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1384 [1359]

Q. Mary. Disputation appointed at Oxforde touching the Sacrament.

Marginalia1554. Aprill.The Masse beyng done, they went in procession: MarginaliaProcession in Oxforde. The aray of the solemne procession.First the Quier in their surplices followed the Crosse: then the first yeare Regentes and Proctours: then the Doctors of law, and theyr Bedell before them: then the doctours of diuinitie of both Vniuersities intermingled, the Diuinitie & arte Bedles goyng before them, the Vicechauncellour and the Prolocutour goyng together. After them Bachelers of Diuinitie, Regentes, & non Regentes, in theyr aray: and last of all, the Bachelers of Law and Art. After whom followed a great company of scholers and studentes not graduate. And thus they proceeded thorough the streete to Christes church, and there the quier sang a Psalme, and after þt a collect was read. This done, departed the Commissioners, doctours, and many other to Lincolne Colledge, where they dyned with the Mayor of the towne, one Alderman, foure Bedels, Maister Say, and the Cambridge Notary. After diner they went all agayne to S. Maries Church: MarginaliaAn other consultation of the Doctours and priestes.& there, after a short consultation in a Chappell, all the Commissioners came into the Quier, and sate all on seates before the Aulter, to the number of 33. persons: And first they sent to the Mayor, that he should bryng in Doct. Cranmer, which within a whyle was brought to them with a great number of rusty bilmen.

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MarginaliaArchbyshop Cranmer brought before the Doctours and highe priestes at S. Maryes Church.Thus the reuerend Archb. when he was brought before the Commissioners, reuerenced them with much humility, MarginaliaThe reuerend humilitie and behauiour of the Archb. before them. and stoode with hys staffe in hys hande: who notwithstandyng hauing a stoole offred hym, refused to sit. Then the Prolocutor sittyng in the midst in a scarlet gowne, beganne with a short Preface or Oratiō,  

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The first thing that Foxe did in synthesising the accounts of his two informants in the 1570 edition was to eliminate some passages from the previous edition which introduced the first informant's account, (see textual variant 36). Then Foxe took material in the second informant's account describing events unmentioned by the first informant, which took place in the week of 7 to 14 April, and placed it in correct chronological order at the beginning of the account (see textual transposition 7).

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in prayse of vnity, and especially in the church of Christ: declaryng with all his bringing vp, and takyng degrees in Cambridge, and also how he was promoted by king Henry, and had bene hys counsailor and a Catholike man, one of the same vnitie, and a member therof in tymes past: but of late yeares did separate and cut of himself from it, by teachyng and settyng forth of erroneous doctrine, making euery yere a new fayth: therefore it pleased the Quenes grace, to send them of the Conuocation and other learned men to bring hym to this vnity againe, if it might be. Then shewed he hym how they of the Conuocation house, had agreed vpon certayne articles, wherunto they willed hym to subscribe.

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MarginaliaThe aūswere of the Archb. to D. Westō.The Archb. aunswered to the preface very wittily, modestly, and learnedly, shewyng that he was very glad of an vnitie, for as much as it was Conseruatrix omnium rerum publicarum, tam Ethnicorum quam Christianorum. i. the preseruer of all common wealthes, as well of the Heathen, as of the Christians: and so he dilated the matter with one or two stories of the Romaines Commonwealth. Which thyng when he had done, he sayd, that he was very glad to come to an vnitie, so that it were in Christ, and agreable to hys holy worde.

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When he had thus spoken hys full mynd, the Prolocutor caused the Articles to be red vnto hym, and asked if hee would graunt and subscribe vnto them. Then the Bishop of Canterbury did read them ouer thre or foure tymes, and touchyng the first article he asked what they ment by their termes verū & naturale. i. true & naturall. Do you not meane sayth he, Corpus organicum. i. a sensible body? Some answered, Idē quod natus ex virgine. i. the same that was born of the Virgin: and so confusedly, some sayd one thing some an other. MarginaliaThe articles denyed by the Archb.Then the Bishop of Canterbury denied it vtterly and when he had looked vpon the other two, he sayde they wre all false and against Gods holy worde: And therefore would not he agree he said, in that vnitie with them. Which done, vthe Prolocutor first willyng him to write his mynde of them that night, sayd moreouer that he should dispute in them, and caused a copy of the Articles to be deliuered him, assigning hym to answer therunto on Monday next: MarginaliaScarborough warning geuen to Cranmer to dispute. and so charged the Mayor with him agayne, to be had to Bocardo where he was kept before: offrynge moreouer vnto him, to name what bookes he would occupy, and he should haue them brought vnto hym. The Archbishop was greatly commended of euery body for hys modesty: In so much, that some Maisters of Arte were seene to weepe for him, which in iudgement were contrary to him. 

