Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Censorship Proclamation 32. Our Lady' Psalter 33. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain34. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 35. Bradford's Letters 36. William Minge 37. James Trevisam 38. The Martyrdom of John Bland 39. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 40. Sheterden's Letters 41. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 42. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 43. Nicholas Hall44. Margery Polley45. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 46. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 47. John Aleworth 48. Martyrdom of James Abbes 49. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 50. Richard Hooke 51. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 52. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 53. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 54. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 55. Martyrdom of William Haile 56. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 57. William Andrew 58. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 59. Samuel's Letters 60. William Allen 61. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 62. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 63. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 64. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 65. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 66. Cornelius Bungey 67. John and William Glover 68. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 69. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 70. Ridley's Letters 71. Life of Hugh Latimer 72. Latimer's Letters 73. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed74. More Letters of Ridley 75. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 76. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 77. William Wiseman 78. James Gore 79. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 80. Philpot's Letters 81. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 82. Letters of Thomas Wittle 83. Life of Bartlett Green 84. Letters of Bartlett Green 85. Thomas Browne 86. John Tudson 87. John Went 88. Isobel Foster 89. Joan Lashford 90. Five Canterbury Martyrs 91. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 92. Letters of Cranmer 93. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 94. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 95. William Tyms, et al 96. Letters of Tyms 97. The Norfolk Supplication 98. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 99. John Hullier 100. Hullier's Letters 101. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 102. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 103. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 104. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 105. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 106. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 107. Gregory Crow 108. William Slech 109. Avington Read, et al 110. Wood and Miles 111. Adherall and Clement 112. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 113. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow114. Persecution in Lichfield 115. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 116. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 117. Examinations of John Fortune118. John Careless 119. Letters of John Careless 120. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 121. Agnes Wardall 122. Peter Moone and his wife 123. Guernsey Martyrdoms 124. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 125. Martyrdom of Thomas More126. Martyrdom of John Newman127. Examination of John Jackson128. Examination of John Newman 129. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 130. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 131. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 132. John Horne and a woman 133. William Dangerfield 134. Northampton Shoemaker 135. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 136. More Persecution at Lichfield
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1482 [1456]

Q. Mary. Alphonsus agaynst burning. Tho. Beckets Image broken.

tingly forsake the same, and defile it selfe with MarginaliaThe Cake God.the Cake God, Idolatrie, and other Antichristianitie therunto belonging, let it surely looke after many and wonderfull plagues of God shortly. MarginaliaAn. 1555. February.Though an other haue the benefice, yet as God knoweth, MarginaliaThe carefull zeale of D. Taylour for Hadley.I can not but be carefull for my deare Hadley. And therefore as I could not but speake, after the first abominable Masse begunne there, I being present, no more I can not but write nowe being absent, hearing of the wicked prophanatiō of my late Pulpit, by such a wily woolfe. Gods loue, mercy, goodnes, and fauour hath bene vnspeakable, in teaching vs the right way of saluation and iustification. Let vs all haue some zeale, some care howe to serue hym according to his good wyll written. The God of loue and peace be euer in Hadley, through Christ our onely aduocate. Amen.

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Rowland Taylour.

 

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Becket's Image and Other Events

The glosses in this section (1570, 1576, 1580) for the most part act as pointers to the narrative.

MarginaliaThe procedinges of the Popes catholickes in maintayning their religion.After that Steuen Gardiner Bishop of Winchester, had got the lawes, and the secular arme on his side (as ye haue hearde) with ful power and authoritie to raigne and rule as he listed, and had brought these godly bishops and reuerende Preachers aforesaide, vnder foote, namely the Archbishop of Canterbury, doctor Ridley Bishop of London, M. Latimer, M. Hooper Bishop of Worcestor and Gloucester, master Rogers, master Saunders, doct. Taylor, and maister Bradford, all which he had nowe presently condemned, and some also burned, he supposed nowe all had bene cocke sure, and that Christe had bene conquered for euer, so that the people being terrified with example of these great learned men condemned, neuer woulde ne durst once route against their violent Religion: not muche vnlike in this behalfe to the manner of the Turkes, who when they can not mainteine their sect by good learning & truth of Gods word, thinke by violence of sword to force whō they can to their belief, and that done, afterward make lawes, no man vnder paine of heresie to dispute or once to cal in question any of their proceedinges: MarginaliaThe maner of proceding like in the Catholickes, and in the Turkes.Euen so Steuen Gardiner and his felowes, when they see they can not preuayle by triall of Gods word, and discourse of learning, neither are disposed simply to seeke for truth where it is to be found: they take exceptions against Gods woorde, to be intricate, obscure, and insufficient to be his owne iudge, and therefore that of necessitie it must be iudged by the Popes Churche, and so hauyng Kinges and Quenes of their side, they seke not to perswade by the worde of God, nor to winne by charitie, but in steede of the lawe of God, they vse (as the prouerbe saith) Marginaliaνόμος τῶν χείρωντῶ νόμω χείρων, compelling men by death, fire, and sword (as the Turkes do) to beleue that in very dede they thinke not. And in deede after flesh and bloud this seemeth to be a sure way. Neither peraduēture are they ignorant howe gaily this way thriueth with the Turkes, and therfore thinke they to practise the same, at leastwise so they do, vpon what example so euer they do it. And thus cōdemned they these godly learned preachers & bishops aforesaid, supposing (as I said) that al the rest would sone be quailed by their example. But they were deceiued, for within. 8. or. 9. dayes after that Ste. Gardiner had geuē sentēce against M. Hooper, M. Rogers, M. Saunders, D. Taylor, and M. Bradford, being the 8. of Febr. MarginaliaFebruary 8. sixe other good mē were brought likewise before the bishops for the same cause of religion to be examined, whose names were Marginaliavj. Men conuented before B. Boner for heresy.W. Pigot Butcher, Ste. Knight Barbar, Tho. Tomkins Weauer, Tho. Hawkes Gentleman, Iohn Laurence priest, Will. Hunter Prentise.

