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1189 [1188]

K. Hen. 8. Barnes. Garret, and Hierome, Martyrs.

yea, shewyng it vnto them. Who then toke it from him, and said they should haue no laisure to dispute with hym at that present for other affaires of the kings Maiesty, which they had to do, and therfore bad hym stand aside. MarginaliaThe Stilliard man cōmitted to the Fleete. Then they called the Stilliard mē againe one by one, and whē they were examined, :they called forth the M. of the Fleete, and they were committed all to the Flete. MarginaliaD. Barnes with younge Parnell committed to the Fleete. Then they called Doctor Barnes againe, and asked him whether he would subscribe to his Articles or no, and he subscribed willingly: and then they committed him and yong M. Parnell to the Flete also with the other. There they remayned till Saterday in the morning, and the Warden of the Fleete was commaūded that no man should speake with hym.

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MarginaliaD. Barnes & the Stilliard men brought againe before the Cardinall. On the saterday he came again afore them into the chapter house, and there with the stilliard men remained till v. a clocke at night. And after long disputatiōs, threatnings, & scornings, about. v. a clock at night, they called him, to knowe whether he would abiure or burne. He was then in a great agony, & thought rather to burn thē to abiure. MarginaliaD. Barnes perswaded by Gardiner and Foxe, to abiure. But thē was he sent again to haue the counsel of Gardiner and Foxe, and they persuaded hym rather to abiure then to burne, because (they said ) he should do more in time to come, & with diuers other perswasiōs that were mighty in the sight of reason & foolish flesh. Vpon that, kneelyng vpon his knees, he consented to abiure, and the abiuration put in hys hand, he abiured as it was there written, and then he subscribed with hys owne hand: and yet they would scarcely receiue him into the bosome of the Church, as they termed it. Then they put him to an othe, and charged hym to execute, doe, & fulfill all that they commaunded hym, and he promised so to do.

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Then 

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Barnes' abjuration took place on 11 February 1526.

they comaunded the Warden of the Fleete to cary hym with his fellowes to the place from whence he came, and to be kept in close prison, and in the mornyng to prouide v. fagots for D. Barnes, and the 4. Stilliard men. The v. Stilliard man was commaunded to haue a taper of v. pound waight to be prouided for hym, to offer to þe roode of Northen in Paules, and all these thinges to be ready by 8. of the clocke in the mornyng, and that he with all that he could make, with bils and gleaues, and the knight Marshal withall hys tipstaues that he could make, should bring thē to Paules, and conduct them home againe. In the morning they wer all redy by their houre appointed in Paules church the church beyng so full that no man could get in. The Cardinall had a scaffold made on the top of the staires for hymselfe, with 36. Abbots, mitred Priors and Bishops, and he in hys whole pompe mitred (which Barnes spake against) sate ther inthronized, hys Chaplens and spirituall doctors in gownes of Damaske and Satine, and he hymselfe in purple, euen lyke a bloudy Antichrist. And there was a new pulpit erected on the top of the stayres also, for the Byshop of Rochester to preach against Luther and D. Barnes: & great baskettes full of bookes standing before them within the rayles, MarginaliaD. Barnes & the Stilliard mē beare fagottes. which was commaunded after the great fire was made afore the roode of Northen there to be burned, & these heretikes after the sermon to go thrise about the fire and to cast in their fagots.

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Now while the sermon was a doyng, D. Barnes and the stilliard men were commaunded to knele down and aske God forgeuenes, the catholike church and cardinals grace, and after that he was commaunded at the ende of the sermon to declare that he was more charitablier handled, then he deserued or was worthy (his heresies were so horrible & so detestable) and once agayne kneled downe on hys knees and desiring the people of forgeuenes and to pray for hym, and so the Cardinall departed vnder a canapy with all hys mitred men with hym, till he came to the second Gate of Paules, and then he tooke hys Mule, and the mitred men came backe agayne. Then these poore men beyng cōmaunded to come downe from the stage (whereon the sweepers vse to stande when they sweepe the Church) the Bishops sate them downe againe and commaunded the knight marshall and the Warden of the Fleete with their company, to cary them about the fire, and so were they brought to the bishops, and there for absolution kneled downe. MarginaliaDayes of pardon geuē for hearing a Popishe sermon Where Rochester stoode vp and declared vnto the people how many dayes of pardon and forgeuenes of sinnes they had for beyng at that Sermon, and there did assoile D. Barnes with the other, and shewed the people that they were receiued into the church agayne.