Commentary  *  Close

For Cranmer's exchange with Weston on 14 April, Foxe, in the 1570 edition, selected passages from the two accounts, weaving them skilfully together, see (textual transposition 7, textual variant 37, textual transposition 8, textual variant 38, textual transposition 9, textual variant 40 and textual transposition 10. Foxe selected those passages which supplied the most detail or were the most favourable to the three bishops. Thus, for example, the first informant's account gave fuller versions of Cranmer's answers and described, at some length, the favourable impression made on the spectators, but included the second informant's description of Cranmer's defiant refusal to sit and Weston's promise that Cranmer would be allowed access to books in preparation for the disputation.

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MarginaliaD. Ridley brought in.Then was Doctor Ridley brought in who hearing the Articles read vnto hym, MarginaliaAunswere of Bish. Ridley to the Articles.aunswered without any delay, saying: they were all false, and sayd further, that they sprang out of a bitter and sower roote. His aunswers were sharpe witty, and very learned. Then did they lay to his charge a sermon that he made when he was Bishop of Rochester, wherin (they sayd) he spake with the transubstantiation. MarginaliaB. Ridley falsely reported for hys sermon. He denied it vtterly, and asked whether they could bring out any that heard him, which would say and affirme with thē the same. They could bring no proofe of it at all. After that he was asked of one whether he desired not my lord Chancellor that now is to sticke to the masse, and other thynges? He sayd, that my lord would say no such thinges or wordes

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of hym: for if he did, he reported not the truth of hym.

Then he was asked whether he woulde dispute or no? He aunswered: that as long as god gaue hym lyfe, he should not onely haue his hart, but also hys mouth & penne to defende hys truth: but he required tyme and bookes. They sayd he could not, MarginaliaB. Ridley appointed to dispute next day after the Archb.and that he should dispute on Thursday, and till that time he should haue bookes. He sayde it was not reason that he might not haue his owne bookes, & time also to looke for his disputatiōs. Then gaue they hym the articles, & bad hym write his minde of them that night & so did they commaunde the Maior to haue him from whence he came. 

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Foxe relied entirely on the first informant's account for Ridley's interview with Weston on 14 April (see textual variant 41). The first informant's account was far more detailed about this exchange and, in particular, did justice to Ridley's acerbic wit in answering Weston.

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MarginaliaM. Latimer brought in. Last of all came in M. Latimer in lyke sort, with a kerchiefe, & 2. or 3. cappes on hys head, hys spectacles hangyng by a string at hys breast, and a staffe in hys hand, and was set in a chayre: for so was he suffered by the Prolocutor. And after hys denyall of the articles, when he had Wednesday appoynted for disputation, he alledged age, sicknes, disuse, & lacke of books, saying, that he was almost as meete to dispute as to be a captaine of Calice: but he would (he said) declare his mynde eyther by wrytyng or by word, & would stand to all that they could lay vpon hys backe: MarginaliaM. Latymer could not finde the Masse in all the new Testament.complaynyng moreouer that he was permitted to haue neither pen, nor yncke, nor yet any booke, but onely the new Testament there in hys hand, which he said, he had read ouer vij. times deliberatly, & yet coulde not finde the masse in it, neyther the marybones nor sinewes of the same. MarginaliaWhat he meaneth by the marybones of the Masse, read after in his protestatiō geuen in writing to the Prolocutour. At which words the Commissioners were not a litle offended, and Doct. Weston sayd, that he would make hym graunt, that it had both marybones and sinewes in the new Testament. To whome M. Latymer sayd agayne: that wyll you neuer do maister Doctour: and so forthwyth they put hym to silence, so that where he was desirous to tell what he ment by those termes, he could not be suffered: there was a very great preasse and throng of people: and one of the Bedles swounded by reason thereof, and was caryed into the Vestry. After this, bringyng home the Prolocutor first, the Cambridge men, videlicet: D. Yong Vicechauncellor, Seton, Glin, Atkinson, Scot, Watson, Sedgewicke, went to the Crosse Inne to supper. And this was on Saterday beyng the. 14. day of Aprill.  

