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1263 [1262]

K. Henry. 8. Persecutiō in Kent. W. Carder, Grebill, Harrisō, Brown, Walker, Martyrs.

MarginaliaAlexander Symmerwaill the Byshops seruaunt made temporall iudge for Walter Mille. MarginaliaThe miraculous working of God in Walter Mille, conueyed him to the fire, where agaynst all naturall reason of man his boldnes and hardynes did more & more increase: so that the spirite of GOD workyng miraculously in hym, made it manifest to the people that his cause and Articles were iust and he innocently put downe.

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Now when all thynges were ready for his death, and he conueyed with armed men to the fire, Oliphant bad hym passe to the stake: and he sayd, nay, but wilt thou put me vp with thy hand and take part of my death, thou shalt see me passe vp gladly, for by the law of God I am forbyddē to put handes vpon my selfe. Then Oliphant put him vp with his hand and he ascended gladly, saying: Introibo ad altare Dei, MarginaliaW. Mille denyed by the byshops to speake. and desired that he might haue place to speake to the people, the which Oliphant and other of the burners denyed, saying that he had spoken ouer much, for the Bishops were altogether offended that the matter was so long continued. MarginaliaWalter Mille permitted by the young men to speake. Then some of the young men committed both the burners, & the Byshops their maisters to the deuill, saying that they beleued that they should lamēt that day, and desired the sayd Walter to speake what he pleased.

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And so after he had made his humble supplicatiō to God on his knees, he arose, and standyng vpon the coales sayd on this wise. MarginaliaThe wordes of W. Mille to the people Deare frendes the cause why I suffer this day is not for any crime layd to my charge (albeit I be a miserable sinner before God) but onely for the defence of the fayth of Iesus Christ, set forth in the new and old Testament vnto vs, for the which as þe faythful Martyrs haue offred them selues gladly before, beyng assured after the death of their bodyes of eternall felicitie, so this day I prayse God, that he hath called me of his mercy among the rest of his seruaūts, to seale vp his truth with my life: which as I haue receaued it of hym, so willingly I offer it to his glory. Therfore as you will escape the eternall death, be no more seduced with the lyes of Priestes, Monkes, Friers, Priours, Abbots, Byshops, and the rest of the sect of Antichrist, but depend onely vpon Iesus Christ and his mercy, that ye may be deliuered from condemnation. All that while there was great mournyng and lamentation of the multitude, MarginaliaThe cōstant hardines of W. Mylle. for they perceiuyng his patience, stoutnes, and boldnes, constancie, and hardynes, were not onely moued and styrred vp, but their hartes also were so inflamed, MarginaliaW. Mille the last Martyr in scotland. that hee was the last Martyr that dyed in Scotland for the Religion.

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The Martyrdome of Walter Mille.

woodcut [View a larger version]

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CUL copy: he is depicted as having a greyish brown beard and hair. WREN copy: the same details are provided.

MarginaliaWalter Mille of scotland Martyr.
1558.

After his prayer, he was hoysed vp on the stake, and beyng in the fire, he sayd: Lord haue mercy on me: Pray people while there is tyme, and so constauntly departed.

Epitaphium.


Non nostra impietas aut actæ crimina vitæ
Armarunt hostes in mea fata truces.

Sola fides Christi sacris signata libellis,
Quæ vitæ causa est, est mihi causa necis.

After this, by the iust iudgement of God, in the same place where Walter Mille was burnt, the Images of the great Church of the Abbey, which passed both in number and costlynes, were burnt 

Commentary  *  Close

This took place after John Knox's first sermon in St. Andrews on 13 June 1559. David Laing (ed), The Miscellany of the Wodrow Society, vol. 1 (Edinburgh, 1844), p. 60

in tyme of reformation. Ex fideli testimonio è Scotia misso.

And thus much concerning such matters as happened, and such Martyrs as suffered in the Realme of Scotland for the faith of Christ Iesus, and testimony of his truth.

¶ Persecution in Kent.

IN reuoluyng the Registers of William Warrhā 

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Archbishop Warham's persecution

As Foxe indicates, his source for this section is the register of Archbishop William Warham of Canterbury. These documents survive as Lambeth Palace Library, Warham Register, fos. 159r-175v and they are printed in Kent Heresy Proceedings,1511-12, ed. Norman P. Tanner. Kent Records 26 (Maidstone, 1997). Foxe's reprinting of several of these documents is not always accurate, as he occasionally concealed the opinions of those Lollards of which he disproved (such as some of the opinions of William Carder, Agnes Grebil, John Browne and Edward Walker). Foxe had two objectives in reprinting these documents. The first was to demonstrate that there was a 'True Church' before Luther (he declares this as one of his main purposes in supplying accounts of the Lollard martyrs). The second objective was to emphasize the cruelty of the Catholic clergy in persecuting these people, most especially Agnes Grebil (whose husband and children testified against her, for which act he blames the Catholic clergy). Foxe's concern to emphasis this cruelty is so great that - in contrast to his general policy throughout the A&M - he exaggerates the contrition and compliance of these Lollards, in order to heighten the savagery of the Catholic churches (he does this with the Lollards Carder, Harryson and Alice Grevil).

