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1363 [1338]

Queene Mary. Queene Mary aduaunced. The Duke of Northumberland beheaded.

Marginalia1553.On the contrary side, the Duke of Northumberlande, hauyng his warrant vnder the broade Seale, with al furniture in a readynes, as he tooke his voyage and was nowe forward in his way, what ado there was, what stirring on euery side, what sending, what ridyng and posting, what letters, messages, and instructions went to and fro, what talking among the souldiers, what hartburnyng amōg the people, what fayre pretēses outwardly, inwardly what priuie practises there were, what speeding of Ordinance dayly and hourely out of the Tower, what rumours and commyng downe of souldiers from all quarters there was, a world it was to see, & a processe to declare, enough to make a whole Ilias. The greatest helpe that made for the Lady Mary, was the short iourneys of the Duke, which by commission were assigned to hym before, as is aboue mentioned. For the longer the Duke lingered in his voyage, the Lady Mary the more encreased in puissaunce,  

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On one occasion - see textual variant 4 and textual variant 5 - Foxe replaced a shorter passage in the 1563 edition with a longer and superficially more detailed account. But actually there was no new information here; Foxe was simply polishing his rhetoric.

the hartes of the people being mightily bent vnto her. Which after the Counsaile at London perceyued, and vnderstood howe the common multitude dyd withdrawe their hartes from them to stand with her, and that certaine Noblemen began to go the other way, they turned their song, and proclaymed for Queene the Lady Mary, MarginaliaQueene Mary proclamed at London. eldest daughter to kyng Henry the eight, and appoynted by Parlament to succeede kyng Edward, dying without issue.

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And so the Duke of Northumberland, being by counsel and aduise sent forth against her, MarginaliaThe Duke of Northumberland ouerthrowen.was left destitute and forsaken alone at Cambridge, with some of his sonnes, and a fewe other, among whom the Earle of Huntington was one: who there were arrested and brought to the Tower of London, as traytors to the Crowne, notwithstandyng that he had there proclaymed her Queene before.  

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Foxe added a passage to the 1570 edition - see textual variant 6 - which diluted the charge of treason against Northumberland.

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MarginaliaThe Duke of Northumberland brought to the Tower as a traytour.Thus haue you Mary nowe made a Queene, and the sword of authority put into her hād, which, how shee afterward dyd vse, we may see in sequele of this booke. Therefore (as I said) whē shee had bene thus aduaūced by þe gospellers, & sawe all in quiet by meanes þt her enemies were conquered, sending the Duke captiue to the Tower before (which was the. xxv. of Iuly) MarginaliaQueene Mary commeth vp to London.shee folowed not long after, being brought vp the third day of August to London, with the great reioysing of many men, but with greater feare of mo, and yet with flattery peraduenture most great, of fained hartes.

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Thus commyng vp to London, her first lodging shee toke at the Tower, MarginaliaThe Lady Iane and the Lord Gilforde prisoners in the Tower.where as the foresaid Lady Iane with her husband the Lord Gilford, a litle before her commyng, wre imprisoned: where they remained waiting her pleasure almost fiue monethes. But the Duke within a moneth after his commyng to the Tower being adiudged to death, MarginaliaThe Duke of Northumberland condemned to dye. was brought forth to the Scaffold, and there beheaded. Albeit he hauyng a promise, and being put in hope of pardon (yea though his head were vpon the blocke) if he would recant and heare Masse, consented therto, and denied in wordes that true religion, which before tyme, as well in K. Henry. viij. dayes, as in K. Edwards he had oft euidently declared him selfe both to fauor & further: MarginaliaThe Duke of Northumberland reuoketh his Religion. exhortyng also the people to returne to the catholike fayth (as he termed it.) Whose recantation the papistes forthwith did publish and set abroad, reioysing not a litle at his conuersion or rather subuersion, as then appeared. 

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There is some fairly subtle re-writing of the passages describing the Duke of Northumberland's death - 'But the Duke within a moneth after his comming ... conversion or rather subversion as then appeared' - in the 1570 edition; (compare 1563, p. 902 with 1570, p. 1569; 1576, p. 1338 and 1583 pp. 1407-08). The 1563 edition speculates that Northumberland recanted because he might have been offered a pardon; the later editions assert this as fact. Again Foxe is mitigating Northumberland's conduct.

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MarginaliaThe Duke of Northumberland beheaded. Sir Iohn Gates and Syr Thomas Palmer confessing their fayth were beheaded.Thus the Duke of Northumberland with sir Iohn Gates and sir Thomas Palmer (which Palmer on the other side confessed his faith that he had learned in the Gospel, and lamented that he had not liued more Gospellike) being put to death: in the meane tyme Queene Marye, entring thus her raigne with the bloud of these men: besides hearing Masse her selfe in the Tower, gaue a heauie shewe and signification hereby, but especially by the sodaine deliuering of Steuen Gardiner out of the Tower, that she was not mynded to stand to that, which shee so deepely had promised to the Suffolke men before, concernyng the not subuerting or altering the state of Religion: as in verye deede the surmise of the people was therein nothing deceiued.

