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1324 [1323]

K. Edw. 6. Articles layd to Winchester with his aunsweres to the same.

MarginaliaAn. 1550.

ti- Innouation of religion from that state, wherein Kyng
Henry left it, may be, and is lyke to be dangerous to the
Lord Protectour, and to breede trouble to the realme:
no. Ergo, innouation of religion, from the state that kyng
Henry left, is in no wyse to be attempted.

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The Aunswer.

MarginaliaThe aunswere. To aunswer first to the vocable innouation, which he stombleth so greatly vpon, this I say: MarginaliaInnouation. that innouation is properly vsed where a thyng is brought in a new, whiche was not before. Forasmuch therefore as in this alteration there is no new religion brought in, but onely the olde Religion of the primitiue Church reuiued, MarginaliaRenouation. therfore here is to bee thought not so much an innouation, as a renouation or reformation rather of religion: which reformation is oft tymes so necessary in common weales, that without the same, al runneth to confusion.

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Marginalia[illegible text] Secondly, I aunswer to the argument, which I do deny as a fallax, for there is fallacia accidentis. Where it is said that reformation of religon gendreth daunger to the Protectour, and trouble to the Realme. First what wyll come, that is vncertayne: and God be thanked, yet no danger hath come to England for the reformation of religiō. And though there did, yet the cause therof is not to be imputed to religion reformed. For sincere and true doctrine of hys owne nature worketh quiet, peace, and tranquillitie, with all good order. And if the contrary happen, that is incident by other causes, as by the malice of Sathan, and wicked aduersaries, not by reason of the doctrine and true religion. So after the preachyng of Christ and hys Apostles, dissension followed in common weales betwixt father and sonne, brother, and brother, & c. but that is not to be ascribed to the doctrine, but to the malice of men.

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MarginaliaQuiet and tranquillitie of realmes, ought not to stoppe reformation of cereligion. Briefly therfore, where he speaketh so much of quiet and tranquilitie, this I aunswere, that quyet and tranquilitie in weales publicke, so long as they are ioyned with truth of doctrine and right Religion, be much to be embraced. But when it is otherwise, that is, where doctrine is corrupted, and true Religion, lacketh his right, there let the second Table geue place to the first.

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MarginaliaThe Paraphrase of Erasmus. As concerning the faultes founde in the Paraphrase of Erasmus, this I aunswere and say, that this Byshop belike had ouerwatched himselfe in this matter. For if it be true which he himselfe affirmeth in the booke of our first edition. fol 744. that he neuer read that booke before, and now he neuer slepte till he read it: It happened peraduenture, that in the ouermuch watching of himselfe, and swifte readyng of the booke, his iudgement was a slepe whyles hys eyes were open in reading the same.

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MarginaliaThe booke of Homelies. Likewise touching the booke of Homelies, especially the Homely of saluation, wherwith he findeth hymselfe so much greued with the Archb. seeing he bringeth forth no proufes, I haue nothing to aunswere. In the meane season this I haue to thinke, that if he had bene so cunnyng in þe knowledge of hys owne saluation, as he was in the destruction & vexation of Christes members, he would neuer so haue raged agaynst that Homely.

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MarginaliaThe examinatiō of Anne Askew set forth by maister Bale. Touching the examination of Anne Askew, if it be misreported by M. Bale, why doth not he note þe places, which they be, and wherin? And if he had, or were able so to doe: yet seeyng the examinatiō was of her owne penning, which M. Bale did folow let euery Christian reader iudge whether is more to be credited of these two, shee that was persecuted, or he that was the persecuter.

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MarginaliaPreachers, Printers and Players. He thwarteth also and wrangleth much agaynst preachers, Printers, & players. And no maruell why: For he seeth these three things to be set vp of God, as a triple bulwarke against the triple crowne of the pope, to brynge hym down, as god be praised, they haue done meetely wel already.

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MarginaliaThe Article of Iustification. Read afore, pag. 953. As touching the Article of free Iustification by fayth, which he can not abyde, for asmuch as we haue sufficiently discoursed the same in the places of Patrik Hambleton before pag, 953. it shall not neede here to make any great stay therupon. Briefly to say of his iudgement, what I thinke, he seemed so much drowned in hys worldly lawes, that he nothing perceaued what was þe end of the lawe of God, nor what difference is betwene the law & the Gospel. Which by his blinde similitude, may well appeare: For as no law, saith he, can take full life and effect without the consent chieflye MarginaliaA blinde similitude of Winchest. confuted. of the kyng, and of the Lordes also, and of the Commons: In lyke sort there is no iustification (sayth he) by faith, without hope and charitie do ioyne withall & c. Which lawyers similitude is vtterly vnlyke. MarginaliaGreat diuersitie betwene Christ and an earthly kyng. For Christ sitteth not so in his church, as a kyng here sitteth in his realme. A kyng in hys Realme sitteth to make lawes by consent, and to mainteine þe same by authoritie: Neither doth he constitute a kyngdome so much by the authoritie of hys owne person: but rather entreth into a kyngdome which he findeth, and taketh his authoritie by the lawes and ordinaunces of the same. MarginaliaChristes office not to make lawes, but to redeeme from the lawe. So it is not wyth Christ: For he sitteth in þe church not to make lawes, but to helpe and redeeme them which be oppressed by the law. Neither taketh he of hys Church eyther voyce or consent to forgeue sinne, neither receaueth hee hys authoritie of any creature: but onely by the vertue and authoritie of hys person he erecteth his churche, and gouerneth it absolutely by himself, and is not limited by it, neither of it receaueth any authoritie, but geueth all authoritie to it, bringing his authority with him, and promise of his father, freely by grace to iustifie them that beleue in his name. And therfore this Bysh. of Winchester should rather haue made hys similitude after the nature of geuing pardon, then of making lawes. For as a king by his absolute power may pardon a theefe, whom the lawes haue cast by himselfe without the consent of Lordes or Commons, so fayth in Christe hath power by the promise of God in his worde absolutely & freely to iustifie the repenting sinner, without either hope or charity concurrent to that act of iustification.