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Steuen Gardiner seing thus his deuise disappoynted, and that crueltie in this case would not serue to his expectation, MarginaliaSte. Gardiner geueth ouer his murthering office to B. Boner.gaue ouer the matter as vtterly discouraged, & from that day medled no more in such kind of condemnations, but referred the whole doing therof to Boner Bishop of Londō: 

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This is an interesting admission that, after the initial condemnations of Rogers, Saunders, Hooper, Taylor and others in late January 1555, Gardiner withdrew from an active role in persecuting protestants. Bonner would take charge of the persecution, even when, as in the case of Philpot, the accused was technically not under the jurisdiction of the bishop of London.

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who supplied that parte right doughtily, as in the further processe of this history hereafter euidently and too muche may appeare. Thus Bishop Boner taking the matter in hand, called before hym in his Consistory at Paules, the Lord Mayor & certayne Aldermē sitting wt him, þe sixe persons aforenamed, vpon the eight day of Febr. in the yeare aforesaid, and in the next day being the. MarginaliaFebruary 9.9. of February, read the sentence of condemnation vppon them, as appeareth in Boners owne Registers. MarginaliaEx Regist. Boneri Lond. Such quicke speede these men could make in dispatching their busines at once. Marginaliavj. Men condēned by Byshop Boner. Notwithstanding because the death of these condemned martyrs did not folow incontinently before the next moneth of March, I will deferre the prosecuting of their matter, tyll I come (by the grace of the Lord) to the tyme and day of their suffering. In the meane tyme, what was the cause that their execution was so long deferred after their condemnation, I haue not precisely to say, vnlesse peraduenture the Sermon of Alphonsus the Spanish Fryer and the kinges Confessor did some good. For so I find, that when these sixe persons

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aforesaid, were cast vpon saterday, the. 9. of Febr. vpon sonday following, which was the. MarginaliaFebruary 10.x. of February, the said Alphonsus a Gray fryer preached before the king, in whiche sermon MarginaliaAlphonsus K. Phillips confesssor preaching agaynst the burning of heretickes.he did earnestly inuey against the bishops for burnyng of men, saying plainly that they learned it not in scripture to burne any for his conscience: but the contrary, that they should liue, and be conuerted: with many other thinges more to the same purport. But touching the lingering of these mens death, as I haue not certainly to affirme, so I let it passe.

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MarginaliaFebruary. 14.Vpon the 14. day of February, M. Rob. Farrar bish. of saint Dauids was sent towarde s. Dauids, there to be condemned and executed. Touchyng whose martyrdome, for so muche as it fell not before the moneth of March, we wyll deferre the historie thereof tyll we come to the day and tyme of his suffering.

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Furthermore, this foresaid. 14. day of February, the L. Chancelor and other his felow Bishops, caused the Image of Thomas Becket, that olde Romish traytor, to be set vp ouer the Mercers Chappel doore in Cheapside in Londō, in the forme & shape of a Bishop, with Miter and Crosier. 

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Becket's Image

This account of the repeated iconoclasm against the statue of Becker first appears in the 1563 edition and was reprinted without alteration in all subsequent editions. Foxe was certainly drawing on oral sources for this, very probably John Barnes or a member of his family or household. Foxe presents Barnes's grievances in the matter sympathetically, and in some detail. The repeated attacks on the statue are widely reported in other sources (see Brigden, p. 593).

