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1185 [1184]

K. Henry. 8. The life and death of the L. Tho. Cromwel Earle of Essex.

after diuers prorogations was continued till the moneth of Iuly, the sayd yeare. MarginaliaThe Lord Cromwell apprehended In the whiche moneth of Iuly, the Lord Cromwel beyng in the Counsayle chamber, was sodenly apprehended, and committed to the tower of London. Whereat, as many good men which knewe nothyng but truth by hym dyd lament, and prayed hartely for him: so moe there were on the contrary side that reioysed, especially of the Religious sorte, and of the Clergye, such as had bene in some dignitie before in the Churche, and nowe by his meanes were put from it. For in dede such was his nature: that in all his doynges he could not abyde any kynde of Popery, nor of false Religion creepyng vnder hipocrisie and lesse could abyde the ambitious pryde of Popishe Prelacie, which professyng all humilitie, was so elated in pride that kynges coulde not rule in their owne Realmes for them. These snuffyng Prelates as hee could neuer abide so they agayne hated him as much, whiche was the cause of shortenyng hys dayes, and to bryng him to his end: So that the xix. day of the moneth aforesaide he was attainted by Parlament.

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MarginaliaCrimes and accusations brought against the L. Cromwel. In the which Atteinder diuers and sondry crimes surmyses, obiections and accusatiōs were brought against him but chieflye and aboue all other, hee was charged and accused of heresie, for that he was a supporter of them (whome they recounted for heretickes) as Barnes 

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I.e., Robert Barnes.

, Clerke 
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Roger Clark. Foxe related that a layman of Norfolk (not Suffolk) named Roger was burned for sacramentarian heresy (Rerum, p. 144). By the time the 1563 edition was printed, Foxe had learned a great deal more about the burnings of John Kerby and Roger Clarke; most of his detailed account of their trials and executions first appeared in this edition. This material was contributed by unnamed eyewitnesses. In the 1570 edition, Foxe added details to the account of the martyrdoms of Kerby and Clarke, which were also obtained from informants, probably including the Ipswich gaoler John Bird (Richard Bird, also an Ipswich gaoler, would be denounced by Catholics in Mary’s reign for encouraging prisoners in their heresy (1576, p. 1981 and 1583, p. 2089). Were the Birds a family of evangelical gaolers? In any case, John Bird was probably the source the interview between Kerby and Robert Wingfield.). In the 1570 edition, Foxe also added an account of Henry VIII’s oration to Parliament on Christmas Eve 1545. Foxe printed this speech from Edward Hall, The union of the two noble and illuste famelies of Lancastre and Yorke (London, 1560), STC 12734a, fos.260r-262r. His purpose in including the speech was to criticize appeal for compromise for the sake of concord and religious unity. In ‘notes’ upon the speech, Foxe argued instead - in passages clearly intend to goad Elizabeth and her magistrates into further reformation of the Church - that correct doctrine and religious purity were more important than peace or unity.

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, and many other, whom he by his authoritie and letters written to Shriffes and Iustices in diuers Shires rescued and discharged out of prison. Also that hee dyd euulgate and disparse abrode amongest the kynges subiectes, great numbers of bookes, conteyning (as they said) manifest matter of much heresie, diffidence, and misbeliefe. Item, that hee caused to bee translated into our Englishe tounge, bookes comprising matter expresly agaynst the Sacrament of the alter, and that after the translation therof, hee commended and mayntayned the same for good and Christian doctrine.

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Ouer and besides all this, they brought in certeine witnesses (what they were, þe Atteinder expresseth not) which most especially pressed (or rather oppressed) hym with heynous wordes spoken agaynst the kynge in the Churche of S. Peter the poore in the moneth of March, in the xxx. yeare of the kynges reigne. Whiche wordes if they be true, as the Atteinder doth purport, iij. thinges I haue here much to meruell at. MarginaliaWitnesses agaynst Cromwell suspected. Fyrst, if his aduersaryes had so sure holde and matter agaynst hym, then what should moue thē to make such hastie speede in all poste haste, to haue him dispatched and ridde out of the way, and in no case could abyde hym to come to his purgation? Which if he might haue done it is not otherwyse to be thought, but he would easilye haue cleared hym selfe therof.