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This Winchester beyng in the Fleete, as is aboue specified, as he was ful of craft and subtletie, after sundry callings and examinations before the Lord Protector, and sondry other of the kyngs maiesties Counsaile, MarginaliaWinchest. acknowledgeth the kinges supremacie. at length semed somwhat to yelde, namely in acknowledgyng the kinges supremacy, and that there was no minority in a kyng, but that a kyng of a yere olde and of xl. yere old, was all of one authority and dignity, and in sondry other things he semed also to be of good opiniō, MarginaliaWinchester promiseth to preach. and promised that he would openly by preaching publish his conscience and learnyng in those pointes: MarginaliaWinchester released out of the Flete. wherupon for that tyme he was released out of the Fleete, and licenced to go home to hys house, hauyng a day to hym assigned, when he should preach. MarginaliaArticles geuen to Wint. to preach vpon. Vnto whom the same time wer deliuered certayne Articles which he should entreat of, beyng also by expresse commaundement inhibited, both by the kings maiesties hand, the Lord Protector, and other of the kings priuy counsayle, that he should not procede nor meddle in certayne articles, as after shal appeare.

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But because we purpose to be as short in this troublesome and comberous history as we may: therefore this briefly is to shew, MarginaliaThe stubburne misdemeanour of Winchest. in his sermon. that as an euill and stubborne subiect to his prince when the day and tyme came of his preaching (followyng the steppes of Boner) such thinges as he was specally cōmaunded to entreate of, those handled eyther, coldly and slēderlye, or els left them out, as matters forgotten, and spake of them nothing at all. And on the other syde, those that hee was specially forbidden and prohibited to meddle withall, in those did he most contemptuously, frowardly, and also vntruly spende the whole tyme of his Sermon, the same sermon beyng made in the kynges presence: and of all his honorable Counsell. MarginaliaWinchest. arested by the kynges Commaundement. Wherfore the next daye after his sayd Sermon, beyng by the kynges Maiesties commaundement arrested by Syr Antony Wingfield, and Syr Rafe Salder knightes, accompanied with a great nomber of the kynges Garde, MarginaliaWinchest. cōmitted to the Tower. hee was committed to the Tower of London, from whēce at length he was brought to Lambeth, before the reuerend Archbyshop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer, & diuers other of þe kyngs counsayl: MarginaliaWinchest. brought to examination before the kinges Cōmissioners. where agaynst him were obiected certayn articles, which hereafter follow, with hys aunswers made vnto them.

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MarginaliaArticles layd agaynst Winchester. ¶ Articles and positions ministred and obiected eche of them ioyntly and seuerally to the bishop of Winchester, as followeth. 
Commentary  *  Close
Stephen Gardiner deprived

The original of the 'Articles and imposicions ministered…' (1563, p.755) can be found in BL Harleian MS 304, no.13, where it is described as 'written for the use of the Right honourable and my singular good lord, my Lord Archbishop of York's Grace '[Robert Holgate]. The remaining proceedings against Gardiner, including the 'sentence definitive' and the 'circumstances of the Counsayles proceedings….(p.766) are taken from a unknown source. They do not appear either in Gardiner's Register (edited for the Canterbury and York Society by H. Chitty, volume 37, 1930) or in Cranmer's register. The accounts of Gardiner's troubles given by James Muller Stephen Gardiner and the Tudor Reaction (London, 1926), pp.161-216; Glyn Redworth (In Defence of the Church Catholic (Oxford, 1990), pp.248-81) and W.K. Jordan Edward VI: The Threshold of Power (London, 1970), pp. 243-5) are based mainly on Foxe. The whole story was drastically reduced in 1576 and 1583.

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David Loades
University of Sheffield

¶ The 1. Article

MarginaliaWinchester graunteth to the kynges supremacie. I N primis, that the Kinges Maiestye iustly and rightfully is, and by the lawes of God ought to be the supreme head in earth of the Church of England, and also of Ireland, and so is by the Clergy of this realme in their conuocation, and by acte of Parliament iustly and accordyng to the lawes of God recognised.

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Winchester.

The first Article the Bishop graunteth.

The 2. Article.

MarginaliaWinchest. graunteth to the full authoritie of the king in setting forth his lawes. Item, that his Maiesty as supreme hed of the sayd churches, hath ful power & authoritie to make & set forth lawes, Iniunctions and ordinances, for and concerning religion & orders in the sayd Churches for the encrease of vertue, and repressing of all erroures, heresies, and other enormities, and abuses.

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Winchester.

To this second Article he aunswereth affirmatiuely.

The 3. Article.

Item, that all and euery his graces subiects are bounde

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