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Thomas S. Freeman

Archbyshop of Canterbury, Marginalia[illegible text] I finde moreouer besides these aboue comprehended, in the tyme and reigne of kyng Henry, the names of diuers other, whereof some suffered Martyrdome for þe lyke testimonie of Gods worde, and some recanted, which albeit here do come a litle out of order, and shoulde haue bene placed before in the beginning of kyng Henryes reigne: MarginaliaCertayne [illegible text] yet rather then they should vtterly be omitted I thought here to geue them a place, though somewhat out of tyme, yet not altogether I trust without [illegible text] vnto the Reader, 
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The fact that this material appears out of chronological order in the A&M in Foxe is a compelling indication that this material was being transcribed and translated while the 1570 edition was being printed.

beyng no lesse worthy to be Registred and preserued from obliuion, then other of their fellowes before them.

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¶ A Table of certaine true seruantes of God and Martyrs omitted, which were burned in the Dioces of Cant. vnder William Warrham Archbyshop of Canterbury, with the names of their persecuters and accusers. an. 1511.
Persecuters
and Iudges.
Accusers and
Witnesses.
The Martyrs.
MarginaliaMartyrs in Kent before the tyme of M. Luther.
William
Warrham,
Archbysh.
of Caun-
terbury.

D. Cutbert
Tonstall,

Doctour of
both lawes,
and Chaū-
celour of
the Archb.

D. Sylue-
ster,
Law-
yer.

D. Wellys.
Doctour
Clement.
Browne.

Doct. Iohn
Collet,

Deane of
Paules. 
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This is the same John Colet whom Foxe had praised as a proto-Protestant reformer of the Church (although it should be emphasized that Colet was, contrary to Foxe's implications, an orthodox Catholic). Thr late insertion of this material into Foxe's text (as indicated by the fact that the material mentioned in the previous comment appears out of chronological order in the A&M , which is a compelling indication that this material was being transcribed and translated while the 1570 edition was being printed), probably hindered Foxe from noting this discrepancy.

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Doctour
Wodyng-
ton. 
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This is the same Dr Thomas Woodington whom Foxe has already claimed earlier in the A&M as having been killed by a bull before 1509. In fact, Thomas Woodington, far from being slain by a bull in the reign of Henry VII, rose to become Dean of the Arches in 1513 and died around 1522 (Emden A).


William Rich of
Benynden.
Agnes Iue, of
Cant.
Robert Hilles, of
Tenterden.
Steuen Castelyn of
Tenterden.

Io. Grebill of Tē-
terdē, husbād to

Agnes Grebill
the Martyr.
Christph. Grebill
the naturall sōne
of Agnes Grebil
the Martyr.
Iohn Grebill þe yoū-
ger, the naturall
sonne of Agnes
Grebil
þe martyr.
Will. Oldbert
of Godmersham.
Laur. Cheterdē.
Tho. Harwood
of Rowenden.
Ioane Harwood
hys wife.
Phill. Hardwood.
Williā Baker of
Cramebroke.
Edw. Walker.
Robert Reynold,
of Benynden.
Williē Carder,
of Tēterden,
Weauer.
Agnes Gre-
bill,
of Tenter-
dē, wife of Ioh.
Grebill þe elder,
and mother to
Iohn &
Chri-
stopher Grebill,
who with her
owne husbande
accused her to
death, being of
three
score yeare
of age.
Rob. Harrison
of Halden, of the
age
of lx. yeares.
Iohn Browne,
of Ashford.
Edward Walker
of Maidstone,
Cutler.
The Articles wherupon these v. blessed Martyrs were accused and condemned by the foresayde Iudges and witnesses, were these as folow. 
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Foxe is conflating the virtually identical charges made against William Carder, Agnes Grebil, John Browne and Edward Walker (see Kent Heresy Proceedings, 1511-12, ed. Norman P. Tanner. Kent Records 26 (Maidstone, 1997),pp. 2-3, 8-9, 16-17, 43-44 and 50-51). But Foxe omits two articles that appeared in each of these lists of charges. The first was the legally required article asking if the defendant was from the diocese where the trial was being held. The second was a charge that the various defendants denied that baptism was essential for salvation (Kent Heresy Proceedings, pp. 2, 8, 16, 44 and 50).

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MarginaliaEx Regist. VV. VVarrham. Fol. 177. FIrst, for holding that the Sacrament of the aultar was not the true and very body of Christ, but onely materiall bread in substaunce. 

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The clause 'but only material bread in substance' is not found in the register and was added by Foxe.

2. That auricular cōfession was not to be made to a priest.

3. That no power is geuen of God to Priestes of ministring sacramentes, saying Masse, or other Diuine seruice, more then to lay men. 

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Note how Foxe, in a marginal note, qualifies and 'explains' this charge.

MarginaliaTheir meaning was this: priestes can claime no more vertue or hye estate by their orders, then can a lay man.

4. That the solemnisation of Matrimonie is not necessarie to saluation of soule, neither was instituted of God  

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Note how Foxe, in a marginal note, qualifies and 'explains' this charge.

(for a Sacrament they ment.)

5. That the Sacrament of extreme vnction is not auaileable, nor necessary to soules health. 

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Interestingly, Foxe modifies the charge, which actually alleged that the defendant regarded pilgrimages and relics as damnable.

6. That the Images of the Crosse, of the Crucifixe, of the blessed virgin and other Saintes, are not to be worshipped:

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