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1264 [1263]

K. Hen. 8. Carder, A. Grebill, Martyrs. husband against the wyfe.

and that they which worshyp them, do commit Idolatry.

7. That pilgrimage to holy places and holy Reliques be not necessary nor meritorious to soules health.

8. That Inuocation is not to bee made to Saintes, but onely to God, and that he onely heareth their prayers.

9. That holy bread and holy water haue no more vertue after their consecration then before.

10. That they haue beleued, taught and holden all and euery of the same damnable opinions before, as they dyd at that present.

11. That where they now haue confessed their errours, they would not haue so done, but onely for feare of manifest proufes brought agaynst them: either els but for feare to be conuicted by them, they would neuer haue confessed the same of their owne accorde.

12. That they haue commoned and talked of the said damnable errours heretofore with diuers other persons & haue had bookes concernyng the same.

¶ The order and forme of processe vsed agaynst these v. Martyrs aforesayd, and first of William Carder. Anno. 1511.

MarginaliaThe processe of iudgement against W. Carder Martyr. WIlliam Carder beyng conuented before William Warrhā Archbyshop, and his Chauncellour Cutbert Tonstall, Doctour Siluester, Doctour Welles, Clement Browne with other moe, the Notaries beyng William Potkyng and Dauid Cooper, the articles and interrogatories aboue specified were layd vnto hym. Which Articles he there and then denyed, affirmyng that he neuer dyd, nor doth hold any such opinions, otherwise then becommeth that euery Christen man would do, ready to conforme himselfe in all points to their doctrine: and therfore to cleare himselfe þe better against those Interrogatories obiected against thē, he stode in deniall of the same. The lyke also did euery of the other foure Martyrs after him.

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MarginaliaThe straite dealing of W. Warrham Archbyshop of Canterbury. All which notwithstandyng, the vncharitable Archbyshop seeking all aduauntage agaynst him that he might, and more then right law would geue, brought in agaynst hym such witnesses, as before were abiured, whom he knew for feare of relapse, durst do none other but disclose whatsoeuer they knew: to wytte, MarginaliaWitnesses agaist W. Carder. Christofer Grebyll, William Riche, Agnes Iue, Iohn Grebyll, Robert Hils, and Steuē Castelyn. Whose depositions beyng taken, and the sayd Carder beyng asked what he could say for himselfe, he had nothyng, he sayd, to produce agaynst their attestations, but submitted him vnto their mercy saying moreouer, that if he had euer any misbelief of the Sacrament of the Church, contrary to the common holdyng of the Catholickes, he now was sory, and repented him therof. MarginaliaW. Carder wrōgfully condemned by W. Warrham the Archbyshop. Which beyng done, the Archbishop this his submission notwithstandyng, & notwithstāding that the Register maketh no mētion of any relapse, cōtrary to good law, at least contrary to all Christian charitie, proceeded to the readyng of his blynd sentence, and so condemned hym: who neither stode stubburnely to that whiche he dyd hold, neither yet did hold any thyng contrary to the mynde of holy Scripture, to the execution of burnyng. 

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Foxe exaggerates Carder's contrition. Carder did not deny the charges against him and he said that if he misunderstood anything contrary to Catholic faith, then he was sorry. He then declared that nothing he had been charged with was contrary to the Catholic faith (Kent Heresy Proceedings, 1511-12, ed.Norman P. Tanner, Kent Records 26. (Maidstone, 1997), p. 14).

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MarginaliaAgn Grebill, Martyr. Then after him was called for Agnes Grebyll, and examined of the sayd xij. Articles aboue recited, which she in like maner denyed, as the other had done before, puttyng her aduersaries to their proofe. Then the Archbyshop callyng for Iohn Grebyll her husband, and Christofer and Iohn Grebyll her two sonnes (who before had bene abiured) caused them vpon their othe to depose agaynst their owne naturall mother, and so they did.

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MarginaliaAgn Grebill accused of her own husband. First Iohn Grebyll the elder her husband, examined by vertue of his othe, to say how Agnes his wife hath and doth beleue of the Sacrament of the aultar, of goyng in pilgrimage, offerynges, and worshippyng of Saintes, Images &c. 

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Foxe omits John Grebill's testimony about his wife's denial of the spiritual efficacy of pilgrimages, auricular confession, and holy bread and water. None of her statements were - from Foxe's point of view - controversial. John Grebill's deposition is printed in Kent Heresy Proceedings, 1511-12, ed. Norman P. Tanner. Kent Records 26 (Maidstone, 1997), pp. 18-20.

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and how long she hath so holden, thus deposed: that first about the end of kyng Edwardes dayes the fourth, 
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Edward IV died in April 1483; this statement was made in 1511. Agnes Grebill and her circle were Lollards of long standing.

in his house, by the teachyng of Iohn Iue, she was brought to that belief & so forth frō thence dayly, till this tyme of detection, she hath continued.

