Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Censorship Proclamation 32. Our Lady' Psalter 33. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain34. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 35. Bradford's Letters 36. William Minge 37. James Trevisam 38. The Martyrdom of John Bland 39. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 40. Sheterden's Letters 41. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 42. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 43. Nicholas Hall44. Margery Polley45. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 46. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 47. John Aleworth 48. Martyrdom of James Abbes 49. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 50. Richard Hooke 51. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 52. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 53. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 54. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 55. Martyrdom of William Haile 56. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 57. William Andrew 58. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 59. Samuel's Letters 60. William Allen 61. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 62. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 63. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 64. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 65. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 66. Cornelius Bungey 67. John and William Glover 68. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 69. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 70. Ridley's Letters 71. Life of Hugh Latimer 72. Latimer's Letters 73. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed74. More Letters of Ridley 75. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 76. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 77. William Wiseman 78. James Gore 79. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 80. Philpot's Letters 81. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 82. Letters of Thomas Wittle 83. Life of Bartlett Green 84. Letters of Bartlett Green 85. Thomas Browne 86. John Tudson 87. John Went 88. Isobel Foster 89. Joan Lashford 90. Five Canterbury Martyrs 91. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 92. Letters of Cranmer 93. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 94. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 95. William Tyms, et al 96. Letters of Tyms 97. The Norfolk Supplication 98. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 99. John Hullier 100. Hullier's Letters 101. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 102. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 103. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 104. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 105. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 106. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 107. Gregory Crow 108. William Slech 109. Avington Read, et al 110. Wood and Miles 111. Adherall and Clement 112. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 113. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow114. Persecution in Lichfield 115. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 116. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 117. Examinations of John Fortune118. John Careless 119. Letters of John Careless 120. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 121. Agnes Wardall 122. Peter Moone and his wife 123. Guernsey Martyrdoms 124. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 125. Martyrdom of Thomas More126. Martyrdom of John Newman127. Examination of John Jackson128. Examination of John Newman 129. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 130. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 131. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 132. John Horne and a woman 133. William Dangerfield 134. Northampton Shoemaker 135. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 136. More Persecution at Lichfield
Critical Apparatus for this Page
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1471 [1445]

Q. Mary. A Letter of M. Bullinger to M. Hooper.

Marginalia1555. Febru.power shall be mighty, but not in his strength, and he shall wonderfully destroy and make hauocke of all thynges, and shall prosper and practise, and he shall destroy the mightie and the holy people after his owne will. MarginaliaThe power of Antichrist described in Daniell chapt. 8. You know what the Lord warned vs of before hād by MarginaliaMath. 10.Mathew, in the x. chapter, by MarginaliaIohn. 15. 16.Iohn in the 15. chapter, and the. 16. and also what that chosen vessell S. Paule hath written in the second to Timothy and the thyrd chapter. Marginalia2. Tim. 2. 3. Wherefore I doe nothyng doubt (by Gods grace) of your fayth and patience, whilest you know that those thynges which you suffer are not looked for or come by chaūce, but that you suffer thē in the best, truest, and most holy quarell: for what can be more true and holy then our doctrine, which the Papistes, those worshyppers of Antichrist do persecute? MarginaliaThe doctrine of the Protestantes what it is, wherefore they are persecuted.All thynges touchyng saluation, we attribute vnto Christ alone, and to his holy institutions, as we haue bene taught of him and of his disciples, but they would haue euen the same thynges to be communicated as well to their Antichrist and to his institutions. Such we ought no lesse to withstand then we read that Helias withstode the Baalites. For if Iesus be Christ, then let them know that he is the MarginaliaEphe. 1.fulnes of his Churche, and that perfectly: but and if Antichrist be Kyng and Priest, then let them exhibite vnto him that honor. How long do they halt on both sides? Can they geue vnto vs any one that is better then Christ? Or who shall bee equall with Christ, that maye be compared with him, except it be he whom the Apostle calleth the Marginalia2. Thes. 2.Aduersarie? But if Christ bee sufficient for his Churche, what needeth this patching and peecyng? MarginaliaChrist is sufficient, and needeth not be patched with the Pope. But I know well enough, I neede not to vse these disputations with you whiche are sincerely taught and haue taken roote in Christ, beyng perswaded that you haue all thynges in hym, and that we in him are made perfect.

