Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Censorship Proclamation 32. Our Lady' Psalter 33. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain34. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 35. Bradford's Letters 36. William Minge 37. James Trevisam 38. The Martyrdom of John Bland 39. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 40. Sheterden's Letters 41. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 42. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 43. Nicholas Hall44. Margery Polley45. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 46. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 47. John Aleworth 48. Martyrdom of James Abbes 49. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 50. Richard Hooke 51. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 52. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 53. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 54. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 55. Martyrdom of William Haile 56. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 57. William Andrew 58. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 59. Samuel's Letters 60. William Allen 61. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 62. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 63. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 64. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 65. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 66. Cornelius Bungey 67. John and William Glover 68. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 69. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 70. Ridley's Letters 71. Life of Hugh Latimer 72. Latimer's Letters 73. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed74. More Letters of Ridley 75. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 76. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 77. William Wiseman 78. James Gore 79. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 80. Philpot's Letters 81. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 82. Letters of Thomas Wittle 83. Life of Bartlett Green 84. Letters of Bartlett Green 85. Thomas Browne 86. John Tudson 87. John Went 88. Isobel Foster 89. Joan Lashford 90. Five Canterbury Martyrs 91. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 92. Letters of Cranmer 93. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 94. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 95. William Tyms, et al 96. Letters of Tyms 97. The Norfolk Supplication 98. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 99. John Hullier 100. Hullier's Letters 101. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 102. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 103. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 104. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 105. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 106. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 107. Gregory Crow 108. William Slech 109. Avington Read, et al 110. Wood and Miles 111. Adherall and Clement 112. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 113. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow114. Persecution in Lichfield 115. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 116. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 117. Examinations of John Fortune118. John Careless 119. Letters of John Careless 120. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 121. Agnes Wardall 122. Peter Moone and his wife 123. Guernsey Martyrdoms 124. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 125. Martyrdom of Thomas More126. Martyrdom of John Newman127. Examination of John Jackson128. Examination of John Newman 129. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 130. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 131. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 132. John Horne and a woman 133. William Dangerfield 134. Northampton Shoemaker 135. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 136. More Persecution at Lichfield
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1446 [1420]

Q. Mary. The history of Laurence Saunders, Martyr.

MarginaliaAn. 1555. February.art an heretike. That shal be knowen, quoth Rogers, at the day of iudgement. Well, quoth M. Woodrofe, I will neuer pray for thee. But I will pray for you, quoth M. Rogers, and so was brought the same day, which was monday the 4. of February, by the shirifes toward Smithfield, saying the Psalme Miserere, 

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I.e., Psalm 51. This psalm was traditionally recited by the condemned at theirexecutions.

by the way, all the people wonderfully reioycing at hys constancy, with great prayses and thankes to God for the same:  
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Simon Renard, the imperial ambassador, reported in a letter written the day after Rogers's execution, that some of the spectators wept, while others prayed to God on the martyr's behalf (C.S.P. Spanish, XIII, p. 138).

and there in þe presence of M. Rochester Comptroler of the Queenes houshold, sir Rychard Southwell, both the shiriffes, and a wonderfull number of people he was burned into ashes, washing his handis in the flame as he was in burning. MarginaliaM. Rogers refuseth hys pardon.A litle before hys burning at the stake his pardon was brought if he would haue recanted, but he vtterly refused it. He was the first Protomartyr of all that blesed company that suffered in Queene Maryes time, that gaue the first aduenture vpon the fire. His wife and children being xj. in number. x. able to go, and one sucking on her brest, met hym by the way as hee went towardes Smithfield: this sorowfull sight of his own flesh and bloud could nothing moue him, but that he constauntly & cherefully tooke hys death with wonderfull pacience, in the defence & quarrell of Christes Gospell. 
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Foxe is concerned to emphasize the stoicism of one of his martyrs. On the polemical importance of the stoicism of the martyrs, see Collinson (1983) and Freeman (1997). Foxe will tell a very similar anecdote about the martyr Rawlins White.

