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1193 [1192]

K. Hen. 8. Barnes, Garret, and Hierome, Martyrs.

Hierome beyng a diligent preacher of gods worde, for the comfort and edification of the people, had preached diuers & sondry sermons, wherin to the entent to plant in the consciences of men, the sincere truth of christen religion, he laboured as much as tyme then serued, to extirpe and weede out the rootes of mens traditions, doctrines, dreames and fantasies. In so doing, it coulde not otherwyse bee, but he must nedes prouoke much hatred against hym amongest the aduersaries of Christes gospell.

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MarginaliaThe sermon W. Hierome preached at Pauls crosse the4. sonday in Lent. It so happened, that the said Hierome preaching at Paules in the 4. Sonday of Lent 

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7 March 1540.

last past, made there a sermon, wherin he recited and mentioned of Agar, and Sara, declaring what these ij. signified. In processe, wherof he shewed further, how that Sara and her childe Isaac, and al they that were Isaacs, and borne of the free woman Sara, were freely iustified: Contrary they that were borne of Agar the bond woman, were bound and vnder the law, and cannot be freely iustified. In these wordes, what was here spoken but that S. Paul himselfe vttereth and expoundeth in his Epistle to MarginaliaGal. 4. the Galath. 4. 
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Galatians 4:22-28.

Or what could here be gathered of any reasonable or indifferent hearer, but consonant to sound doctrine, and veine of the Gospell? Now see what rancour and malice armed with crafty and subtill sophistry can doe. This sermon finished, it was not long but he was charged and conuented before the king at Westminster, and there accused for erroneous doctrine.

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Percase thou wilt muse (gentle reader) what erroneous doctrine here could be piked out. Note therfore for thy learning: & he that listeth to studie how to play þe Sicophāt, let him here take exāple. MarginaliaQuarrell picked agaynst Hieromes sermons. The knor found in this rushe was this, for that he preached erroneously at Paules crosse, teachyng the people, that all that were borne of Sara, wer freely iustified, speaking there absolutely without any condition either of Baptisme or of penaunce. &c. Who doubteth here, but if S. Paule himselfe had bene at Paules Crosse, and had preached the same wordes to þe englishmen, which he wrote to the Gal. in this behalfe, Ipso facto, he had bene apprehended for an heretike for preaching against the Sacrament of Baptisme and repentaunce?

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MarginaliaW. Hierome accused for preaching against Magistrates. Furthermore it was obiected against him, touching matter against magistrates, and lawes by them made. Wherunto he aunswered agayne and affirmed (as he had before preached) that no Magistrate of himselfe could make any law or lawes, priuate or otherwise, to bynde the inferior people, vnles it were by the power, authoritie, and commaundement of his or their Princes to him or them geuen, but onely the Prince. And moreouer, to confirme the same he added, saying: that if the Prince make lawes cōsentyng to gods lawes we are bound to obey them. And if he make lawes repugnāt to the lawes of God, and be an euill and wicked prince: yet are we bound humbly to suffer hym, and not violently to resist or grudge against hym.

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Also concernyng his sermons, one Doct. Wilson entred into disputation with hym, and defended that good workes iustified before God, and were necessary and auaylable to saluation. MarginaliaWorkes no part of our saluation. To whō Hierome answered agayne, that all works whatsoeuer they were, were nothing worth, nor no part of saluation of themselues, MarginaliaGood workes auayle not but onely by imputation. but only referred to the mercy and loue of God, which mercy and loue of god directeth the workers therof, and yet is it at hys mercy and goodnes to accept them. Which to be true Doct. Wilson neither could, nor dyd denye.

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And thus much concernyng the seuerall storyes of these iij. good men. Now let vs see the order of their martyrdome, ioyning them all together: what was the cause of their condemnation, and what were theyr protestations and wordes at their suffering.

Ye heard before how Barnes, Hierome, and Garret, were caused to preach at Easter at the spittle. MarginaliaOut of the preface of Steuē Gardiner against George Ioye. The occasion whereof as I finde it reported by Steuen Gardiner 

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What follows is based on Gardiner, A declaration, and only appeared in 1570 and subsequent editions. It is a striking example of Foxe's ability to use large amounts of material from a hostile witness to build his case. Gardiner's account is compressed, but reproduced largely faithfully, with Foxe's editorial sniping largely confined to the marginal notes.

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writyng agaynst George Ioy, I thought here to discourse more at large.

St. Gardiner hearyng that þe sayd Barnes, Hierome & Garret should preach þe Lēt followyng an. 1541 

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1540.

, at Paules crosse, to stoppe the course of theyr doctrine, sent his chaplaine to the Bishop of London the Saterday before the first sonday in Lent 
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15 February 1540.

, to haue a place for him to preach at Paules. Which to him was graunted, and tyme appoynted that he should preach the sonday following, which should be on the morrow: which sonday was appointed before for Barnes to occupy that roome. Gardiner therfore determining to declare the Gospell of that sonday, conteining the Deuils thre temptations, began amongest other thinges to note the abuse of scripture amongest some, as the Deuill abused it to Christ, and so alluding to the temptation of the Deuil, wherin he alledged the scripture against Christ, to cast hymselfe downward, and that he should take no hurt, he inferred therupon, saying:

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MarginaliaThe effecte of Ste. Gardiners sermon at Paules crosse the first sonday in Lent an. 1541. Now a dayes 

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The account of Gardiner's sermon is lifted verbatim from Gardiner, A declaration, fos. 5v-6r.

