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1205 [1204]

K. Hen. 8. Queene Katherine Haward. The kinges Proclamation.

with muche ado. For what doth not importune labour ouercome? Thus farreforth he was now gotten. But by what parte of his bodye he dyd sticke faste, I am not certaine, neither may I faine, for so much as there be yet witnesses whiche dyd see these thinges, which woulde correct me if I should so doo. Notwithstanding this is most certaine that he dyd sticke fast betweene the grates, and coulde neither get out nor in.

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Thus this good man being in deede a Monke and hauing but short hose, by the which way he supposed sonest to escape, by the same he fel into further inconuenience, making of one danger two. For if the fire or lead had fallen on the outside, those partes which did hang out of the window had ben in danger: and contrarywise if the flame had raged within the Church, al his other parts had lyen open to the fire. And as this man dyd sticke fast in the window, so dyd the rest sticke as fast in the doores, that sooner they might haue bene burned, then they coulde once styrre or moue one foot. Through the which prese at the last there was a way found, that some going ouer their heades, gat out.

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Here also happened an other pageaunt in a certayne Monke (if I be not misaduised) of Glocester College, whereat Calphurnius MarginaliaPleno ridet [illegible text] ore Horat. might well laugh with an open mouth. So it happened that there was a young lad in this tumult, who seing the doores fast stopped with the prese or multitude, & that he had no way to get out, clymed vp vpon the doore, and there staying vppon the toppe of the doore, was forced to tary styl. For to come downe into the church againe, he durst not for feare of the fire, and to leape down toward the streate he could not without daunger of fallyng. When he had taried there a while, he aduised him self what to do: neither dyd occasion want to serue his purpose. For by chaunce, amongest them that gat out ouer mens heades, he sawe a Monke commyng towardes hym, whiche had a great wide Coule hanging at his backe. This the boye thought to be a good occasion for hym to escape by. MarginaliaA boye gotte into a Monkes coule. When the Monke came neare vnto hym, the boye whiche was in the toppe of the doore, came downe, and pretily conueied hym selfe into the Monkes Coule, thinckyng (as it came to passe in deede) that if the Monke dyd escape, he should also get out with hym. To be briefe, at the laste the Monke gat out ouer mens heades, with the boye in his Coule, and for a great while felt no weight or burden.

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At the laste, when he was somewhat more come to him selfe, and did shake his shoulders, feelyng his Coule heauier thē it was accustomed to be, & also hearyng þe voyce of one speaking behinde in his Coule, he was more afrayde then he was before, when he was in the thronge, thinkyng in very deede, that the euyl spirite which had set the Church on fire, had flyen into his Coule. By and by he began to playe the Exorcist: In the name of God (said he) and all saintes, I commaunde thee to declare what thou art that art behynde at my backe. To whom the boy answeared: I am Bertrames boy said he (for that was his name). But I, sayd the monke, adiure thee in the name of the vnseparable Trinitie, that thou wicked spirit do tell me who thou arte, from whence thou commest, and that thou get thee hence. I am Bertrames boy, said he good master let me goe: and with that his Coule began with the weight to cracke vppon his shoulders. The monke when he perceyued the matter, toke the boy out and discharged his Coule. The boy tooke his legges and ranne away as fast as he could.

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Among other, one wiser then the rest, ranne with the Church doore key, beating vpon the stone walles, thinking therwith to breake an hole through to escape out.

In the meane tyme, those that were in the streate lookyng diligently aboute them and perceyuyng all thynges to be without feare, marueyled at this sodaine outrage, & made signes and tokens to them that were in the church, to keepe them selues quiet, crying to them that there was no daunger.

But for so much as no worde could be heard by reason of the noyse that was within the Churche, those signes made them much more afraide then they were before, interpreting the matter, as though all had bene on fire without the Churche, and for the dropping of the lead and falling of other thinges, they should rather tary styl within þe church, and not to venter out. This trouble continued in this maner by the space of certaine houres.

