Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Censorship Proclamation 32. Our Lady' Psalter 33. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain34. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 35. Bradford's Letters 36. William Minge 37. James Trevisam 38. The Martyrdom of John Bland 39. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 40. Sheterden's Letters 41. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 42. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 43. Nicholas Hall44. Margery Polley45. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 46. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 47. John Aleworth 48. Martyrdom of James Abbes 49. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 50. Richard Hooke 51. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 52. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 53. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 54. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 55. Martyrdom of William Haile 56. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 57. William Andrew 58. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 59. Samuel's Letters 60. William Allen 61. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 62. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 63. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 64. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 65. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 66. Cornelius Bungey 67. John and William Glover 68. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 69. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 70. Ridley's Letters 71. Life of Hugh Latimer 72. Latimer's Letters 73. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed74. More Letters of Ridley 75. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 76. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 77. William Wiseman 78. James Gore 79. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 80. Philpot's Letters 81. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 82. Letters of Thomas Wittle 83. Life of Bartlett Green 84. Letters of Bartlett Green 85. Thomas Browne 86. John Tudson 87. John Went 88. Isobel Foster 89. Joan Lashford 90. Five Canterbury Martyrs 91. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 92. Letters of Cranmer 93. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 94. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 95. William Tyms, et al 96. Letters of Tyms 97. The Norfolk Supplication 98. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 99. John Hullier 100. Hullier's Letters 101. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 102. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 103. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 104. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 105. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 106. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 107. Gregory Crow 108. William Slech 109. Avington Read, et al 110. Wood and Miles 111. Adherall and Clement 112. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 113. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow114. Persecution in Lichfield 115. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 116. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 117. Examinations of John Fortune118. John Careless 119. Letters of John Careless 120. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 121. Agnes Wardall 122. Peter Moone and his wife 123. Guernsey Martyrdoms 124. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 125. Martyrdom of Thomas More126. Martyrdom of John Newman127. Examination of John Jackson128. Examination of John Newman 129. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 130. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 131. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 132. John Horne and a woman 133. William Dangerfield 134. Northampton Shoemaker 135. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 136. More Persecution at Lichfield
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1455 [1429]

Q. Mary. Letters of Iustice Saunders to his brother. Byshop Hooper Martyr.

Marginalia1555. Februa.he thinketh, it was not due vnto you by the reason of your depryuation: before it was due. As concernyng your conscience in Religion, I besech God it may be lightened by the holy Ghost, and that you may haue the grace of the holy Ghost to folow the counsell of S. Paul to Timothe. 2. Recte tractare verbū veritatis. That is. To handle rightly the word of truth. Wherein your dissentyng from many holy and Catholicke men, especially in the Sacrament, maketh me in my conscience to condemne yours. For although I haue not hetherto fansyed to read Peter Martyr and other such. &c. MarginaliaIustice saith, Audi alteram partem. yet haue I had a great desire to see Theophilact and diuers others of his sorte and opinion both notable and holy Fathers (if any credite be to be giuen to the writynges of our auncient Fathers before vs) and surely the sentences and Iudgementes of two or three of them hath more confirmed my conscience then iij. C. of the Zuinglians or as many of the Lutherians can or should do. Thus in hast willing to reliefe you to the ende you might conuert, if you shall nede towardes your findyng, if you shal require it of me, you shal vnfaynedly finde my money ready, as knoweth our Lord, who send vs all thynges good for vs. Scribled this Thursday by your brother and petitioner to God.

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Ed. Saunders.

¶ An other letter of Iustice Saunders to his brother wherein he seeketh to wyn him to Popery.