(quoth he) the Deuill tempteth þe world, and biddeth them to cast themselues backwarde. There is no forward in the new teaching, but all backwarde. Nowe the Deuill teacheth, come backe from fasting, come backe from praying, come backe from confession, come backe from weepyng for thy sinnes, and all is backeward: In so much that mē must now learne to say their Pater noster backward For where we sayd, forgeue vs our debtes, as we forgeue our debters, now it is as thou forgeuest our debtes, so I will forgeue my debters, and so God must forgeue first, and all I say, is turned backward. &c.

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And amongest other thinges, moreouer he noted the deuils craft and shifte in deceiuing man: who enuying hys felicitie, and therefore coueting to haue man idle, and voyde of good workes, and to be lead in that idlenes, with a wan hope to lyue merely at his pleasure here, MarginaliaPardons procured by the deuill, quod Steuen Gardiner. and yet to haue heauen at the last, hath for that purpose procured out pardons from Rome, wherein heauen was sold for a litle money, MarginaliaGardiner agaynst friers and pardons. and for to retaile that merchaundise, the Deuill vsed Friers for his ministers. Now they be gone with all their trumpery, but the Deuill is not yet gone. &c. And now that the Deuill perceiueth that it can no longer be borne, to buy and sell heauen by the Friers, he hath excogitate to offer heauen without workes for it, so freely, that men shall not neede for heauen to worke at all, what soeuer oportunitte they haue to worke: mary if they will haue any higher place in heauen, God will leaue no worke vnrewarded, but as to be in heauen, needes no works at all, but onely beliefe, onely onely, MarginaliaSteuen Gardiner can not abide onely, onely. and nothing els. &c.

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MarginaliaThe sermon of D. Barnes replying to Winchester. This sermon of Steuen Winchester finished, Doctor Barnes who was put of from that sonday, had hys day appoynted, which was the third Sonday 

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29 February 1540.

next ensuyng, to make hys sermon: who taking the same text of the Gospell which Gardiner had done before, was on the contrary side no lesse vehement in setting forwarde the true doctrine of Christian religion, then Winchester had done before in pluckyng men backwarde from truth to lies, from sinceritie to hypocrisie, from religion to superstition, from Christ to Antichrist. In the processe of which sermon he procedyng, and calling out Steuen Gardiner by name to aunswere hym, alluded in a pleasaunt allegory, to a Cockfight, termyng the sayd Gardiner to be a fightyng Cocke, and himselfe to an other, but the Garden Cocke (he sayd) lacked good spurres, obiectyng moreouer to the sayd Gardiner, and opposing him in his Grammer rules, thus saying: that if he had aunswered him in the scholes, so as he had there preached at þe crosse he would haue geuen him vj. stripes: declaring furthermore what euill herbes this Gardiner had set in the Garden of Gods scripture. &c.

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MarginaliaSteuen Gardiner complayneth to the king of Doct.Barnes. Finally, with this sermon Gardiner was so tikled in the splene, that he immediately went to the king to cōplaine 

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This admitted fact is the only solid evidence linking Gardiner to Barnes' subsequent execution.

, shewyng how he beyng a bishop and a prelate of the realme, was handled and reuiled at Paules crosse.

Whereupon the king geuing to much eare to Gardiners griefe, was earnestly incensed agaynst Barnes, & with many high wordes rebuked hys doyngs in his priuy closet, hauyng with him the Erle of Southhampton which was the Lord Wrisley, and the maister of the horse which was Anthony Browne, D. Cockes, and D. Robinson. MarginaliaThe king displeased agaynst Barnes. Vnto whom when Barnes had submitted himselfe: Nay said the kyng, yeld thee not to me, I am a mortall man, and therewith rising vp, and turning to the Sacrament, and putyng of his bonet, sayd: yonder is the maister of vs all, author of truth, yeld in truth to hym, and that truth will I defend, & otherwise yeld thee not vnto me. Much ado there was, and great matter layd against Barnes. In conclusion this order was taken, that Barnes should goe apart with Winchester, to conferre and common together of their doctrine, certain witnesses beyng therunto appointed, to be as indifferent hearers MarginaliaD. Cockes and D. Robinson Arbiters betwene D. Barnes and Ste. Gardiner. of whom the one was Doctor Cockes, the other was D, Robinson, with ij. other also to them assigned, which should be reporters to the kyng of the disputation. At the first entry of which talke, Gardiner forgeuing him (as he saith) all that was past, offred hym the choyse, whether he would answer, or oppose, which was the Friday 

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5 March 1540.

after that Barnes had preached.

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MarginaliaThe question betwene D. Barnes & Steuen Gardiner. The question betwene them propounded, by Gardiners narration was this: Whether a man could doe any thyng good or acceptable, before the grace of iustification, or not? Which question rose vpon a certayne contention which had bene betwene them before. For Barnes had affirmed, that albeit God requireth of vs to forgeue our neighbour to obtayne forgeuenes of him: MarginaliaGod forgeueth vs first before we forgeue our neighbour. yet he said that God must forgeue vs first, before we forgeue our neighbour: For els to forgeue our neighbour were sinne by the text 

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Romans 14:23 (not Romans 15, as in the marginal note).

that sayeth: All that is not of faith, is sinne, &c. MarginaliaRom. 15. Thus the matter being propounded, Gardiner to proue the contrary, came forth wyth hys argumentes two or three, to the whiche argumentes

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(sayth
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