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Go forwardes therfore constauntly to confesse Christ, and to defie Antichrist, beyng myndefull of this most holy and most true saying of our Lorde Iesus Christ: MarginaliaApoc. 21.He that ouercommeth, shall possesse all thynges, and I will bee hys God, and he shall be my sonne: but the fearefull, and the vnbeleuyng, and the abhominable, and the murtherers, and whoremongers, and sorcerers, and Idolaters, and all lyers, shall haue their part in the lake whiche burneth with fire and brimstone, which is the secōd death. The fyrst death is soone ouercome, although a mā must burne for the Lords sake: for they say well that do affirme this our fire to be scarcely a shadow of that which is prepared for the vnbeleuers, and them that fall from the truth. Moreouer the Lord graunteth vnto vs that we may easily ouercome by his power the first death, the which he him selfe did taste and ouercame, promising withall such ioyes as neuer shall haue end, vnspeakeable and passing all vnderstandyng, the which we shall possesse so sone as euer we departe hence. For so agayne sayth the Aungell of the Lord: MarginaliaApoc. 14.If any man worshyp the beast and his Image and receiue his marke in his forehead, or on his hand, MarginaliaGods wrath vpon the beast and them that take his marke.the same shall drinke of the wrath of God, yea of the wyne which is poured into the cup of his wrath, and he shall be tormented in fire and brimstone before the holy Aungels, and before the Lambe: and the smoke of their tormētes shall ascend euermore, and they shall haue no rest day nor night, whiche worshyp the beast and his Image, and whosoeuer receiueth the print of his name. MarginaliaIn this time of Antichrist is the patiēce and fayth of Gods children tryed, whereby they shall ouercome all his tyranny read. Math. 24.Here is the patience of Saintes: here are they that keepe the commaundementes of God, and the fayth of Iesus. To this he addeth by and by: I heard a voyce saying to me, write: blessed be the dead that dye in the Lord, from hēceforth (or spedely they be blessed. Io. 5.): :euen so sayth the spirite, for they rest from their labours, but their workes follow them: for our labour shall not be frustrate or in vayne.

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Therefore, seyng you haue such a large promise, be strōg in the Lord, fight a good fight, be faythfull to the Lord vnto the ende: consider that Christ the Sonne of GOD is your Captaine, and fighteth for you, and that all the Prophetes, Apostles and Martyrs, are your fellow Souldiours. They that persecute and trouble vs, are men, sinfull, and mortall, whose fauour a wise man would not buy with the value of a farthyng: and besides that, our lyfe is frayle, short, brickle, and transitory. Happy are we, if we depart in the Lord: who graunt vnto you, and to all your fellow prisoners fayth and constancy. Commend me to the most reuerend fathers and holy Confessours of Christ, Doctor Cranmer Byshop of Canterbury, D. Ridley Byshop of London, and the good old father D. Latymer. Them and all the rest of the prisoners with you for the Lordes cause, salute in my name, and in the name of all my fellow Ministers, the which do wish vnto you the grace of God, and constancy in the truth.

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Concernyng the state of our Church, it remaineth euen as it was when you departed from vs into your countrey. God graunt we may be thankefull to hym, and that we do not onely professe the fayth with wordes, but also expresse

the same effectually with good workes to the prayse of our Lord. The word of God increaseth dayly in that part of Italy that is nere vnto vs, and in Fraunce.

