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1256 [1255]

K. Hen. 8. Persecution in Scotland. Maister George Wisehart Martyr.

holy, temperate, and such as cleaueth vnto the true word of doctrine, that he maye be able to exhort with wholesome learning, and to improue that which they say against him.

The fourth part of his sermō was how heresies should be knowen. Heresies (quoth he) be knowen on this maner: MarginaliaThe maner to know an hereticke. As the Goldsmith knoweth the fine golde from the vnperfect, by the touchstone: so likewise maye we knowe heresie by the vndoubted touchstone: that is, the true, sincere, and vndefiled worde of God. At the last he added, that heretikes shoulde be put downe in this present life. MarginaliaThe Gospel was of letting the teares to growe vnto haruest. To which proposition the Gospel appeared to repugne, whiche he entreated of: Let them grow vnto the haruest: the haruest is the end of the world. Neuerthelesse, he affirmed that they should be put downe by the Ciuile magistrate & lawe. And when he ended his sermon: incontinently they caused master George to ascend into the pulpit, there to heare his accusation & articles. MarginaliaIohn Lauder, accuser. And right against hym stood by, one of the fed flocke a monster, Iohn Lauder, laden ful of cursinges, written in paper. Of the which he tooke out a roll, both long and also full of cursinges, threates, maledictions, and wordes of deuilish spite and malice, saying to the innocent M. George, so many cruel and abominable wordes, MarginaliaThe way to feare the ignoraunt. & hit hym so spitefully with the Popes thunder, that the ignorant people dreaded least the earth then would haue swalowed hym vp quicke. Notwithstanding he stood styl with great pacience, hearing their sayinges, not once mouyng or chaunging hys countenance.

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MarginaliaThe fruites of their charitie. When that this fed sowe had read throghout al his lying manasinges. his face runnyng downe with sweat, and frothing at his mouth like a boare, he spit at M. Georges face, saying: what annswearest thou to these sayinges, thou runnagate traytor theefe. which we haue duely proued by sufficient witnes against thee? M. George hearing this, kneeled downe vpon his knees in the Pulpit, making his prayer to God. When he had ended his prayer, sweetly and Christianly he answeared to them al in this maner.

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¶ Master George his answeare.

MarginaliaM. Wisehartes aunswere. MAny and horrible sayinges vnto me, a Christian man, many wordes abominable for to heare, ye haue spoken here this daye. Whiche not onely to teache, but also once to thinke, I thought euer great abomination. Wherefore I pray your discretiōs quietly to heare me, that ye may know what were my sayings, & the maner of my doctrine. This my petition (my Lordes) I desire to be hearde for three causes.

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MarginaliaThree causes why M. wysehart deserued to be heard. The first is, because thorowe preachyng of the woorde of God, his glory is made manifest. It is reasonable therfore, for the aduauncing of the glorye of God, that ye heare me teaching truely the pure worde of God without any dissimulation.

MarginaliaThe 2. cause. The secōd reason is, because that your health springeth of the word of God: for he worketh al thing by his worde. It were therefore an vnrighteous thing, if ye should stop your eares from me, teaching truely the worde of God.

MarginaliaThe 3. cause. The third reason is, because your doctrine vttereth many blasphemous and abominable wordes, not commyng of the inspiration of God, but of the deuyl, with no lesse peryl then of my life. It is iust therfore and reasonable your discretions to know what my wordes and doctrine are, and what I haue euer taught in my tyme in this realme, that I perishe not vniustly, to the greate peryll of your soules. Wherfore both for the glory and honour of God, your owne health, and safegarde of my life, I beseech your discretions to heare me, & in the meane tyme I shall recite my doctrine without any colour.

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MarginaliaM. wisehartes doctrine. First & chiefely, since 

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That is, since his return from England in 1543 or 1544.

the time I came into this realme, I taught nothing but the ten cōmaundements of God, the xij. articles of the fayth, & the prayer of the Lord in the mother tongue. Moreouer, in Dundie I taught the Epistle of saint Paul to the Romaines. And I shal shew your discretions faythfully what fashion and maner I vsed when I taught, without any humane dread, so that your discretions geue me your eares beneuolent and attent.

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Sodenly then with an high voyce cryed the accuser, the fed sowe: MarginaliaThe cry of the scribes and Phariseis. thou heretike, runnagate, traytour and thiefe, it was not lawfull for thee to preache. Thou hast taken the power at thine owne hande, without any authoritie of the church. We forethinke that thou hast ben a preacher so long. Then al the whole congregation of the prelates with their complices, sayd these wordes: If we geue hym licence to preach, he is so craftie, and in the holy scripture so exercised, that he wyl perswade the people to his opiniō, and raise thē against vs.