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MarginaliaTho. Beckets Image set vp at Mercers chappell. Howbeit within two dayes after this his erection, his two blessing fingers were first broken away, & on þe next day (being the MarginaliaFebruary. 17.17. daye of Februarye) his head was also striken of: wherupon arose great trouble, and many were suspected: among whom one MarginaliaM. Iohn Barnes troubled for Beckets Image.M. Iohn Barnes Mercer, dwellyng ouer against the same Chappell, was vehemently (by the Lorde Chauncelour) charged withal, as the doer thereof, & the rather, for that he was a professor of the truth. Wherfore he and three of his seruauntes were committed to prison: and at his deliuery (although it could not be proued vpon hym) he was bound in a great summe of money, as well to builde it vp againe as often as it shoulde be broken downe, as also to watche and keepe the same. And therfore at this his compelled charges, the Image was againe set vp the secōd day of March, then next ensuing, but (for lacke belike of careful watching) the. 14. day of the same moneth in the night, MarginaliaBeckets Image agayne broken downe.the head of that daungerous beast (ouer whom there was suche a charge geuen) was againe the seconde tyme broken of: whiche thing was so heynously taken, that the next day (beyng the 15. day) there was a Proclamation made in London, that who soeuer would tell who did strike of his head (though he were of counsayle, and not the principal doer) he should haue not onely his pardon, but also one hundred crownes of gold, with harty thankes. But it was not knowen who did it.

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Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters

The glosses in this section (1570, 1576, 1580) are mainly functional, making clear the authorship of each letter.

MarginaliaFebruary. 18. MarginaliaQ. Mary aunswereth to the K. of Denmarkes letters, touching M. Couerdale.The 18. day of Februarye, Queene Mary at length after long delay, made ful aunsweare to the king of Denmarkes letters, who had written before two letters to the said Queene, in þe behalfe of M. Couerdale, for his deliuerance, 
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Miles Coverdale's Release

This account of Miles Coverdale's release from prison and the correspondence between Christian III of Denmark and Mary on this matter first appear in the 1563 edition. All of this material was reprinted in the subsequent editions of the Acts and Monuments without significant alteration. This was not the first or last time that Foxe would have drawn on the official correspondence of Mary's reign. These documents were clearly procured through the good offices of someone at court, very probably William Cecil.

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Christian III was, as Foxe observes, acting at the behest of John MacBriar (or Johannes Machabeus), who was Coverdale's brother-in-law and Christian's chaplain. The Marian government, as is apparent from Foxe, was deeply reluctant to release Coverdale; he had been the bishop of Exeter in the previous reign and, along with Cranmer, Ridley, Latimer, Barlow, Hooper and Ferrar he was among the members of the Edwardian episcopate targeted by the new regime. But Christian was in a position to apply pressure and he clearly did so. Although he was a pious Lutheran, Christian was also a valued ally of Charles V, the father-in-law of the English queen, and, at this time, England's most important ally. Mary delayed as long as she could, but released Coverdale and gave him a passport in February 1555. Had Christian not intervened, Coverdale would almost certainly have been one of the Marian martyrs.

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who at that time went vnder sureties, and was in great daunger, had he not bene rescued by the great suite & letters of the said king of Denmarke.

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The matter & copie of which his sute & letters, as they came to our handes, we haue here set forth & exprest, wherby the singular loue of this good king towards the truth of Gods worde, and the professors therof might the better appeare to the worlde.

First this vertuous and godly king Christianus, hearyng of the captiuitie of Miles Couerdale, of whom he had had some knowledge before (beyng there in Denmarke in king Henry the eight his tyme) and lamentyng his daungerous case, and partly through the intercessiō of M. Machabæus Superintendent in Denmarke, who was partly of * Marginalia* This M. Machabeus, and M. Couerdale maryed two sisters. kynne to Maister Couerdales wife,  

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Coverdale had married Elizabeth Macheson; MacBriar was married to her sister Agnes.

made intercession by letters to Queene Mary, desiring & requesting the said Miles Couerdale to be sent vnto hym. The date of which his first letters, was about the Calendes of May. An. D. 1554. the copie wherof here foloweth.

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¶ Christianus Dei gratia Daniæ, Noruegiæ &c. Rex &c. eadem gratia Serenissimæ ac potentissimæ principi D. Mariæ Angliæ, Galliæ & Hiberniæ Reginæ, consanguineæ nostræ chariss. salutem.

MarginaliaThe epistle of the K. of Denmarke to Q. Mary, for the deliuerance of M. Couerdale.SErenissima princeps, consanguinea charissima, pro necessitudine mutua ac cōiunctione, non solum regij nominis inter nos, sed etiam sanguinis, maximè vero vtrinq; inter hæc regna nostra à vetustissimis vsq; tēporibus propagata ac seruata, non modo cōmertiorum, sed omnium officiorum vicissitudine & fide, facere non potuimus quin pietatis & doctrinæ excellentis commendatione, verè reuerendi viri Ioannis Machabæi, sacræ Theologiæ doctoris & professoris præstantiss. subditi ac Ministri nostri imprimis dilecti, supplicibus grauissimisque precibus cōmoti, ad serenitatem vestram has literas daremus. Exposuit is nobis, in hac recenti perturbatione ac motu regni Angliæ (quem ex animo euenisse dolemus, & nunc indies in melius verti speramus) quendam no-

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