In the mean while the godly sustayne greuous persecutions, and with great constancy and glory, through torments they goe vnto the Lord: I and all my housholde, with my sonnes in law and kinsmen, are in good health in the Lord. They do al salute you, and pray for your constancy, being sorowfull for you & the rest of the prisoners. There came vnto vs Englishmen Studentes, both godly and learned: They be receaued of our Magistrate. Tenne of them dwell together, the reast remaine here and there with good men. Amongest the other, Maister MarginaliaM. Tho. Leuer.Thomas Leuir is deare vnto mee and familiar. If there be any thing wherein I may doe any pleasure to your wife & children, they shall haue me wholly at commaundement: whereof I will write also to your wife, for I vnderstand she abydeth at Francford. Be strong & mery in Christ, wayting for his deliueraunce, when, and in what sorte it shall seeme good vnto hym. The Lord Iesus shew pitie vpon the Realm of England, and illuminate the same with his holy Spirite to the glory of his name, and the saluation of soules. The Lord Iesus preserue and deliuer you from all euill, with all them that call vpon his name. Farewell, and farewell eternally. The. 10. of October. 1554. From Zurich.

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You know the hand, H. B.

¶ The history of D. Rouland Taylour, which suffered for the truth of Gods word, vnder the tyranny of the Romain Bishop. 1555. the. 9. day of February. 
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Rowland Taylor's Life and Martyrdom

Foxe did not really have an account of Rowland Taylor in the Rerum; he had a collection of a documents: Taylor's account of his examination on 22 January 1555(Rerum, pp. 418- 20); Taylor's letter defending his beliefs on clerical marriage and the eucharist (Rerum, pp. 420-22) and Taylor's last will and testament (Rerum, pp. 422-23). Grindal's team had managed to collect some important writings by Tayor but almost no information about him.

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Foxe remedied this in his first edition, largely through the extensive use of oral sources. The account of Taylor's parish of Hadleigh, the martyr's background and behaviour as pastor of Hadleigh, Taylor's quarrel with catholic residents of the town, his refusal to flee, his arrest and journey to London, his examinations by Stephen Gardiner and Edmund Bonner, his imprisonment and his deprivation were all added to the 1563 edition. After reprinting the Rerum documents, Foxe then also added accounts of Taylor's condemnation and degradation, his encounter with his family in prison and the very detailed accounts of his final journey to Hadleigh and his execution were also added to 1563.

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The account of Taylor's initial examination by Gardiner and his examination by Bonner as well as the descriptions of his deprivation and degradation are almost certainly based on Taylor's account of these events, possibly transmitted orally or more probably in letters, sent to friends or family. The account of Taylor's condemnation is taken from a copy of the official record of this, which survives in Foxe's papers (BL, Harley 421, fos. 41v-42r). All of the other material added in this edition is drawn from oral sources.

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In the second edition, Foxe's most important addition was a letter from Taylor to his wife, which was reprinted from the Letters of the Martyrs (pp. 641-45). Denunciations of individuals - Robert Bracher, Sir John Shelton and John King - are also added to 1570. Apart from some minor rewriting, especially involving John King's activities, the narrative of Taylor's martyrdom remained unchanged in the 1576 and 1583 editions.

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Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
Rowland Taylor

A distinctive feature of this section is the relatively large number of glosses in the 1563 edition. In many cases these glosses were expanded in later editions. Several glosses, including some of those present in all editions at the start of the section, emphasise Taylor's pastoral effectiveness and the misery of the people of Hadley at his death ('Hadly towne commended'; 'D. Taylour desirous to see his flocke'; 'The carefull zeale of Doctor Taylour for Hadley'). Other glosses dwell on the pernicious influence of Taylor's successor and Taylor's concern about this ('Syr Robert Brachers cōming to Hadley'; 'A popishe Sermon of Syr Robert Bracher'; 'This packet was Syr Robert Bracher preaching popish doctrine at Hadley'; 'The Popes packeware: Iustification by workes. Corporall presence, Praying for soules, Auricular confession'). Alongside his pastoral concern, the other main feature of the presentation of Taylor in the margins is his boldness, and the robustness verging on aggression of his responses to those questioning and maltreating him ('The notable answere of Doctor Taylour to the bishop of Winchester'; 'D. Taylours prayer agaynst the pope and his detestable enormities'; 'D. Taylour prayeth a gayne agaynst the Pope and his detestable enormities'). A gloss in the 1570 edition, and later dropped, draws the reader's attention to Bonner's fear of physical reprisal at striking Taylor as part of the degradation ceremony ('Cowardly Boner durst not strike according to his Canon'). Taylor's confutation of his enemies could take the form of praying against the pope and also mocking his tormentors by joking about recantation ('D. Taylor maketh a iest of death, with a meete answere for such Doctours and Councellours'; 'D. Taylor maketh a iest of death').

