one a clocke that this apparel be not chaunged, thou shalt be hanged immediatly for example to all other. And so puttymg his coule away, he neuer durst weare it after.

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If the same Lord Cromwell, whiche coulde not abyde this seruyng man so disfigured in his heare, were now in these our dayes alyue with the same authoritye, whiche thē he had, and sawe these newe fangled fashions of attire, vsed here amongest vs both of men and women, I suppose verely that neither these mōstruous ruffes nor these prodigious hose, and prodigall or rather hyperboricall barbarous breeches (whiche seme rather lyke barels, the breeches) would haue any place in England. In whiche vnmeasurable excesse of vesture, this I haue to maruell: first how these seruyng men, whiche commonly haue nothing els but their wages, and that so slender and bare, can maynteine suche sloppes, so huge, and so sumptuous whiche commonly stand them in more, then their three yeares wages do come vnto. MarginaliaThese mōstrous sloppes of England lacke a Cromwell. Secondly I meruell, that their masters and Lordes (who shall yelde to God a counte of their seruauntes doynges) do not searche & trye out their seruauntes walkes, how they come by these expenses, wherwith to vpholde this brauery, seyng their stipendary wages and all reuenues els they haue, will not extende therunto. Thirdly, this most all is to be marueled, that Magistrates, which haue in their handes the orderyng and guidyng of good lawes, do not prouide more seuerely for the nedefull reformatiō of these enormities. But here we may well see, and truely this may say that England once had a Cromwell.

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Long it were to recite, what innumerable benefites this worthy Counsellour by his prudent pollicie, hys graue authoritie, and perfect zeale wrought and brought to passe in the publicke Realme, and especially in the Churche of England: what good orders hee established, what wickednes and vices he suppressed, what corruptions he reformed what abuses he brought to light, what crafty iugglyngs, what Idolatrous deceptions, and superstitious illusions he detected and abolished out of the Churche. MarginaliaDiuers corruptions in the Church detected and reformed by Cromwell. What posteritie will euer thinke the Churche of the Pope pretendyng such Religion 

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The remainder of this paragraph contains an abridged version of 'The Phantasie of Idolatry', which was printed in 1563 and then deleted in subsequent editions (This ballad was written by William Gray, a client of Thomas Cromwell. (On Gray's life and career, see E. W. Dormer, Gray of Reading: A Sixteenth-century Controversialist and Ballad Writer [Reading, 1923], pp.17-55). The ballad described cases of 'idolatry' and fraudulent miracles uncovered by Cromwell's commissioners. Verses from the poem were placed on Friar Forest's scaffold. This confirms the official origins and inception.).

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, to haue bene so wicked, so long to abuse the peoples eyes, with an olde rotten stocke 
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This is a reference to the Rood of Grace at the Cistercian monastery at Boxley, Kent. In February 1538, Cromwell's commissioners discovered mechanical devices in the rood which permitted the eyes of the Christ figure move. Later that month, the rood was displayed at Paul's Cross. The Boxley Rood became a virtual synonym for a fraudulent miracle.

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MarginaliaThe Roode of Grace gogling with hys eyes. (called the roode of grace) wherin a man should stand inclosed with an hūdreth wyers within the roode, to make the Image goggle with the eyes, to nodde with his head, to hang the lyppe, to moue and shake his iawes accordyng as the value was of the gift whiche was offered? If it were a small peece of siluer, hee would hang a frownyng lyppe: if it were a peece of golde, then should his iawes go merely. Thus miserably was the people of Christ abused, their soules seduced, their senses begyled, and their purses spoyled, till this Idolatrous forgery at last, by Cromwels meanes was disclosed, and the Image, with al his ingines shewed opēly at Paules Crosse, and there torne in peeces by the people. MarginaliaThe bloud of Hales. The lyke was done with the bloud of Hales, which in lyke maner by Crom well was brought to Paules Crosse and there proued to be the bloud of a Ducke. 
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Cromwell's commissioners found that the relic of the blood of Christ at Hailes Abbey in Gloucestershire was fraudulent. It was denounced and exhibited at Paul's Cross in 1538.

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Who would haue iudged, but that the mayde of Kent hadde bene an holy woman, MarginaliaThe holy maide of Kent, read before. pag 1026. and a Prophetesse 

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This is Elizabeth Barton, who was a Benedictine nun renowned for her sanctity and her prophetic visions. When she began to denounce the validity of Henry VIII's divorce from Catherine of Aragon, the authorities took a hostile interest in her prophecies. On 23 November 1533, Barton was forced to do penance at Paul's Cross; the proceedings were repeated at Canterbury a fortnight later. She was executed for treason on 20 April 1534.

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inspyred, hadde not Cromwell and Cranmer tried her at Paules Crosse to be a strong whore?

What should I speake of Daruell Gatharen 

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Foxe is deriving this spelling, or rather misspelling, from Hall. The statue was named ‘Dderfel Gadern’ and it was from Llanderfel, a pilgrimage site in North Wales.