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¶ The history and martyrdome of Laurence Saunders, burned for the defence of the Gospel at Couentree. An. 1555. February. 8. 
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The Life and Martyrdom of Laurence Saunders

Much of the material for the life and martyrdom of Saunders had already appeared in the Rerum, including the narratives of Saunders' early life and background (although the details of Saunders' apprenticeship to Sir William Chester were only added in the second edition of the Acts and Monuments), Saunders' preaching in Northampton, his journey to London, his encounter with Sir John Mordaunt, Saunders' arrest, interrogations by Bishop Bonner and then Bishop Gardiner and his imprisonment in Newgate (Rerum, pp. 404-08). Unusually, most of the letters which Foxe mingles in with his narrative of the martyr's life also first appeared in the Rerum. The account of Saunders' visit from his wife in Newgate and his impassioned defence of the validity of his marriage and the legitimacy of his son are also in the Rerum (pp. 412-13). Saunders' examination, the anecdotes of his journey to Coventry to be executed and the details of his execution are also related in the Rerum, pp. 413-18). Most, if not all, of this material was probably gathered by Edmund Grindal's team and was almost certainly drawn, in whole or in part, from Laurence's widow Joan and the martyr's friend Lucy Harrington, who were both in living in Frankfurt (Garrett, Marian Exiles, pp. 144-7).

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In 1563, Foxe added details to the Rerum narrative: his description of themartyrs's diligent study and prayer, the names of Sanders' benefices, his friends and family trying to protect him in Mary's reign and his refusal to flee the country. He also added more letters of Saunders and the comparison of Saunders to Henry Pendleton. All of this indicates that on his return to England, Foxe did some further research on Saunders.

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In the 1570 edition, Foxe added the details of Saunders' apprenticeship to Sir William Chester (this story, which was very favourable to Chester, was probably supplied to Foxe by Chester) and the letters of Edward Saunders to his brother. Some verses and letters of Saunders were also deleted from the account of Saunders in this edition. The account of Saunders remained unaltered in the third and fourth editions of the Acts and Monuments.

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MarginaliaFebruary. 8. 

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Saunders

Some of the glosses in this section lead the reader towards an appreciation of the other-worldliness and strength of faith inherent in the act of martyrdom ('M. Saunders in prison, till he was in prison'; 'Saunders godly bequest to his wife'; 'Experience of the comfortes of Christ in prison'). The effect of this can be paradoxical, with prison being a genuine comfort to the spiritually minded. This pious, Christ-like turning the world upside-down finds its parodic twin in the characterisation of the papists and popery. Thus Bonner, in line with previous conduct, is so perverse as to see preaching the truth as treason ('Preaching of Gods word, made treason with Bishop Boner'). A nearby gloss reinforces Foxe's characterisation of him as intemperate by describing him as seeking Saunders' blood. Elsewhere, and again building on an established typology, a gloss ('He meaneth peraduenture when the Sanctus is singing for then the Organs pipe merely and that may giue some Comfort') bemoans the sensuality of the mass.

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The attacks on Gardiner focus on the contrast between his conduct under Mary and under her father ('A priuy nippe to Winchester'; 'Winchesters booke de vera obedientia'). This is behaviour implicitly contrasted with Saunders' constancy, which the marginal glosses emphasise ('The constant minde of a christian souldiour'; 'M, Saunders would haue no suite made for him'). There are examples of the cruelty and use of force by the catholic authorities ('Note how Winchester confuteth M. Saunders'; 'M. Saunders wife not suffered to speake with him in prison'). Saunders' constancy and his indifference to worldly pain or pleasure are ascribed to his humility and thus to his reliance on divine grace ('A notable example of the Lord comforting his seruauntes in their troubles'; 'Strength to stād in Christ, commeth not of our selues, but it is the gift of God'). The gloss 'M. Saunders put in the common gayle in Couentrye' gives a hint of a Christ-like or apostolic bearing on Saunders' part. There are also references emphasising conscience as a source of resolution and (religious) resistance ('Argument. Conscience ought neuer to stand vpon things vncertaine. Tyme and authoritye be thinges of themselues alwayes vncertayne: Ergo, conscience ought neuer to stand vpon tyme and authoritye'; 'To liue as the Scripture leadeth vs, is not to liue as we list').

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The shift from the previous book towards narrative and the reproduction of epistles led Foxe to increase the number of glosses referring to scriptural passages; many of these are erroneous either in terms of their variation across editions or their accuracy as scriptural references. Errors of positioning of notes also occur in this section, with the 1570 edition as usual being the most accurate.