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Secondly, this I meruell, that if the wordes had bene so heynous agaynst the kyng, as his enemies dyd prtened, why then dyd those witnesses, which heard those woordes in S. Peters Church in the xxx. yeare of the kynges reigne conceale the sayd wordes of such treason so long, the space almost of ij. yeares, and now vttered the same in the xxxij. yeare of the kynges reigne, in the moneth of Iuly.

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Thirdly, here is agayne to be merueled, if the kyng had knowen or beleued these wordes to be true, and that Crōwell had bene in deede such a traytour to his person, why then dyd the kyng so shortly after lament his death, wishyng to haue his Cromwell alyue agayne? What Prince will wish the lyfe of him whome he suspecteth vndoubtedly to bee a traitour to his life and person? Wherby it may appeare what iudgement the kynge had of Cromwell, in hym self, howsoeuer the Parlament by sinister information was otherwise incensed to iudge vpon him.

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MarginaliaWhat mischiefe malicious makebates make in a common wealth. Such malicious makebates 

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I.e., people who create strife or discord.

about Princes & parlamēts neuer lacked in common weales. MarginaliaExamples of mē falsly accused, and wrongfully iudged. By such kyng Ethelstane was incensed to kill his brother Edwine 
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See 1570, p. 197; 1576, p. 150 and 1583, pp. 148-9.

. pag. 150. So was kyng Edward 2. deposed. So likewise when kynge Richard 2. was once brought into the Tower, what crimes and accusations were layd agaynst him in the Parlament? So was Humfrey the good Duke of Glocester, the kyngs vncle, by Henry Beauford Byshop of Winchester and other in the Parlament holden at Bery, arrested as a traitour, and falsely made away 
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See 1570, p. 845; 1576, p. 680 and 1583, pp. 705-6.

. pag. 680. What great treason was in the wordes of him, who dwelling in Chepeside at the signe of the Crowne, sayde merely to his sonne, that if he liued, he would make him heyre of the crowne 
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See 1570, p. 861; 1576, pp. 701-2 and 1583, p. 727.

: and yet was he therfore atteinted, and iudged for a traitor? pag. 701. col. 2. In the tyme of kyng Henry. 8. How was that Parlament incensed, wherein both Queene Anne was falsely condemned, and Queene Elizabeth her daughter as falsely dishereted? To omitte here the attaynder of the Duke of Buckyngham wrought by the Cardinal of Yorke: Of the Lord Cobham likewise, and Syr Roger Acton. pag. 154. If the cause of the Lord Hēry late Earle of Surrey were wel tried out, perauēture no such heynous purpose of any treasō shoulde be found therin, as then was made. 
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This is one of a number of occasions in which Foxe hints that the earl of Surrey was urgently condemned and executed. It should be remembered that Foxe's former pupil and patron, the fourth duke of Norfolk, was Surrey's son.

Who incensed the late Duke of Somerset to beheade his owne brother, but such makebates as these? And afterward when the saide Duke him selfe was attaynted for a traitor and condemned for a felon, a briber and extorcioner: how was the Parlament then incensed? Adam Damlipe receaued of Cardinal Poole at Rome, but a selye crowne in way of almose, and therfore by meanes of Steuē Gardinar was attainted for a traytor 
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Foxe's sources for the complicated, intertwined, narratives which follow were varied. The story of William Callaway and Dr. London first appeared in the Rerum, as did the account of the execution of Germain Gardiner (Rerum, pp. 143-4). The first came from Edward Hall, The union of two noble and illustre famelies of Lancastre and Yorke (London, 1550) STC 12734a, fo. 257r, the second probably was related to Foxe by John Bale. Both of these stories were repeated in all editions of the A&M. In the 1563 edition, Foxe added accounts of Adam Damplip (from unknown informants), Thomas Broke’s speech against the Six Articles, accounts of the 1539 persecution of heresy in Calais, which came from informants, and accounts of the 1540 persecution of heresy in Calais, also obtained from informants, almost certainly including Thomas Broke’s wife, who supplied the detailed narrative of her husband’s ordeals. The 1563 edition also contained an account of an earlier heretic, William Button, who was forced to do penance in Calais sometime before 1532; Foxe states that this account was derived from informants in the town. And Foxe also added the recantations of John Athee and John Heywood, which he obtained from Bishop Bonner’s register (Guildhall MS 9531/12, fos. 61r and 254v).