, of the Roode of Chester 
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This was a famous rood, which stood just outside the walls of Chester, and which was a celebrated place of pilgrimage. It was dismantled on Cromwell's orders.

, of Tho. Becket 
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I.e., the shrine of St. Thomas Becket at Canterbury.

, our Ladye of Walsingham, wt an infinite multitude more of the lyke affinitie? MarginaliaStockes & blockes remoued out of the way. All whiche stockes and blockes of cursed Idolatrie, Cromwell styrred vp by the prouidence of God, remoued out of the peoples way, that they might walke more safely in the sincere seruice of almighty God.

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While the Lord Cromwell was thus blessedly occupied in profityng the common wealth, and purgyng the Church of Christe, it happened to him, as commonly it doth to all good men, that where any excellencie of vertue appeareth, there enuye creepeth in: and where true pietie seeketh most after Christ, there some persecution foloweth withall,

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Thus (I say) as he was labouring in the cōmon wealth and doyng good to the poore afflicted Saintes, helpyng thē out of trouble, the malice of his enemies so wrought, continuallye huntyng for matter agaynst hym, that they neuer ceased, till in the end they by false traynes and crafty surmises, brought him out of the kynges fauour.

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MarginaliaSte. Gardiner chiefe enemie to the L. Cromwell. The chiefe and principal enemie against him, was Steuen Gardiner Byshop of Winchester, who euer disdayning and enuiyng the state and felicitie of the Lord Cromwell, and now takyng hys occasion by the Maryage of Ladye Anne of Cleue, MarginaliaRead before pag. 1109. beyng a straunger and forener, put in the kynges eares what a perfect thyng it were for the quyet of the realme, and establishment of the kynges succession to haue an Englishe Queene and Prince that were mere Englyshe: so that in conclusion the kynges affection, þe more it was diminished from the late maried Anne of Cleue, the lesse fauour he bare vnto Cromwell 

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In 1563, Foxe blamed Cromwell's fall on Henry's dissatisfaction with his marriage to Anne of Cleves, which Cromwell had arranged. In these passages, added in 1570, Foxe presents a more sophisticated analysis of Cromwell's fall, emphasizing the role of opposing factions.

. Besides this Gardiner, there lacked not other backe frendes also and ilwillers in the Court about the kynge, which litle made for Cromwell both for his Religion whiche they maligned, and for other priuate grudges also incident by the way.

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Ouer and besides all which, it is moreouer supposed, that some part of displeasure myght ryse agaynst hym, by reason of a certayne talke, which happened a a litle before at Lambeth, at what tyme the kyng after the makyng of the vi. Articles, sent the sayd Lord Cromwell hys Vicegerēt, with the two Dukes of Northfolke & Suffolke, wyth all the Lords of the Parliamēt to Lambeth to dyne wyth the Archbyshop ) who mightely had disputed & alleaged in the Parliament agaynst the sayd Articles) to cheare & comfort hys daunted spirites agayne.

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MarginaliaThe talke betweene the L. Cromwel & certeine of the Lords at Lambeth. There the 

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As Foxe observes in a marginal note, he obtained this story from Ralph Morice, Archbishop Cranmer's secretary.

sayd Cromwell, wyth the other noble Lordes sitting with the Archbyshop at his table in talke, as euery Lord brought forth hys sentence in commendation of Cranmer, to signifie what good wyll both the kyng, and they bare vnto hym: among the rest one of the company entryng into a comparison betwene the sayd Thomas Cranmer, and Thomas Wolsey late Cardinall of Yorke, declared in hys iudgement, that Cranmer was much to be preferred for hys mylde and gentle nature, where as the Cardinall was a stubberne and a churlishe Prelate, and one that could neuer abyde any noble man, and that (sayd he) know you well enough, my Lord Cromwell, for he was your Mayster. &c. At these wordes the Lord Cromwell beyng somewhat touched to heare the Cardinals seruice so cast in hys teeth, inferred agayne, saying: that he could not denye but he was seruaunt sometyme to Cardinall Wolsey, neyther did repent the same, for he receiued of hym both fee, meate and drinke, and other commodities: but yet he was neuer so farre in loue wyth hym, as to haue wayted vpon hym to Rome, if he had bene chosen Pope, as he vnderstoode that he would haue done if the case had so fallen out. Which when the other had denied to be true, Cromwell still persisted affirmyng the same, and shewyng moreouer what number of Florenes he should haue receaued, to be his Admirall, and to haue saueconducted hym to Rome in case he had bene elected Byshop of Rome. The partie not a litle moued wyth these wordes: told hym, he lyed. The other agayne affirmed it to be true. Vpon thys, great and hygh wordes rose betwene them. Which contention although it was through intreatie of the Archbyshop and other nobles somewhat pacified for the tyme, yet it myght be, that some bitter roote of grudge remayned behynde, which afterward grew vnto hym to some displeasure. And thys was an. 1540. in the moneth of Iulye. Ex testimonio, Secretarij. Cantuar.

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Marginalia1541
A Parliament.
After this the next yeare folowyng, which was 1541. in the moneth of Aprill, was holden a Parliament, which

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