AS nature and brotherly loue with godly charitie requireth, MarginaliaGreeting with Protestation. I send you by these letters (quātum licet) most harty commendations, beyng sory for your fault and your disobedient handlyng of your selfe towardes my Lord Chauncellour, who I assure you, myndeth your good and preseruation, if you can so consider and take it. I would be glad to knowe whether you haue not had wyth you of late some learned mē to talke with you by my Lord Chaūcellours appointement, and how you can frame your selfe to reforme your errour in the opinion of the most blessed and our most comfortable Sacrament of the aultar: Wherein I assure you I was neuer in all my lyfe more better affected than I am at this present, vsing to my great comfort hearing of Masse, MarginaliaHe meaneth peraduēture, when the Sanctus is singing for then the Organs pipe merely and that may geue some comfort. and somewhat before the sacryng time, the meditation of S. Barnard, set forth in the thyrd leafe of this present booke. The accustomable vsing whereof I am fully professed vnto duryng my life, and to geue more fayth vnto that confession of holy Barnard, then to Luther. &c. or Latymer. &c. for that the antiquitie, the vniuersalitie of the open Church, and the cōsent of al holy Saintes and Doctors do cōfirme the same, assertenyng you that I haue bene earnestly moued in myne owne conscience these. x. or. xij. dayes past, and also betwene God and my selfe, MarginaliaThe meditations of S. Bernard sent by Iustice Saunders to his brother.to moue you to the same, most earnestly desiryng you, and as you tender my naturall, godly, or friendly loue towardes you, that you would read ouer this booke this holy tyme, at my request, although you haue already sene it, and let me know wherein you cannot satisfie your owne conscience. Thus fare you well for this tyme.

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By yours, from Seriants Inne.
Ed. Saunders.

¶ The lyfe and Martyrdome of M. Iohn Hooper Byshop of Worcester, and Glocester, 
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Hooper's Martyrdom

There are two striking features about the life and martyrdom of Hooper in the Rerum. The first is how little information Foxe has on the martyr's life before Edward VI's reign. There are only two sentences stating that Hooper studied at Oxford and was forced to flee due to the emnity of Dr Richard Smith and that he stayed in Basel until Edward VI's reign (Rerum, p. 279). Surprisingly neither Bullinger nor Zurich are mentioned. One can only conclude that Bullinger did not supply any information about Hooper while Foxe was in exile. (J. F. Mozley argues that Bullinger supplied Foxe with Hooper's writings which Foxe published in theRerum, [John Foxe, p. 125] but he supplies no evidence for this and, in the light of Bullinger's silence at this time on his friendship with Hooper, this must remain doubtful). Hooper's meteoric rise under Edward VI, his struggle with Cranmer and Ridley over vestments (the Rerum account is markedly more hostile to bishops in general than the Acts and Monuments versions would be), his arrest over this issue and release after a grudging capitulation are all recounted in the Rerum (pp. 279-81). The Rerum also contains the praise of Hooper as a bishop, the detailed description of his arrest and examinations, and the very detailed account of his journey to Gloucester and his execution, which would be reprinted without major changes in all the editions of theActs and Monuments. This is the work of Grindal's team and reflects their editorial priorities: detailed accounts, drawn from eyewitnesses, of the final journeys and deaths of themartyrs are very much a feature of the Rerum. (The accounts of Laurence Saunders and Rowland Taylor provide excellent examples of this).

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The 1563 edition provides little new material. Hooper's marriage is mentioned for the first time, but that is all that is added about his exile. Two interesting documents are added, both concerning the quarrel over vestments in Edward VI's reign: Edward VI's dispensation for Hooper to be ordained as bishop without wearing vestments and Ridley's later letter to Hooper holding out an olive branch on the subject. The first edition also adds an account of Hooper's degradation and a poem by Conrad Gesner memorializing Hooper.

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The 1570 edition saw the inclusion of much new detail on Hooper's early years and his friendship with Heinrich Bullinger. (The farewell to Bullinger and Hooper's prediction of his own martyrdom, now added for the first time, almost certainly came from Bullinger; it is possible that Henry Bull opened the floodgates for this information.) The Earl of Warwick's letter to Cranmer on behalf of Bullinger was also added in this edition. There was no change to this account in the second or third editions of the Acts and Monuments.

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burnt for the defence of the Gospell at Glocester. Anno. 1555. Febr. 9.

 

Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
Hooper

Material similar to the glosses of the previous section can be found in the margins of this section, although they also perhaps reflect what seems to be Foxe's sense that Hooper was a somewhat grander, more confident figure than Saunders (as in the gloss 'Discretion how ministers and preachers ought to behaue themselues' which comments on Hooper's austere manner, framing the point in terms of the difficulties this presented for those who sought spiritual comfort from Hooper). Thus there are glosses linking catholicism and insanity ('This Morgan shortly after fel into a phrensy, and madnes and dyed of the same') and pointing out the catholic reliance on 'force and extremitie' ('The popes religion standeth onely vpoon force and extremitie'). Hooper endures a somewhat more thoroughgoing examination than Saunders and, as a result, some glosses in this section fulfill a similar function to those found in the Oxford disputations section; thus Foxe takes Hooper's point that the Council of Nice ruled that no minister should be separated from his wife as proving that the Council permitted clerical marriage, a rather wider point ('The coūcel of Nice permitteth Priests mariage'); also 'Gardiner exhorteth M. Hooper to returne to the Popes church', (Gardiner says 'Catholique Church' in the text), 'Queene Mary will shew no mercy but to the Popes friendes' (the text says, 'the Queene would shew no mercy to the Popes enemies'). A repetition of the term 'care' in two glosses ('The diligent care of B. Hooper in his Dioces'; 'The care of M. Hooper in instructing his family') show how the marginalia could be used to make a point with economy and subtlety; in this that there was a profound analogy between Hooper's godly governance of his home and his concern for his pastoral flock, a point which made the catholic opposition to marriage appear all the more destructive and misguided. There are also some glosses which are badly positioned in editions after 1570.

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MarginaliaThe story, life, and martirdō of M. Iohn Hooper Martir.IOhn Hooper student and graduate in the Vniuersitie of Oxford, after the study of other sciences, wherein he had aboundantly profited and proceded, thorough Gods secrete vocation was styrred with a feruent desire to the loue and knowledge of the Scriptures. In the readyng and searchyng wherof, as their lacked in hym no diligence, ioyned with earnest prayer: so neither wanted vnto hym the grace of the holy Ghost to satisfie his desire, and to opē vnto hym the light of true Diuinitie.

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Thus Maister Hooper growyng more and more by Gods grace, in rypenes of spirituall vnderstandyng, and shewyng withall some sparckels of his feruent spirite, beyng then about the begynnyng of the. vj. Articles, in the tyme of kyng Henry viij. fell eftsoones in to displeasure and hatred of certaine Rabbines 

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Foxe is using rabbis as a prejorative term for catholic scholars. It suggests, at least to sixteenth-century Christians, a blind adherance to law and tradition, combined with an emnity to the gospel.

in Oxford, who by and by began to styrre coales agaynst him, whereby, and especially by the procurement of Doctour Smith, he was compelled to voyde the Vniuersitie,  
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This is extremely unlikely. Hooper apparently left Oxford in 1519 and entered the Cistercian monastery at Cleve, Somerset. One of the commissioners in charge of suppressing Cleve was Sir Thomas Arundel, who visited the house in 1537. David Newcombe suggests that this was when Hooper entered Arundel's service. Newcombe also points out that Hooper was rector of Lidington, Wiltshire, from 1537 to 1550, a living which was in Arundel's gift. (Newcombe, pp. 12-18). Richard Rex has suggested that Hooper was a friar (Rex, p. 47); in the weight of Newcombe's evdence this seems lesslikely, but it still involves Hooper having left Oxford well before Richard Smith's heyday there.

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and so remouyng from thence, was retayned in the house of Syr Thomas Arundell, and there was his Steward, till the time that Syr Thomas Arundell hauing intelligence of his opinions and religion, which he in no case dyd fauour, & yet exceedyngly fauouryng the person and conditions of the man, founde the meanes to send hym in a message to the Byshop of Winchester, writyng his

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letter priuely to the Byshop, by conference of learnyng to do some good vpon hym, MarginaliaM. Hooper sent to the Bishop of Winchest. but in any case requiryng hym to send home his seruaunt to hym agayne.

Winchester after long conference with M. Hoper iiij. or v. dayes together, when he at length perceaued that neither he could do that good, which he thought, to him, nor that hee would take any good at his hand, accordyng to M. Arundels request, he sent home his seruaunt agayne, right well commēdyng his learnyng and wytte, but yet bearyng in his brest a grudgyng stomacke agaynst Maister Hoper still.