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MarginaliaThe story of Laurence Saunders, Martyr.AFter that Queene Mary by publick proclamatiō in the first yeare of her raigne, had inhybited the sincere preaching of Gods holy word, as is before declared, dyuers godly Ministers of the word which had the cure and charge of soules committed to them, did notwithstanding accordinge to their bounden duety, feede their flocke faythfully, not as Preachers authorized by publick authoritye (as the godlye order of the Realme was in the happy dayes of blessed king Edward) but as the priuate pastors of particular flocks: among whom Laurence Saunders was one, a mā of worshipfull parentage. His bringing vp was in learning from his youth in places meete for that purpose, as namely in þe schoole of Eaton. MarginaliaScholers are taken out of Eton Colledge into the kinges Colledge in Cambridge.From whence (according to the manner there vsed) he was chosen to go to the Kinges Colledge in Cambridge, where he contynued scholler of the Colledge three wholl yeares and there profited in knowledge, & learning very much for that time: shortly after that, he dyd forsake the Vniuersitie, and wēt to hys Parents: vpon whose aduise he minded to become a marchant, for that his mother was a Gentlewoman of good estimation, being lefte a widdow, and hauing a good portion for him amonge hys other brethrē, she thought to set hym vp welthely, and so he comming vp to London, MarginaliaM. Saunders first bound Prentise wyth M. Chester.was bound Prentise with a Marchant named Syr Willyam Chester (who afterward chaūced to bee sheriffe of London the same yeare that Saūders was burned at Couentree). Thus by the minde of hys frendes Laurence should nedes haue bene a marchante, but almighty God which hath his secret working in all thinges, saw better for his seruant, as it fell out in the end, for although that Saunders was bound by faste indenture to play the Marchant, yet the Lord so wrought inwardly in his harte, that he could finde no lyking in that vocation: so that whē hys other fellowes were busily occupied about that kind of trade, he would secretly withdraw himselfe into some priuy corner, & there fall into his solitary lamentations as one not liking with that kynd and trade of life.

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It happened that his master, being a good man, and hearing hys Prentise thus in his secret prayers inwardely to mourne by hym selfe, called vnto hym, to know what the cause was of that his solitarines & lamentation: who then perceyuing his minde nothing to fantasie that kind of lyfe, (for so Saunders declared vnto him) and perceauinge also hys wholl purpose to be bent to the study of hys booke and spirituall contemplation, lyke a good mā directed his letters incontinently vnto his frendes, and geuing him his Indenture, so set hym free. MarginaliaM. Saunders appointed to the trade of Marchandise, could not away with that kinde of life.And thus Laurence Saūders being rauyshed with the loue of learning, and especially wyth the reading of Gods word, taryed not long tyme in the traffick of marchandise, but shortly returned to Cambridge agayne to hys study. MarginaliaM. Saunders from marchandise returneth to his study. Where he began to couple to the knowledge of the Latin, the study of the Greek tongue, wherein he profited in small tyme very much: Therwith also he ioyned the studye of the Hebrue. Then gaue hee him selfe wholly to the study of the holy scripture, to furnishe hym selfe to the office of a Preacher.

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In studye he was dilygent and painfull, in godly life he declared the fruits of a wel exercised conscience, he prayed oftē and with great feruour, and in his prayers as also at other times, hee had hys part of spirituall exercyses, which hys harty sighing to God declared. In which whē any specyall assaulte dyd come, by prayer he felte present reliefe: then wos his company marueylous comfortable. For

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as hys exercises were speciall teachynges, so in the ende they proued singular consolations: wherein he became so experte, that wythin short space hee was able to comfort other which were in any affliction, by the consolation wherwyth the Lord dyd comfort hym. Thus continued he in the Vniuersitie, tyll he proceeded Maister of Arte, and a long a space after.