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This done, the Warden of the Fleete and the Knight Marshall were commaunded to haue them to the Flete againe, and charged that they should haue the libertie of the Flete as other prisoners had, and that theyr frendes might resort vnto them, and there, to remaine till the lord cardinals pleasure were known.

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After that Barnes there in the Flete had cōtinued the space of halfe a yeare, at length beyng deliuered, was committed to be free prisoner at the Austen friers in London. When those Caterpillers and bloudy beastes had there vndermined hym, they complained agayne to their Lord Cardinall. Wherupon he was remoued to the Austen Fryers of Northampton, there to be burned. Yet he himself vnderstāding nothing therof, but supposing still þt he should there remayne and continue in free prison, at last 

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Barnes' escape took place in 1528. The deception involved in this episode was subsequently criticised by Catholic polemicists: see Robert Persons, A treatise of three conversions of England (STC 19416: St. Omer, 1604), vol. III p.181.

one M. Horne, who had brought hym vp, and was hys speciall frend, hauyng intelligence of the writte which should shortly be sent downe to burne hym, gaue hym counsayle to fayne hymselfe to be desperate MarginaliaDoct. Barnes fayned himselfe to be drowned. and that he shoulde write a letter to the Cardinall and leaue it on hys table where he lay, and a paper by to declare whether he was gone to drowne himself, & to leaue his clothes in the same place: and there an other letter to be left to the Maior of the towne to search for him in the water, because he had a letter written in parchment about hys necke, closed in waxe, for the Cardinall, which would teach all men to beware by hym. Vpon thys, they were vij. dayes in serchyng for hym, but he was conueyed to London in a poore mans apparell, and so taryed not there but tooke shippyng and went by long Seas to Antwerpe, and so to Luther, and there fell to studye till he had made aunswere to all the Byshops of the Realme, MarginaliaActa Romanorum pontificum, made by D. Barnes. and had made a booke intituled, Acta Romanorum pontificum 
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Barnes' Vitae Romanorum pontificorum was actually first published in 1536, in two editions, one in Wittenberg, the other in Basel.

, and an other booke wyth a supplication 
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There were two, sharply differing editions of this text: A supplicatyon made by Robert Barnes doctour in diuinite, vnto the most excellent and redoubted prince kinge henrye the eyght (STC 1470: Antwerp, 1531), and a more politic revision, A supplicacion vnto the most gracyous prynce H. the .viij. (STC 1471: London, 1534).

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to Kyng Henry. Immediatly it was tolde the Cardinall, that he was drowned, and he sayd, Petit memoria eius cum sonitu. But thys did light vpon hymselfe shortly after, which wretchedly dyed at Leicester.

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In the meane season D. Barnes was made strong in Christ, and got fauour both of the learned in Christ, & forreine Princes in Germany, and was great wyth Luther, Melancthon, Pomeran, Iustus Ionas, Hegendorphinus and Æpinus, and wyth the Duke of Saxon, MarginaliaDoct. Barnes sent Ambassadour from the kyng of Denmarke to kyng Henry, into England. and the kyng of Denmarke, which kyng of Dēmarke in the time of More and Stokesley 

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In fact this embassy took place in the summer of 1534. Foxe is here referring to Barnes' visit to England in 1531-32, as an envoy from the Wittenberg theologians.

sent hym with the Lubeckes, as an Ambassadour, to kyng Henry the viij. He lay wyth the Lubeckes Chauncellor at the Stilliard.