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It folowed not long after this (as malice is alwayes workyng mischief) that intelligence was giuen to Maister Hoper to prouide for hymselfe, for daunger that was workyng agaynst hym. Wherupon MarginaliaM. Hooper forced to auoyd the house of Sir Thomas Arundel.M. Hoper leauyng M. Arundels house, and borowyng an horse of a certaine frend (whose lyfe he had saued a litle before from the gallowes) tooke hys iourney to the Sea side, to go to Fraunce, sendyng backe the horse agayne by one, which in deede did not deliuer him to the owner. M. Hoper beyng at Paris, taryed there not long, but in short tyme returned into England agayne, and was retayned of M. Sentlow, till the tyme that he was agayne molested and layd for: MarginaliaMaister Hooper flyeth again out of England.whereby he was compelled (vnder the pretence of being Captaine of a shyp goyng to Ireland) to take the Seas, 

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This second flight from England can be dated to around 1544 (Newcombe, p. 26).

and so escaped he (although not without extreme perill of drownyng) thorough Fraunce, to the hygher partes of Germany. Where he entryng acquaintaūce with the learned men, was of them frēdly and louingly entertayned, both at Basil, and especially at Zuricke of MarginaliaGreat freendship betweene M. Bullinger and M. Hooper.Maister Bullinger, beyng his singular frend. Where also he maryed his wife, which was a Burgonian, 
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Apparently Foxe means by this that she was from Bruges, or that she was Burgundian. (The Low Countries were part of the old Duchy of Burgundy). Anna Hooper was from Antwerp.

and applyed very studiously the Hebrue toung.  
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Hooper returned to England in 1546 to obtain funds; he was back in Switzerland by the end of that year (Newcombe, pp. 31-36).

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At length when God saw it good to stay the bloudy tyme of the. vj. Articles, and to geue vs kyng Edward to raigne ouer this Realme, with some peace and rest vnto his Gospell, amongest many other English exiles, which then repared homeward, M. Hooper also, moued in cōscience, thought not to absent hymselfe, seyng such a tyme and occasion offered to helpe forward the Lordes worke, to the vttermost of his habilitie. And so commyng to M. Bullinger, and other of his acquaintaunce in Zuricke (as duty required) to geue them thankes for their singular kyndnes and humanitie toward hym manifold wayes declared, with lyke humanitie agayne purposed to take his leaue of them at his departyng, and so dyd. 

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Hooper left for England in 1549 (see OL, I, pp. 48-49).

Vnto whō M. Bullinger agayne (who had alwayes a speciall fauour to M. Hoper) spake on this wise: MarginaliaM. Bullingers woords to M. Hooper at his departing from Zurick.M. Hooper (sayd he) although we are sory to part with your company for our owne cause, yet much greater causes we haue to reioyce, both for your sake, and especially for the cause of Christes true Religion, that you shall now returne out of long banishment vnto your natiue countrey agayne, where not onely you may enioy your owne priuate libertie, but also the cause and state of Christes Church by you may fare the better as we doubt not but it shall.

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An other cause moreouer why we reioyce with you and for you, is this, that you shall remoue not only out of exile, into libertie: but you shall leaue here a baren, a sower, and an vnpleasaūt countrey, rude & sauage, and shall go into a land flowyng wt milke & hony, replenished wt all pleasure and fertilitie. Notwithstandyng with this our reioysing, one feare and care we haue, lest you beyng absent, and so farre distant from vs, or els commyng to such aboūdaunce of wealth and felicitie, in your new welfayre, and plenty of all thyngs, and in your florishyng honors, where ye shall come peraduenture to be a bishop, and where ye shal finde so many newe frēdes, you will forget vs your old acquaintaūce & welwillers. Neuertheles how soeuer you shall forget & shake vs of, yet this perswade your selfe, that we will not forget our old frend and fellow M. Hooper. And if you shall please not to forget vs agayne, then I pray let vs heare from you.

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MarginaliaThe aunswere of Maister Hooper to Maister Bullinger.Whereunto M. Hoper aunsweryng agayne, first gaue to M. Bullinger and the rest right harty thankes, for that their singular good will, and vndeserued affection, appearyng not onely now, but at all tymes towardes hym: declaryng moreouer that as the principall cause of hys remouyng to his countrey was the matter of Religion: so touchyng the vnpleasauntnes and barennes of that coūtrey of theirs, there was no cause therein, why he could not finde in his hart to continue his lyfe there, as soone as in any place in the world, and rather then in his owne natiue countrey, if their were nothyng els in his conscience that moued hym so to do. And as touchyng the forgettyng of his old frendes, although (sayd hee) the remembraunce of a mans countrey naturally doth delyght hym, neither could he deny, but God had blessed hys countrey of England with many great commodities: yet neither the nature of countrey, nor pleasure of commodities, nor newnesse of frendes should euer induce him to the obliuiō of such frendes and benefactours, whom he was so intirely boūde vnto: and therfore you shal be sure

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(sayd
PPPp.iij.
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