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In the begynnyng of K. Edwardes raygne, when Gods true Religion was begon to be restored, after licence obteyned, he begā to preach, and was so well liked of them which then had authoritie, that MarginaliaM. Saunders reader in the Colledge of Fothringa.they appointed hym to read a Diuinitie lecture in the Colledge at Fothringa. Where by doctrine and life he edified the godly, drew many ignoraunt to Gods true knowledge, and stopped the mouth of the aduersaryes. He maryed about that tyme, & in the maryed estate led a lyfe vnblameable before all men. The colledge of Fothringa beyng dissolued, MarginaliaSaunders after reader at Lichfield.he was placed to be reader in the Minster at Lichefield: where he so behaued hymselfe in teachyng & lyuing, that the very aduersaries dyd geue hym a full report as well of learnyng as of much godlynes. After a certaine space he departed frō Lichfield to a benefice in Leicester shyre, called Churchlangtō, wherupō he keeping residence, taught diligently, and kept a liberall house. From thence he was orderly called to take a benefice in the Citie of London, named Alhallowes in Breadstreete. Then mynded he to geue ouer his Cure in the countrey: and therfore after he had taken possession of hys benefice in Londō- he departed from London into the countrey, clearely to discharge hymselfe thereof. And euen at that tyme beganne the broyle about the clayme that Queene Mary made to the crowne, by reason wherof he coulde not accomplish hys purpose.

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MarginaliaThe constāt purpose of M. Saunders.In thys trouble, and euen among the begynners of it (such I meane as were for the Queene) he preached at Northampton, nothing medlyng with the estate, 

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Foxe is concerned to show here that Saunders, while defiant, was neither disloyal or seditious.

but boldly vttered his consciēce agaynst Popishe doctrine and Antichrists dānable errours, which were like to spryng vp agayne in England as a iust plague for the litle loue which þe English nation did beare to þe blessed word of God, which had bene so plentifully offred vnto thē. The Queenes men which were there and heard him, were highly displeased wt him for his Sermon, & for it kept hym among them as prysoner. But partly for loue of his brethren and frends, which were chiefe doers for þe queene among them,  
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Edward Saunders, Laurence's elder brother, was the chief justice of the Queen's Bench in Mary's reign and had openly supported Mary against Jane Grey.

partly because there was no lawe broken by his preachinge, they dismissed hym. He seeing the dreadfull dayes at hand, inflamed wyth the fire of godly zeale, preached wyth diligence at both those benefices, as tyme could serue him, seeing he could resigne neyther of them now, but into the hand of a Papist.

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Thus passed he to and fro in preachyng, vntil that proclamation was put forth, of which mention is made in the begynning. At which tyme he was at hys benefice in the countrey, where he (notwithstandyng the proclamation aforesayd) taught diligently Gods truth, confirmyng þe people therin, and armyng them agaynst false doctrine, vntyll he was not onely commaunded to cease, but also with force resisted, so that he coulde not proceede there in preachynge. Some of hys frendes perceiuing such fearefull manassings, counseled hym to flie out of the realme, MarginaliaM. Saunders refuseth to flye the Realme.which he refused to do. But seeing he was with violence kept from doing good in that place, he returned towardes London, to vysite the flocke, of which he had there the charge.

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On Saterday, the 14. of October, as he was comming nigh to the Citie of London, Syr Iohn Mordant a Coūsellour to Queene Mary, did ouertake hym and asked him whether he went. I haue (sayd Saunders) a cure in London, and now I go to instruct my people accordyng to my dutie. If you wyll follow my counsel, quoth M. Mordant, let them alone, and come not at them. To thys Saunders aunswered: how shall I then be discharged before God, if any be sicke & desire consolation, if any want good counsel & neede instruction, or if any should slippe into errour and receaue false doctrine? Did not you, quoth Mordant preach such a day, and named the day, in Breadstreete in Londō? Yes verely, sayd Saūders, that same is my cure. MarginaliaM. Mordāt disswadeth Laurence Saunders from preaching.I heard you my selfe, quoth M. Mordant: and will you preach now there agayne? If it please you sayd Saunders, to morow you may heare me agayne in that same place, where I will confirme by the authoritie of Gods word, all that I sayde then, and whatsoeuer before that tyme I taught them.

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I would counsell you (quoth the other) not to preach. If you can, and wyll forbyd me by lawfull authoritie, then must I obey, sayd Saunders. Nay, quoth he, I wyll not forbyd you, but I doe geue you counsel. And thus entred they both the Citie, and departed ech from either. M. Mordant of an vncharitable mind, wēt to geue warning to Boner byshop of Londō, that Saunders would preach in his Cure the next day. Saūders resorted to his lodging, wyth

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a minde
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