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And besides that (sayd he) when my children Christofer and Iohn, beyng about vij. yeares of age, were then taught of me in my house the sayd errour of the Sacrament of the aultar, & by þe said Agnes my wife diuers times, she was alwayes of one mynde in the sayd misbelief agaynst the Sacrament of the aultar, that it was not Christes body, flesh and bloud, but onely bread. MarginaliaThe catholicke Clergye of the Papistes set the husband agaynst the wyfe. Furthermore beyng examined how he knew that she was stedfast in the said errour, he sayd that she alwayes without contradiction affirmed this teachyng, and sayd the sayd opinion was good, and was well contēted that her children aforesayd, were of the same opiniōs against the Sacrament of the aultar. &c. Ex verbis Registri.

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MarginaliaThe catholicke Papistes set the children to accuse their owne mother. The Byshop with his Catholicke Doctours, not yet contented with this, to set the husband agaynst the wife, proceedyng further in their Catholicke zeale, caused her two children Christopher and Iohn to be produced, one of the age of xxij. the other of xix. agaynst their owne naturall mother. MarginaliaChristopher Grebill and Iohn Grebill, witnes agaynst Agnes Grebil their mother. Who likewise being pressed with their oth, wytnessed and sayd, 

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In what follows, Foxe conflates the depositions of Agnes Grebil's sons, Christopher and John (Kent Heresy Proceedings, 1511-12, ed. Norman P. Tanner. Kent Records 26 (Maidstone, 1997), pp. 20-21. Most of what follows is from Christopher's more detailed desposition. Although he abridged this material, Foxe's version of it is essentially accurate.

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that the foresayd Agnes their mother held, beleued, taught and defended, that the sacrament of the aultar was but bread, and not the very body of Christ, flesh, and bloud: That Baptisme was no better in the Fount, then out of the Fount: That confirmation was of no effecte: That the solemnisation of Matrimony was no sacrament: 
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Christopher actually stated that his mother believed that it was not necessary that marriage be solemnized in a church (Kent Heresy Proceedings, 1511-12, ed. Norman P. Tanner. Kent Records 26 (Maidstone, 1997), p. 20.

That confession to God alone was sufficient: Also that going in pilgrimage and worshipping of Saintes and Images was of none effect. &c. Item, that their father and the sayd Agnes their mother held taught, and communed of the sayd errours wythin their house diuers tymes, by the space of those three yeares past, as well on holy dayes, as workyng dayes, affirming and teaching that the sayd opinions were good and lawfull, and to be holden and maintayned, and agreement was made amongest them, that none of thē should discouer or bewray either of these beliefes in any wyse. 
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Christopher went on to state that he was converted to these heresies, not by his parents, but by John Ive and that books that Ive loaned him (Kent Heresy Proceedings, 1511-12, ed. Norman P. Tanner. Kent Records 26 (Maidstone, 1997),p. 20).

Finally, 
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This final portion is from the deposition of Agnes Grebil's son, John (Kent Heresy Proceedings, 1511-12, ed. Norman P. Tanner. Kent Records 26 (Maidstone, 1977), p. 21).

that they neuer heard their sayd father and mother, holding nor teaching any other opinions, then be þe sayd errours agaynst the Sacrament of the altar, and pilgrimages, offerings, worshipping of saintes and Images, as farre as they could remember. &c. Ex verbis Regist.

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MarginaliaExample of an vnnatual husband, and of vnnatural children. Here hast thou (Christian reader) before thine eyes, an horrible spectacle of a singular, yea of a double impietie, first of an vnnaturall husband, witnessing against hys owne wyfe: and of as vnnaturall children, accusing & witnessing agaynst their owne naturall mother. Which although they had so done, the cause beyng of it selfe iust and true (as it was not) yet had they done more then nature would haue led them to do. Now the case being such, as which by gods word standeth firme, sounde, and perfect, what impietie were it for men to accuse a poore innocent in case of heresie, which is no heresie? MarginaliaGreat impietye of the husband toward the wyfe. Now besides all this, the husband to come in agaynst hys owne wife, MarginaliaGreater impietie in the children agaynst the mother. and the children to bryng the knyfe wherwith to cut the throate of their owne naturall mother that bare thē, that nourished thē, that brought them vp, what is this, but impietie vpon impietie, prodigious and horrible for all Christian eares to heare? MarginaliaGreatest impietie of all in the Clergymen the authors hereof. And yet þe greatest impietie of all resteth in these pretēsed Catholickes and Clergiemen, which were the authors and causers of all this mischiefe. 

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Here, as in many other places in the A&M, Foxe's concern with family values is manifest. He is obviously appalled that a husband would testify against his wife and that children would testify against their mother. And Foxe is also appalled that the authorities would force them to do so. Typically, Foxe concludes by placing most of the blame on the Catholic clergy.