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MarginaliaSyr Thomas More sought the death of Doct. Barnes. Syr Tho. More then Chauncelour, would faine haue entrapped hym, but the kyng would not let him, for Cromwell was hys great frend. And ere he went, the Lubeckes and he disputed wyth the Byshops of this realme in defēce of the truth, and so he departed agayne without restraynte wyth the Lubeckes. After hys going agayne to Wittemb. to the Duke of Saxon, and to Luther, he remayned there to set forwardes hys workes in Print that he had begon, MarginaliaDoct. Barnes returned agayne into England in the tyme of Queene Anne. from whence he returned agayne in the begynning of the raygne of Queene Anne, as other did, & continued a faithfull preacher in this Citie 

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This sweeping description of the 1530s omits the significant amount of time Barnes spent on the Continent, including a lengthy trip to Wittenberg in 1535-6.

, beyng all her time well entertained and promoted. MarginaliaDoct. Barnes sent Ambassadour by kyng Henry, to the Duke of Cleue. After that 
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This embassy took place in 1539.

, he was sent Ambassadour by K. Hēry the 8. to the Duke of Cleue, for the maryage of the Lady Anne of Cleue, betwene þe king and her, and was wel accepted in that Ambassade & in all hys doyngs, vntyll the tyme that Ste. Gardiner 
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This is a typical example of how conspiracy theories clustered around Gardiner in Foxe's work and in the wider English Protestant imagination. See Alec Ryrie, '"A Saynt in the Devyls Name": Heroes and Villains in the Martyrdom of Robert Barnes' in Thomas S. Freeman and Thomas F. Mayer (eds), Martyrs and Martyrdom in England, c.1400-1700 (Woodbridge, 2007), 144-65.

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came out of Fraunce: but after he came, neyther Religion prospered, nor the Queenes maiestie, nor Cromwell, nor the preachers, who after the maryage of the Lady Anne of Cleue, neuer ceased vntyll he had grafted the maryage in an other stocke, by the occasion whereof he began hys bloudy broyle.

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For not long after, Doct. Barnes wyth hys brethren were apprehended and caryed before the kynges maiestie to Hampton Court, and there he was examyned. Where the kynges maiestie seckyng the meanes of hys safetie, to bring Wint. and hym agreed, at Wynchesters request, graunted him leaue to go home wyth the bishop to cōferre wyth hym, and so he dyd. But as it happened they not agreeyng, Gardiner and hys cōparteners sought by all subtile meanes, how to entangle and to entrappe them in further daunger, which not long after was brought to passe. For by certayne complayntes made to the kyng of them, they were enioyned to preach three sermōs the next Easter folowing at the Spittle. At the which Sermons, besides other reporters which were thether sent, Ste. Gardiner also was there present sitting with the Maior, eyther to beare recorde of their recantation, or els as the Phariseis came to Christ, to trippe them in their talke, if they had spokē any thing awry. Whē these three had thus preached their Sermons, amōge whō Barnes preaching the first Sermon, and seeing Ste. Gardiner there present, humbly desired hym in the face of all the audience, if he forgaue hym, to holde vp his hand, and the sayd Gardiner thereupon helde vp his finger 

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The source for this particular allegation, only introduced in 1570, is unclear. On Gardiner's own account, he was surprised by this request from the pulpit, directed at him, and being 'encombred with shamefastnes', took a moment to respond. Gardiner, A declaration, fo. 9v.

: yet notwithstanding shortly after by the meanes of the sayd reporters, they were sent for to Hampton Court: who from thence were caryed to the tower by Syr Iohn Gostwike. From whence they neuer came out till they came to their death, as hereafter Christ willing shall more appeare.

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And thus hetherto concerning the hystory of Barnes. Now let vs lykewise consider the storye and doynges of Thomas Garet.

¶ The
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