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1265 [1264]

K. Hen. 8. Persecutiō in Kent. W. Carder, Grebill, Harrison. Brown, Walker, Martirs.

ned one after an other. Their sentence conteineth one vniforme maner of wordes in forme as followeth. 

Commentary  *  Close

Cf. Kent Heresy Proceedings, 1511-12, ed. Norman P. Tanner. Kent Records 26 (Maidstone, 1997), pp. 6-7, 14-15, 23-24, 49 and 57-58. The sentence against Robert Harryson is translated in Norman P. Tanner, 'Pennances imposed on Kentish Lollards by Archbishop Warham 1511-12' in Lollardy and the Gentry in the in the Later Middle Ages, ed. Margaret Aston and Colin Richmond. (Stroud, 1997), pp. 245-6.

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¶ The tenour of the Sentence.

MarginaliaThe Sentence of condemnatiō against the v. aforesayd martirs I N nomine Dei. Amen. Nos Willielmus permissione diuina Cantuariensis Archiepis. totius Angliæ primas & Apostolicæ sedis Legatus, in quodam negocio hereticæ prauitatis contra te Willielmū Carder de Tenterden nostræ Cant. Dioceseos laicum ac nostro imperio notoriè subditum & subiectum coram nobis in iudicio personaliter comparentem, nobis super hæretica prauitate huiusmodi detectum & delatum, ac per nostram Diocesim Cantuariæ antidictæ notoriè & publicè in ea parte apud bonos & graues diffamatum, ex officio mero ritè & canonicè procedentes, auditis & intellectis, visis & cognitis, rimatisq; ac matura deliberatione discussis & ponderatis dicti negocij meritis, seruatisq; in omnibus & per omnia in eodem negocio de iure seruandis, ac quomodolibet requisitis pro tribunali sedentes, Christi nomine inuocato & solum Deum præ oculis habentes: Quia per acta actitata, deducta, probata & exhibita coram nobis in eodem negocio inuenimus te per probationes legitimas corā nobis in hac parte iudicialiter factas, nonnullos & varios errores, hæreses, & dānatas opiniones, iuri diuino & ecclesiastico obuiantes, contrarios, & repugnātes, contra fidem orthodoxam, determinatam et obseruatam, tenuisse, credidisse, affirmasse, predicasse, & dogmatizasse, & præsertim cōtra Sacramēta altaris, seu eucharistiæ, penitētiæ, ordinis, & alia Sacramēta, & sanctæ matris Ecclesiæ dogmata: Et quamuis nos Christi vestigijs inhærendo, qui nō vult mortē peccatoris, sed magis vt conuertatur & viuat, sepenumero conati fuimus te corrigere, ac vijs & modis licitis, & canonicis quibus potuimus aut sciuimus, ad fidem orthodoxam per vniuersalem Catholicam & Apostolicam Ecclesiam, determinatam & obseruatam, ac ad vnitatem eiusdem sanctæ matris Ecclesiæ reducere, tamen inuenimus te adeo duræ ceruicis quòd tuos errores & hæreses huiusmodi nolueris sponte & incontinenti confiteri, nec ad fidem Catholicam & vnitatem sanctæ matris Ecclesiæ antedictas debitè reuerti & redire, sed tanquam iniquitatis & tenebrarum filius in tantum indurasti cor tuum, vt non velis intelligere vocem tui pastoris tibi paterno compatientis affectu, nec velis pijs & paternis monitionibus allici, nec salubribus reduci blandicijs: Nos vero nolentes quod tu qui iniquus es fias nequior, & gregem dominicum in futurum tuæ hereticæ prauitatis labe (de quo plurimum timemus) inficias, idcirco de consilio Iurisperitorum nobis in hac parte assistentium cum quibus communicauimus in hac parte, te Willielmum Carder prædictum de meritis atq; culpis per tuam, damnabilem pertinaciam aggrauatis, de & super huiusmodi detestabili hereticæ prauitatis reatu conuictum & ad Ecclesiæ vnitatem pœnitentialiter redire nolentem, hæreticum hæretricisq; credentem ac eorum fautorem & receptatorem prætextu præmissorum fuisse et esse, cum dolore & amaritudine cordis iudicamus et declaramus finaliter et diffinitiuè in his scriptis, relinquentes te ex nunc tanquam hæreticū iudicio siue curiæ seculari, teq; Willielmum Carder prædictum (vt præsertur) hereticum nihilominus in maioris excommunicationis sententiam occasione præmissorum incidisse et incurrisse, necnon excommunicatum fuisse et esse pronunciamus, decernimus, et declaramus etiam in his scriptis.

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Moreouer, besides these v. blessed Saintes of GOD whom they so cruelly by their sentence did condemne to death, we finde also in the same Registers of William Warrham, a great number of other, whom they for the same doctrine and lyke Articles caused to be apprehended and put to open recantation: the names of which persons in the Catalogue here folowyng, be these. 

Commentary  *  Close

See Kent Heresy Proceedings, 1511-12, ed. Norman P. Tanner. Kent Records 26 (Maidstone, 1997), pp. 61-124. Foxe seems to have overlooked Simon Piers of Waldershare (Kent Hersey Proceedings, pp. 59-60).

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Here foloweth a Table cōtainyng the names of them whiche were abiured the same tyme vnder William Wrrham Archbyshop, in the Dioces of Canterbury. An. 1511.
MarginaliaA table or catalogue of them which were caused to abiure vnder. W. Warrham.

Iohn Grebyll, the elder
of Benynden.

Christopher Grebyll, his
sonne.

Ioh. Grebil, sonne of Ioh.
the elder of Benyndē.