Commentary  *  Close

For the account of Latimer's interview with Weston on 14 April, Foxe interwove elements from the accounts of both informants. The vivid description of Latimer's appearance was taken from the second informant (textual transposition 11), while the equivalent passages in the first account, which described Latimer as feeble, aged and speaking in a low voice, were omitted (textual variant 42). Foxe then added a phrase, in neither informant's account, to the 1570 edition, making it clear that Latimer denied the three articles which were to be disputed (textual variant 43). Foxe then briefly followed the second informant's account of Latimer's interview (textual transposition 12) - this was in order to quote a sarcastic remark Latimer made to Weston - before returning to the first account (textual variant 43). (At this point, the two informants' accounts are admittedly almost identical; the belief that Foxe was following the first account is largely derived from textual variant 44. Foxe returned to the second informant's account for the conclusion of Latimer's interview (see textual transposition 13 and textual variant 45). Foxe also added a sentence, in the 1570 edition, clarifying the date (textual variant 46).

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On Sonday after, MarginaliaAprill. 15. M. Harpsfielde preached at S. Maries the Vniuersitie Church, at ix. of the clocke, where were diuers of the Doctors of the Vniuersitie in their robes and placed accordyngly. After the Sermō they went all to dyner to Magdalene Colledge, and there had a great dyner. They supped at Lincolne Colledge with the Prolocutor: whether Doct. Cranmer sent aunswere of his minde vpon the Articles, in writyng.

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On Monday MarginaliaAprill. 16. (beyng the 16. of Aprill) Maister Say & M. White Notaryes, went about in the mornyng to the Colledges, MarginaliaSubscription.to gette subscriptions to the Articles. And about viij. of the clocke the Prolocutor wyth all the Doctors and the Vicechauncellour mette together at Exeter Colledge, and so they went into the schooles: and when the Vicechauncellour, the Prolocutour and Doctours were placed, Marginalia4. Exceptores Argumentorum.and foure appoynted to be Exceptores Argumentorum, set at a table in the myddest, and foure Notaryes sittyng wyth them, MarginaliaCranmer set in the Respondents place.D. Cranmer came to the Aunswerers place, the Mayor and Aldermen sitting by hym, MarginaliaD. Cranmer closed in by the Mayor & Aldermen for running away. and so the disputation began to be set a worke by the Prolocutor with a short Præludium. MarginaliaDisputers agaynst the archb. Doct Chedsey began to argue first: and ere he left, the Prolocutour diuers times, D. Tresham, Oglethorpe, Marshall Vicechauncellor, Pye, Cole, and Harpsfield did interrupt and presse hym wyth their Argumentes, so that euery man sayd somewhat, as the Prolocutour would suffer disorderly, sometyme in Latin, sometyme in Englishe, so that iij. houres of the tyme was spent, ere the Vicechauncellour of Cambridge began: who also was interrupted as before. He beganne with three or foure questions suttely. MarginaliaThe Archb offered drinke.Here the Bedles had prouided drinke, & offered the Aunswerer: but he refused with thankes. The Prolocutour offered him, if he would make water or otherwise ease hymselfe, he should. Thus the disputation continued vntill almost two of the clocke, with thys applausiō Audientium: vicit veritas. Then were all the argumenets (written by the foure appointed) deliuered nto the hand of Maister Say, Register. MarginaliaD. Cranmer after disputation returned agayne to Bocardo.And as for the prisoner, he was had away by the Maior: And the Doctors dyned together at the Vniuersitie Colledge. 

Commentary  *  Close

Foxe returned to the second account for the events of 15 April and the morning of 16 April (see textual transposition 14 and textual transposition 15), making two deletions from this account. The first (textual variant 47), seems to have been made to conceal the fact that the catholic disputants in the debate listened to the Bible being read to them during dinner; the second (textual variant 48), probably to eliminate what even Foxe considered to be irrelevant detail. Much of the remaining relatively short narration of the Oxford disputation in the first informant's account was omitted (textual variant 49), as Foxe had, even in the edition of 1563, much more detailed accounts of the remaining disputations.

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And thus much concernyng the generall order and maner of these disputations, wyth such circumstaunces as there happened, and thynges there done, as well before the disputations, and in the preparation thereof, as also in the tyme of their disputing. Now foloweth to inferre and declare the Orations, Argumentes, and Aunsweres, vsed and brought forth in the sayd disputations on both partes.

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The
IIIi.iiij.
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