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The cause why thys good woman so stood (as she dyd) in the deniall of these foresayd articles obiected, was thys, for that shee neuer thought that her husband and her owne children, who onely were priuye of her religion, woulde testifie agaynst her. Whom notwithstanding after she perceiued to come in, and to depose thus agaynst her, denying still as shee did before) that shee did euer hold such maner of errours, and being now destitute of all frends and comfort, brast out in these wordes openly (as the register reporteth) MarginaliaEx Regist. W. Warrham. Fol. 177. that shee repented the tyme that euer shee bare those children of her body. 

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The register states that Agnes 'penitet eam ipsos filios suos umquam peperisse' (Kent Heresy Proceedings, 1511-12, ed. Norman P. Tanner. Kent Records 26 (Maidstone, 1997), p. 18).

And thus the Archb. wyth his doctours, hauing now the thing that they sought for, albeit shee was ready to denye all errours, and to confirme her selfe to their religion, 
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Interestingly, there is nothing in the register that Alice recanted or that she was ready to recant. Foxe is exaggerating her compliance in order to underscore the cruelty of the Catholics.

MarginaliaAgnes Grebill condemned by the sentence of the Archb. yet notwithstanding, they refusyng her readynes and conformitie, proceeded to their sentence, and so condemned her to death.

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MarginaliaRobert Harison examined. After whose condemnation, next was brought to examination Rob. Harrison, whom in like maner, because he stoode in his deniall, contrary witnesses agaynst hym were produced: to wit, Christofer Grebyll, W. Rych, W. Olberd, Agnes Iue, who a litle before had bene abiured, and therefore were so much the more apt and appliable to serue the Bishops humour for daunger of relapse. After þe deposition and conuiction of which witnesses, although he submitted himselfe to repentaunce and conformitie, 

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According to Warham's register, Harryson submitted himself to the Church but he did not recant his beliefs (Kent Heresy Proceedings, 1511-12, ed. Norman P. Tanner. Kent Records 26 (Maidstone, 1997), p. 7).

yet notwithstanding it would not be receaued, but sentēce was read and he condemned with the other two aforesayd, vnto the fire. MarginaliaW. Carder, Agnes Grebill Robert Harison, Martyrs.

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And thus these three were condemned and burned, MarginaliaThe bishops certificate to the kyng. and certificat geuen vp of them together to the king from Warrham the Archbyshop vpon the same. An. 1511. Maij. 2. 

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The certificate of their excommunication and transference to the secular arm would have been sent to Chancery. What Foxe is referring to is a copy of the certificate recorded in Warham's register (fos. 172v-173r). A translation of this document can be found in Norman P. Tanner, 'Pennances imposed on Kentish Lollards by Archbishop Warham, 1511-12' in Lollardy and the Gentry in the Later Middle Ages, ed. Margaret Aston and Colin Richmond (Stroud, 1997), p. 246.

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Ex Regist. Cant.

MarginaliaIo. Browne Edward Walker Martyrs. Ouer and besides these three godly Martyrs aboue recited, I finde inthe foresaid registers of W. Warrham, two other like godly martyrs also in the same yeare, and for the same. xij. Articles aboue specified, to be condemned vpon the depositions of certaine witnesses brought in against them, to wyt, MarginaliaWitnesses agaynst these two Martyrs. Tho. Harwod, Philip Harwod, Steuen Castelyn, W. Baker, Rob. Reynold, Ioh. Bampton, Rob. Bright, W. Rich. &c. whereupon they were adiudged likewise for heretickes to be burned, the yeare aforesayd. 1511. the names of which two martyrs were Iohn Brown, and Edward Walker. 

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See Kent Heresy Proceedings, 1511-12, ed. Norman P. Tanner. Kent Records 26 (Maidstone, 1997), pp. 43-58. John Browne was a martyr whose daughter gave a substantial account of his torture and execution. In the 1570 edition, Foxe had first printed a description of the proceedings against John Browne, drawn from Archbishop Warham's register (1570, pp. 1453-1455). Further on in the same edition, Foxe also printed the longer account of this narrative (1570, p. 1480). This narrative was derived not from official records, but as Foxe notes, was related to him by Browne's daughter Alice. Both of these accounts, the one from the register and the one from Alice Browne, were inserted into Foxe's book as it was being printed, consequently neither account appears in 1511, when Browne's trial and execution actually took place. They were reprinted, in the same chronologically inaccurate locations in Foxe's text, in the next two editions (1576, pp. 1239-41 and 1255; 1583, pp. 1276-7 and 1292-3). However, Foxe then added a shorter version of Alice Browne's narrative, without, however, removing the longer version. This probably happened because Foxe decided to move the account of John Browne to its proper chronological place and decided to shorten it in the process. But for some reason, he neglected to remove the long version and also, more understanably, overlooked the account derived from Warham's register. As a result, there are three separate accounts of John Browne scattered across the pages of the 1583 edition (1583, pp. 805, 1276-77 and 1292-3) and all subsequent unabridged editions.

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Ex Regist. W. Warrh. Fol. 179.

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Now as you haue heard the names of these blessed Martyrs, with their articles recited, let vs also heare the tenor of the Bishops sentence, by which they were cōdem-

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