W. Riche of Benynden.
W. Olbert, the elder of
Godmersham.

Agnes Iue of Cāterbuty.
Agnes Chytēden of Ca-
nterbury.
Thomas Manning of Be-
nynden.

Ioanne Colyn of Ten-
terden.

Rob. Hilles of Tenterdē.
Alice Hilles his wife.
Tho. Harwod.
Ioane Harwod of Ro-

his wife. wendē.
Phil. Harwod.
MarginaliaNote what doctrine here reigned in England before the tyme of Luther.
Steuen Castelin of Ten-
derden.

W. Baker of Cranbroke
Margaret Baker his wife.
W. Olbert the yonger,
of Godmersham.
Rob. Reygnold of God-
mersham.

Agnes Reygnolde of
Crambroke.

Thomas Field, of Box-
ley.

Ioane Olbert wyfe to W.
Olbert the elder,
of Godmersham.

Elizabeth Whyte of Cā-
terbury.

Thomas Church of great
Charte.

Vincent Linch of Hal-
den.

Iohn Rych of Wytti-
sham.

Ioane Lynch of Tenter-
den.

Thomas Browne of Cram-
broke.

Ioh. Franke of Tenterdē.
Ioyce Bampton, wyfe
of Iohn Bampton, of
Berstede.

Rich. Bampton of Box-
ley.

Rob. Bryght of Maid-
stone.

William Lorkyn of East
forley.

Iohn Bans of Boxley.
1512.
Iohn Bukherst of Sta-
pleherst.

Ioane Dodde, wyfe of
Iohn Dodde.

Iohn Benet, of Staple-
herst.

Rebecke Benet his wife.
Ioane Lowes, wyfe of
Tho. Lowes of Cram-
broke.

Iulian Hylles wyfe of
Robert Hylles of Ten-
terden.

Robert Franke of Ten-
terden.
¶ The Articles layde to these abiurers, appeare in the Registers to be the same which before were obiected to the other v. Martyrs aforesayde: which was, for beleuing and defending. 
Commentary  *  Close

These charges were used repeatedly in the proceedings of 1511-12; for an example, see Kent Heresy Proceedings, 1511-12, ed. Norman P. Tanner. Kent Records 26 (Maidstone, 1997), p. 34. Foxe is quoting the charges accurately.

MarginaliaTheir articles. 1. FIrst that the sacrament of the aulter was not the very body of Christ, but materiall bread.

2. That cōfessiō of sinnes ought not to be made to a priest.

3. That there is no more power geuen of God to a Priest, then to a lay man.

4. That the solemnisation of Matrimony is not necessary for the weale of mans soule.

5. That the sacrament of extreme vnction, called aneyling, is not profitable nor necessary for mans soule.

6. That Pilgrimages to holy and deuoute places be not necessary nor meritorious for mans soule.

7. That Images of Saints, or of the Crucifixe, or of our Lady, are not to be worshipped.

8. That a mā should pray to no Saint, but onely to God.

9. That holy water and holy bread is not better after the benediction made by the Priest. MarginaliaEx Regist. W. Warrham. Ex verbis Regist. W. Warrham. Fol. 176. an. 1511.

MarginaliaThe doctrine of the Gospell in England before M. Luther begā. By these articles and abiurations of the forenamed persons, thou hast to vnderstand Christian Reader, what doctrine of religion was here styrring in this our Realme of England before the tyme that the name of Martyn Luther was euer heard of here amongst vs. 

Commentary  *  Close

Foxe is declaring one of his main purposes in supplying accounts of the Lollard martyrs: to demonstrate that there was a 'True Church' before Luther.

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¶ Three diuers sortes of iudgement amongst the Papistes, against heretickes, as they call them.

MarginaliaThree sortes of proceedinges of the papistes agaynst the heretickes. AS touching the penaunce and penaltie enioyned to these aforesayd, as also to all other such like, first here is to be noted, that the Catholike fathers in their processes of hereticall prauitie, haue three diuers & distinct kynds of iudgementes and proceedinges.

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For some they iudge to be burned, to the entent that other beyng brought into terrour by them, they myght therfore more quietly holde vp their kingdome, & reigne as they list. MarginaliaThe processe of the papistes in condemning heretickes. And thus condemned they these v. aforesaid, & notwithstanding they were willing to submit themselues to the bosome of the mother Church, yet could they not be receaued, as by the words of the Register, and by the tenour of their sentence aboue specified, may well appeare.

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And this sort of persons thus by them condemned, consisteth either in such as haue bene before abiured, and fallen agayne into relapse: or els such as stand constantly in theyr doctrine, and refuse to abiure: either els such as they intende to make a terrour and example to all other, notwythstanding that they be wylling and ready to submitte themselues, and yet can not be receaued. And of this last sorte were these v. Martyrs last named. So was also Iohn Lambert, who submittyng hymselfe to the kyng, could not be accepted: 

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See 1563, p. 533; 1570, p. 1288; 1576, p. 1097 and 1583, p. 1123.

So was likewise Richard Mekins the seely 
Commentary  *  Close

I.e., innocent or guileless, not 'silly' or foolish, as in modern usage.

lad, pag. 1174. and the three wemen of Gernesey, whose submission would not serue to saue their liues, with many other in like case. 
Commentary  *  Close

For Mekins see 1563, p. 613; 1570, p. 1376; 1576, p. 1174 and 1583, p. 1202. For the Guernsey martyrs see 1563, p. 1543; 1570, p. 2128; 1576, p. 1849 and 1583, p. 1943.

Against this sort of persons, the processe which the papistes vse, is this. First after they begyn once

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