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Besides the premises, other things also folowed, which euery day more and more discomforted the people, declaring the Queene to beare no good wyl to the present state of religion: as, not onely the releasing of Gardiner being then made Lord Chauncelour of England and Bishop of Winchester, Doctour Poynet being put out, but also that MarginaliaThe true preaching Byshops displaced.Boner was restored to his Bishoprike againe, and Doctour Ridley displaced: Item, Doctour Day to the Bishoprike of Chichester, Iohn Scory being put out: Item, Doctor Tunstal to the Bishoprike of Duresme: Item, Doctour Heath to the Bishoprike of Worcester, and Iohn Hooper committed to the Fleete: Item, Doctour Vesye to Exceter, and Myles Couerdale put out. These thinges being marked and perceiued, great heauines and discomfort

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grewe more and more to al good mens hartes: but contrary to the wicked great reioysing. In which discord of myndes and diuersitie of affections, was now to be seene a miserable face of things in the whole common wealth of Englād. They that coulde dissemble, tooke no great care howe the matter went. But such whose consciences were ioyned to truth, perceiued already coales to be kindled, whiche after should be the destructiō of many a true Christian man, as in deede it came to passe. In the meane while queene Mary, after these beginnynges, remouing from the Tower to Hampton Court, caused MarginaliaA Parlament sommoned.a Parlament to be summoned against the. x. daye of Octob. next ensuing, whereof more is to be said hereafter.

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Ye heard before howe diuers Bishops were remoued and other placed in their roumes: amongst whom was doctor Ridley Bishop of London, a worthy man both of fame and learnyng. MarginaliaB. Ridley preacheth in Queene Ianes tyme.This Doctour Ridley in tyme of Queene Iane had made a sermon at Paules Crosse, so commaunded by the Counsaile: declaring there his mynd to the people as touching the Lady Mary, & disswading them, alleging there the incommodities and inconueniences whiche might ryse by receuyng her to be their Queene, prophesiing as it were before, that which after came to passe, that shee woulde bring in forreine power to raigne ouer them: besides the subuerting also of Chritian Religion then already established; shewing moreouer, that the same Mary being in his Dioces, he according to his duetie, being then her Ordinary, had trauailed much with her to reduce her to this Religion, and notwithstanding in al other pointes of ciuilitie shee shewed her selfe gentle and tractable, yet in matters that concerned true fayth and doctrine shee shewed her selfe so stiffe and obstinate, that there was no other hope of her to be conceiued, but to disturbe and ouerturne all that which with so great labours had bene confirmed and planted by her brother afore. Shortly after this sermon Queene Mary was proclaymed, whereupon he speedyly repairing to Fremingham, to salute the queene, had such colde welcome there, that being dispoyled of al his dignities, he was sent backe vppon a lame halting horse to the Tower.

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MarginaliaM. Rogers preacheth.After hym preached also Master Rogers the next sonday, entreating very learnedly vpon the Gospel of the same day.

This so done, Queene Mary seeing al thinges yet not going so after her minde as shee desired, deuiseth with her Counsaile to bring to passe that thing by other meanes, which as yet by open lawe shee could not wel accomplishe, directing forth an ihibition by proclamation, that no man should preache or reade openly in Churches the woorde of God, besides other thinges also in the same proclamation inhibited, the copie wherof here foloweth,

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¶ An inhibition of the Queene, for preaching, printyng. &c. 
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Block 4: Mary's Inhibition against Printing

Mary's proclamation banning unlicensed preaching, printing, etc. (1563, pp. 903-04; 1570, pp. 1569-70; 1576, pp. 1338-39 and 1583, pp. 1408-09) was undoubtedly printed from an original copy, probably from the version printed by John Cawood. This is confirmed by the fact that the 1563 edition prints the words 'God save the Quene' at the conclusion of the proclamation; this fidelity to the original was not repeated in subsequent editions. For a copy of this proclamation, with a list of the surviving copies, see Paul L Hughes and James F Larkin (eds.), Tudor Royal Proclamations, (3 vols, New Haven, 1964-99) II, pp. 5-8.

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The Inhibition

The root of the changes in the will of Mary is emphasized ('Q. Mary beginneth to set forth her popish religion. Religion here grounded vppon the Queenes will'), but Gardiner's place behind one of the changes is also mentioned in the margin ('Here was the head of Winchester'.) The lack of any prompting from within the text for this gloss was perhaps suggestive of the half-hidden forces at work behind Mary's basic desire for a catholic restoration. Most of the other glosses point out what was banned, and regret the fact. All editions give the date (August 18).

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MarginaliaAugust. 18. MarginaliaAn inhibition of the Q. for preaching and Printing. THe Queenes highnes well remembring what great inconuenience and daungers haue growen to this her highnes Realme in tymes past, through the diuersitie of opinions in questions of Religion, and hearyng also that nowe of late, sithence the beginnyng of her most gratious raigne, þe same cōtētiōs be againe much renued through certaine false & vntrue reportes and rumours spread by some light & euyl disposed persons, hath thought good to doo to vnderstād to al her highnes most louing subiectes her most gracious pleasure in maner folowing.

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MarginaliaQ. Mary beginneth to set forth her popish religion.First, her Maiestie being presently by the onely goodnes of God, setled in her iust possession of the Emperiall Crowne of this Realme, and other dominions thereunto belonging, can not nowe hide that Religion which God and the world knoweth shee hath euer professed from her infancie hitherto. MarginaliaReligion here grounded vpon the Queenes will.Which as her Maiestie is mynded to obserue and mainteyne for her selfe by Gods grace during her time, so dooth her highnes muche desire and woulde be glad the same were of all her subiectes quietly & charitably embraced.

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And yet shee doth signifie vnto al her maiesties louyng subiectes, that of her most gracious disposition and clemencie, her highnes myndeth not to compell any her saide subiectes thereunto, vnto such tyme as further order by common assent may be taken therein: forbiddyng neuertheles all her subiectes of all degrees, at their perylles to moue seditions, or styrre vnquietnes in her people by interpretyng the Lawes of this Realme after their braynes and fantasies, but quietly to continue for the tyme, tyll (as before is saide) further order maye be taken, and therefore wylleth and straytly chargeth and commaundeth all her saide good louyng subiectes to lyue togethers in quiet sort and Christian charitie, leauing those newe founde deuilishe termes of

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Papist
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