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MarginaliaM. Wisehart apealeth to the Gouernour. Master George seeyng their malicious and wicked entent, appealed from the Lord Cardinall to the Lord gouernour, as to an indifferent and equal Iudge. To whom the accuser Iohn Lauder aforesayde, wyth hoggishe voyce answeared, Is not 

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A statement reflecting the fact that, while the earl of Arran remained governor in name, Cardinal Beaton dominated Scotland's government in fact. Arran was suspected to be a friend of evangelicals, if not actually one himself: hence Wishart's appeal.

my Lord Cardinall þe second person wtin this realme, MarginaliaThe style and titles of the Archb. of saint Andrewes. Chauncelour of Scotland, Archb. of S. Andrewes, bishop of Meropois, Commendator of Aberbrothoke, Legatus natus, Legatus a Latere? and so reciting as many titles of his vnworthy honours, as would haue lodē a shyp, much sooner an asse, is not he, quoth Iohn Lauder, an equal Iudge apparantly vnto thee? Whom other desirest thou to be thy Iudge?

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To whom this humble man answeared, saying: I refuse not my Lord Cardinal, but I desire the word of God to be my iudge, and the temporall estate, with some of your lordships myne auditors, because I am here my Lord Gouernours prisoner. Wherupon the prideful & scorneful people that stood by, mocked hym saying: MarginaliaThe wordes of the people against the L. Gouernour. Such man such Iudge, speaking seditious and reprochfull wordes against the gouernour & other the Nobles, meanyng them also to be heretikes. And incontinent without al delay they would haue geuen sentence vpon master George, and that without farther processe, had not certain men there coūsailed the Cardinal to reade againe the articles, and to heare his answeares therupon, that the people might not cōplayne of his wrōgful condemnation.

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And shortly to declare, these were the articles folowing, with his answeares, as farre as they would geue hym leaue to speake. For when he entēded to mitigate their leasinges, and shew the maner of his doctrine, by and by they stopped his mouth with an other article.

Marginalia1. Article. 1. THou false hereticke, runnagate, traytour, and thiefe, deceyuer of the people, thou despisest the holy church, and in like case contemnest my Lord gouernors authoritie. And this we know for surety, that whē thou preachedst in Dundy, & wast charged by my Lord Gouernours authority to desist: neuerthelesse thou wouldest not obey, but perseueredst in the same: and therfore the Bishop of Brothen cursed thee, and deliuered thee into the deuylles handes, and gaue thee in commaundement that thou shouldest preache no more. That notwithstanding thou diddest continue obstinately.

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MarginaliaAunswere. My Lordes, I haue read in the Actes 

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Acts 5:29.

of the apostles, that it is not lawful to desist from the preaching of the gospell, for the threates and manases of men. Therefore it is written: We shall rather obey God then men. MarginaliaAct. 5. I haue also read in the prophet Malachie: 
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Malachi 2:2.

I shal curse your blessinges, and blesse your cursinges, MarginaliaMalach. 2. beleuyng firmely, that the Lorde will turne your cursinges into blessinges.

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Marginalia2. Article. 2 Thou false heretike dyddest saye, that the priest standing at the altar saying Masse, was like a Foxe waggyng his tayle in Iulye. MarginaliaAunswere. My Lordes, I sayd not so. These were my sayinges: The mouyng of the bodye outwarde, without the inwarde mouyng of the hart, is nought els, but the playing of an ape, and not the true seruyng of God: for God is a secrete searcher of mens harts. Therefore who wyll truely adore and honour God, he must in spirite and veritie honour hym. Then the accuser stopped his mouth with an other article.

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Marginalia3. Article. 3 Thou false heretike preachedst against the sacraments saying, that there were not seuen sacramentes.

MarginaliaAunswere.
Of the 7. sacramentes.
My Lordes, and it be your pleasures, I neuer taught of þe number of þe sacramentes, whether they were seuen or eleuen. So many as are instituted by Christe, and are shewed to vs by the Euangel, I professe openly. Except it be the word of God, I dare affirme nothing.

Marginalia4. Article. 4 Thou false heretike haste openly taught, that auricular confession is not a blessed Sacrament. And thou sayest that we should only confesse vs to God, and to no priest.

MarginaliaAunswere.
Confession what it is and to whō it ought to be made.
My Lords, I say that auricular confession, seing that it hath no promise of the Euangel, therefore it can not be a Sacramente. Of the confession to be made to God, there are many testimonies in scripture, as when Dauid sayth: I thought I would knowledge myne iniquitie against my self vnto the Lord, and he forgaue the punishment of my sinne. Psalm. 32. 

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Psalm 32:5.

Here confession signifieth the secrete knowledging of our sinnes before God. When I exhorted the people in this maner, I reproued no maner of confession. And farther saint Iames 
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James 5:16.

saith: Knowledge your faultes one to an other, and praye one for an other, that you maye be healed. MarginaliaIames 5. When that he had sayde these wordes, the bishops and their complices cryed and grynned with their teeth, saying: Se ye not what colors he hath in his speakyng, that hee may beguile vs and seduce vs to his opinion?

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Marginalia5. Article. 5 Thou hereticke dydst say openly, that it was necessary to euery man, to knowe and vnderstand his Baptisme, and what it was, contrary to generall Councels and the states of holy Church.

My
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