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The nexte daye, and also all the weeke folowing there was an incredible number of byls set vp vpon the Church doores, to enquire for thinges that were lost, in such varietie & number, as Democritus might here againe haue had iust cause to laugh. If any man haue foūd a payre of shooes yesterday in S. Mary Church, or knoweth any man that hath founde them. &c. An other byl was set vp for a gowne that was lost. An other intreateth to haue his cappe restored. One lost his purse and gyrdle with certaine money: an other his sworde. One enquireth for a ring, and one for one thing, an other for an other. To be short there was fewe in this garboyle, but that either through negligence loste, or through obliuion leaft something behynd hym.

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Thus haue you hitherto hard a tragical storie of a terrible fire whiche dyd no hurt. The description whereof, although it be not so perfectly expressed according to the worthynes of the matter, yet because it was not to be passed with silence, we haue superficially set foorth some shadowe therof, whereby the wise & discret may sufficiently consider the rest, if any thing els be lacking in setting foorth the full narration therof. As touching the heretike, because he had not done his sufficient penaunce there by occasion of this hurley burley, therfore the next day folowing he was reclaimed into the Church of S. Frideswide, where he supplied the rest that lacked of his plenary penance.

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The 4. and 5. mariage of K. Henry the. 8. 
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Katherine Howard and Katherine Parr

This section was introduced in 1570, as Foxe's work moved towards becoming a chronologically complete narrative, and concentrated on public events. It draws chiefly on one of Foxe's most regular sources of information, and of chronological confusion: Edward Hall and Richard Grafton, The vnion of the two noble and illustrate famelies of Lancastre & Yorke (STC 12721: London, 1548), supplemented by a few more specific documents.Alec Ryrie

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Marginalia1541.
August.
The Ladye Anne of Cleue diuorced from the king
THe same yeare and moneth next folowing, after the apprehension of the Lord Cromwel, which was an. 1541 

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1540.

. the king immediately was diuorced from the Ladye Anne of Cleue. The cause of whiche separation being wholy committed to the Clergie of the Conuocation, MarginaliaThe kyng permitted to mary after hys diuorce. it was by them defined, concluded, and graunted, that the kyng being freed frō that pretensed matrimonie (as they called it) might mary wher he would & so might she likewise: who also consenting to the same diuorcement her selfe, by her owne letters, was after that taken no more for Queene, but onely called Ladye Anne of Cleue. Whiche thinges thus discussed by the Parlament and Conuocation house, MarginaliaThe king maryed to the Lady Katherine Haward his 5. wyfe. the king the same moneth was marryed to his fift wyfe, whiche was the Ladye Katherine Haward, Niece to the Duke of Northfolke, and daughter to the Lord Edmund Hawarde the Dukes brother. But this marriage likewise continued not long.

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In the same moneth of August, and the same yeare, I finde moreouer in some recordes 

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There are somewhat conflicting accounts of this episode. On 4 August 1540, a group of men were hanged, drawn and quartered at Tyburn: as many as thirteen people. They included (1) Giles Heron, Thomas More's son-in-law; (2) William Horne, a former Carthusian lay brother (a separate individual from Giles Heron), condemned for denying the royal supremacy along with Thomas Abell, Richard Featherstone and Edward Powell; (3) Clement Philpot, a servant of Lord Lisle, the deputy of Calais, attainted for treasonable adherence to Cardinal Pole, but hardly an exemplary Catholic, for he had readily denounced a priest named Gregory Botolph for papalism earlier the same year; (4) Charles Carew, a bastard of the recently executed Sir Nicholas Carew, Charles now being attained of felony for committing a robbery, and as a result merely hanged; and (5) Thomas Epsam, whose case Foxe summarises from the account in Hall and Grafton, The vnion of the two noble and illustrate famelies of Lancastre & Yorke, part II, fo. 243v. Heron, Horne, Philpot and Carew, along with some of the other victims, had all been attainted in the outgoing parliament. So too had Laurence Coke, prior of Doncaster, for his role in the Pilgrimage of Grace. However, Coke survived to be pardoned in October, although Foxe was not alone in assuming that he had met his end. The sources for Foxe's account, which does not follow any other surviving account precisely, are unclear, but there was certainly more than one. Foxe's account of Epsam, at least, is taken entirely from Hall and Grafton's chronicle, but Epsam is the only victim whom Hall and Grafton list. Stanford E. Lehmberg, The Later Parliaments of Henry VIII (Cambridge, 1977), pp. 109-11, 126-7; National Archives, SP 1 / 160 fo. 128v (LP XV 727); LP XV 953; Charles Wriothesley, A Chronicle of England during the Reigns of the Tudors, ed. William D. Hamilton, vol. I (Camden Society ns XI, 1875), p. 121; 32 Henry VIII c. 49 (Statutes of the Realm, vol. III (1817), p. 812).