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As is common in the marginal glosses concerned with the martyrs towards the end of their lives, Taylor's joy at his impending death is mentioned more than once ('D. Taylour is ioyfull in his way'; 'D. Taylour desirous to see his flocke'). His abilities in civil law are advertised in the glosses (e.g. 'D. Taylour learned in diuinitie, and also in the ciuill lawe'), and this is perhaps because of the extensive discussion of marriage. The presentation of the popish enemy follows familiar lines. Gardiner is subjected to considerable criticism, much of it concerned with his past allegiances and the contrast with his position under Mary ('The notable answere of Doctor Taylour to the bishop of Winchester'; 'Gardiners booke de vera obedientia'); he is also attacked for 'rayling', a favourite charge used by Foxe to suggest both defeat in argument and lack of self-control ('Gardiner agayne rayling'). Foxe also uses the glosses to characterise ironically the use of force by the enemies of Taylor as 'argument', which is another way of demonstrating the unreasonable nature of popery ('The Papistes argumentes wherewith they maintaine their doctrine'; 'Winchesters strong argument cary him to prison'). Other attacks on popery are concerned with cavilling, obsequiousness, the analogy between popery and darkness and errors in debate: ('Secretary Bourne cauilleth a-agaynst the religion set forth in K. Edwardes dayes'; 'A testimony of the book of seruice set out in K, Edwardes dayes'; 'Winchester belyeth the Councell'; 'Tonstall helpeth Winchester at neede'; 'Gardyner denyeth his owne Canonist and calleth it a patched lawe'; 'Christs aduersaryes worke all by darkenes'). In a gloss in all editions ('Marke how vnwillingly the people were to receiue the papacy agayne'), Foxe presents opposition to the mass as reluctance to receive the papacy again, thus demonstrating the link between ceremonial and political allegiance; in the gloss ' The Masse the Popes youngest daughter', a reference to antichrist in the text is glossed as the pope in the margin. In a gloss with resonances for Elizabethan vestarian disputes, Foxe recalls the sending of a round cap to Taylor by Coverdale ('This cap was a roūd cap sent by M Couerdale to D. Taylor by his wyfe'). In a gloss concerned with the 'Queenes proceedings' and the nature of Satan, Foxe seems to have problems deciding how to characterise and criticise the political role of the queen in the persecutions. In this gloss and the next ('D. Taylor here playeth a right Elias. 3. Reg. 18'), Foxe steers the reader's thoughts away from political realities/authority to consider a higher law, just as the martyrs exemplify a state of being which transcends the worldly.

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Many glosses are better placed in 1563 and 1570 than in 1576 and 1583 in this section. The gloss 'Gardiners booke de vera obedientia' would seem to suggest that the 1583 edition was composed with reference to the 1570 edition as well as the 1576. In line with usual practice, the glosses 'Of this memoriall cloke read before in D. Ridleys disputations' [1583]; 'Of this memoriall cloke read before in D. Ridleyes disputations pag. 1377' [1576]; 'Of this memoriall cloke, read before in D. Ridleys disputacions pag. 1615' [1570] contain references to other places in the text which are accurate in 1570 and 1576 and not specific in 1583. 'D. Taylour confesseth the truth, and confirmeth the same wyth hys bloud' [1570]; 'An other Apophthegma of Doctour Taylour' [1576] shows a correction of the gloss of 1570 in 1576. A mistaken name in 1563 is corrected in later editions ('Gardiner. Clopton. Boner. Capon. Tunstall' [1563]; 'Gardiner. Hopton. Boner. Capon. Tonstall').