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. George Egles dyd but read 
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George Eagles was an itinerant lay preacher who led a secret conventicle near Colchester during Mary's reign. He was executed in the summer in the summer of 1556 for sedition.

some tyme in woods and by the said Gardiner was also condemned and suffered as a traytour.

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MarginaliaAuthoritie of Parlamentes. Not that I here speake or meane agaynst the hygh Courtes of Parliamentes of thys our Realme, necessarily assembled for the common wealth, to whom I alwayes attribute their due reuerence and authoritie. But as it happeneth sometimes in generall Councels, which though they be neuer so generall, yet notwithstandyng sometymes they may and doe erre in waightie matters of Religion: so lykwise they that say, that Princes and Parliamentes may be misinformed sometymes, by some sinister heads, in matters ciuill and politicke, do not therein derogate or empaire the high estate of Parlamentes, but rather geue holesome admonition to Princes & Parlamēt mē, to be more circumspect and vigilant what counsell they shall admitte, and what witnesses they do credite. For priuate affectiō which commonly beareth a great stroke in all socieities and doings of men, creepeth sometymes into such generall Councels, and into Princes Courtes also, either to much amplifying thynges that be but small, makyng mountaynes of molehils, or els to much extenuatyng thynges that be of themselues great and waightie, accordyng as it is truely sayd of the Poete Iuuenal: Dat veniam coruis, vexat censura columbas, or as our Englishe Prouerbe sheweth: As a mā is frended, so is his matter ended: And where the hedge is low, a man may lightly make large leapes: or rather to speake after the French phrase: MarginaliaA French prouerb. Qui son chien veult tuer, la rage luy met sus. That is: He that is disposed to haue hys dogge killed, first maketh men beleue that he is mad. And thus much hauing declared touching the matter of his accusation, the rest I referre to the high Parliamēt of that mightie king, who shall one day bringe all thinges to perfecte light.

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In the meane season, howsoeuer the cause of the Lord Cromwell standeth, true, or false, this is certaine that Steuen Gardiner lacked not an head, nor yet priuie assisters, which cunningly could fetch thys matter about, and watch their tyme, MarginaliaLady Anne of Cleue diuorced from the kyng. when as the kyng being disposed to mary an other wyfe, which was the Lady Catherine Hawarde, immediatly after the beheading of the Lord Cromwell, dyd repudiate Ladie Anne of Cleue, which otherwyse is to be thought, during the life of Cromwell, could not so well be brought to passe.

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But these thyngs being now done & paste, let vs passe them ouer and returne agayne from whence we digressed, that is to the Lord Cromwell beyng now atteinted & committed to the Tower. Who so long as he went wyth full sayle of fortune, how moderately, & how temperatly he did euer beare himself in his estate, before hath ben declared. MarginaliaThe Christen pacience of the L. Cromwell in his aduersitie. So now the said L. Cromwel, alwayes one man, by the cōtrary wynde of aduersitie being ouerblowen, receaued the same with no lesse constancie and pacience of a Christian hart. MarginaliaCromwell forseing and preparing for his trouble before it fell. Neither yet was he so vnprouided of counsayle & forecaste, but that he did forsee this tempest long before it fell, & also prepared for the same. For two yeares before, smelling the conspiracie of his aduersaries and fearing what might happen, he called vnto hym hys seruauntes, and there shewyng vnto them in what a slyppery state he stoode, and also perceauing some stormy wether already to gather, required thē to looke diligently to their order and doynges, least through their default any occasion might rise agaynst him. And furthermore, before the tyme of his apprehension, MarginaliaCromwell good to his seruaunts. such order he tooke for hys seruauntes, that many of them, especially the yonger brethren, which had litle els to take vnto, had honestly left for them in their frendes hands, to releiue them, whatsoeuer should him befall.

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Briefly, such a louing & kinde master he was to his seruauntes, that he prouided aforehand almost for them all: In so much, that he gaue to xij. children which were hys Musitions, twentie pounde a peece, & so committed them to their frends. Of whom some yet remayne aliue, who both inioyed the same, and also geue recorde of this to be true.

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Furthermore being in the Tower a prisoner, how quietly he bare it, how valiātly he behaued himself, how grauely and discretely he aūswered & enterteined þe Cōmissioners sent vnto him, it is worthy noting. Whatsoeuer articles or interrogatories they propoūded, they could put nothing vnto him, either concerning matters Ecclesiasticall or temporall, wherein he was not more rypened, and more furni-

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