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, besides the. xxiiij. Chapterhouse monkes aboue recited, whom Cope 
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Nicholas Harpsfield, Dialogi Sex contra ... Pseudomartyres (Antwerp, 1566). Foxe's decision to reveal the existence of a group of Catholic martyrs of whom Harpsfield had not known may appear quixotic. It did, however, help to establish his impartiality and credibility as a historian, as well as emphasising none too subtly that it was he, not Harpsfield, who had the best access to documents.

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doth sanctifie for holy martyrs, for suffering in the Popes deuotion, MarginaliaVi. popish Monkes for denying the kinges supremacye, executed. agaynst the kinges supremacie, other sixe which were also brought to Tiborne and there executed in the like case of rebellion. Of whom, the first was the Prior of Dancaster, The secōd a monke of the Charterhouse of Lōdō, called Gyles Horne, some cal hym William Horne: the third one Tho. Epsam a Monke of Westminster, who had his Monkes garment pluckt from his backe, being the last monke in K. Henryes dayes that dyd weare that monkish weede: the fourth one Philpot: the fift one Carewe: the sixt was a Fryer. See what a difficultie it is to plucke vp blynd superstition once rooted in mans hart by a litle custome.

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Marginalia1542. Now as touching the late marriage betwene the king and the Lady Haward, ye heard how this matrimonie endured not long: for in the yere next following. 1542. the said Ladye Katherine was accused to the kyng of incontinent liuyng, not only before her mariage with Fraunces Direham, but also of spousebreche sith her marriage, with Tho. Culpeper. For the which both the men aforesayd, by acte of Parlament were atteinted and executed for high treason, and also the said Lady Katherine late queene, with the Lady Iane Rochford widowe, late wyfe to George Boleyne Lord Rochford, brother to Queene Anne Boleyne, MarginaliaIt is reported of some that this Lady Rochforde forged a false letter agaynst her husband and Queene Anne his sister, by the which they were both cast away. Which if it be so, the iudgement of God then is here to be marked. were beheaded for their desertes within the Tower. Ex Hallo & alijs.

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After the death and punishmente of thys Ladye his fourth wyfe, the king callyng to remembraunce the wordes of the Lorde Cromwell, and missing nowe more and more his olde Coūsailour, & partly also smellyng somewhat the wayes of Winchester, beganne a litle to set in his foot agayne in the cause of Religion,. And although he euer bare a speciall fauour to Thomas Cranmer Archbishop of Canterbury (as you shall heare more hereafter, God wyllyng in the life of Cranmer) MarginaliaThe kinges mynde inclining to reformation of religion. yet nowe the more he missed the Lord Cromwell, the more he inclined to the Archbishop, and also to the right cause of Religion. And therefore in the same yeare 

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In fact the previous year, 1541, while Henry VIII was on his northern progress.

and in the moneth of October, after the execution of this Queene, the kyng vnderstanding some abuses yet to remayne vnrefourmed, namely about pilgrimages and idolatrie, and other thinges moe besides to be corrected within his dominions, directed his letters vnto the foresaid Archbishop of Canterbury, for the speedie redresse and reformatiō of the same. The tenour of which letters hereafter fully ensueth, in these wordes.

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The kiyges letters 
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Likely taken from Lambeth Palace Library, Register of Thomas Cranmer, fo. 21r.

to the Archbishop, for the abolishing of Idolatrie.

MarginaliaThe kinges letters to the Archbyshop for reforming of Idolatry. RIght reuerend father in God, right trustie and well beloued, we greet you wel, letting you to wyt, that wheras

hereto-
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