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MarginaliaHadley towne commended.THe town of Hadley was one of the first that receaued the word of God in all England at the preachinge of Maister MarginaliaThomas Bilney.Thomas Bilney: By whose industry the Gospell of Christ had such gracious successe, and toke such roote there, that a great number of that Parishe became exceedinge well learned in the holy scriptures, as well women as men: so that a man might haue found among them many that had often read the whole Bible thorow, and that could haue sayd a great part of S. Paules Epistles by hart, & very well and readely haue geuen a godly learned sentence in any matter of controuersie. Their children and seruantes were also brought vp and trayned so diligently in the right knowledge of Gods word, that the wholl towne seemed rather an Vniuersitie of the learned, then a towne of Clothmaking or labouring people: And that most is to be commended, they were for the more parte faythfull followers of Gods worde in their liuing. 
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Recently John Craig has qualified Foxe's rosy picture of Hadleigh as a model godly town. He has demonstrated that the progress of protestantism in Hadleigh was slow and that bitter divisions existed in the town between Taylor's followers and religious conservatives (Craig, pp. 169-75). Upon a careful reading of Foxe's narrative these divisions become apparent.

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In this towne was Doctor Rouland Taylor, Doctor in both the Ciuil and Canon lawes, MarginaliaD. Taylour, a Doctour in both lawes, and a dyuyne. and a right perfect Diuine, parson. Who at his first entring into his benefice, dyd not, as the common sort of beneficed men do, let out his Benefice to a Farmer, that should gather vp the profites, and set in an ignoraunt vnlearned Priest to serue the Cure, and so they may haue the fleece, little or nothing care for feedinge the flocke: But contrarily he forsooke the Archbyshoppe of Cāterbury  

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The phrase 'of blessed memory' appears here in the 1563 edition. Its removal from subsequent editions may be an indication that Foxe's opinion of Cranmer was more negative in later editions.

MarginaliaThomas Cranmer Archb. of Canterbury.Thomas Cranmer with whom he before was in housholde, 
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Taylor was Cranmer's domestic chaplain.

and made his personall abode and dwellinge in Hadley  
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Actually Taylor was entrusted with a number of offices and assignments which necessitated his absence from Hadleigh. From at least 1552 he farmed out the rectory to two Hadleigh residents (Craig, pp. 164-65).

among the people committed to his charge. Where he as a good Shepheard, MarginaliaA good shepheard and his conditions.abyding and dwelling among hys sheep, gaue him selfe wholly to the study of holy Scriptures, most faythfully endeuouring him selfe to fulfill that charge, which the Lord gaue vnto Peter, saying: MarginaliaIohn 2.Peter louest thou me? Feede my Lambes, Feede my sheep, Feede my sheepe. MarginaliaFeede with worde.This loue of Christ so wrought in hym, that no Sōday nor holy day passed, nor other tyme when he might get þe people together, but hee preached to them the word of God, the Doctrine of their Saluation.

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MarginaliaFeede with example.Not onely was his worde a preaching vnto them, but all his lyfe and conuersation was an example of vnfayned christian life, and true holynes. He was voyd of all pride, hūble, and meeke as any child: so that none were so poore, but they might boldly, as vnto their father, resort vnto him, neither was hys lowlines childysh or fearfull: but as occasion, tyme, and place required, he would be stout in rebuking the sinfull, and euil doers: so that none was so rich, but he would tell hym playnly his fault, with such earnest and graue rebukes as became a good Curate and Pastor. 

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Craig has pointed out that Taylor's denunciations of the wealthy residents of Hadleigh created a distance between himself and the town (Craig, pp. 168-69).

He was a mā very milde, voyd of all rancour, grudge, or euyll will, ready to doe good to all men, readely forgeuing his enemyes, and neuer sought to do euill to any.

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MarginaliaFeede with almes.To the poore that were blinde, lame, sicke, bedred, or that had many children, he was a very Father, a carefull patrone, and diligent prouider, in so much that he caused þe parishioners to make a generall prouision for them: and he him selfe (beside the continuall reliefe that they alwayes founde at hys house) gaue an honest portion yerely, to the common

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