Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Censorship Proclamation 32. Our Lady' Psalter 33. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain34. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 35. Bradford's Letters 36. William Minge 37. James Trevisam 38. The Martyrdom of John Bland 39. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 40. Sheterden's Letters 41. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 42. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 43. Nicholas Hall44. Margery Polley45. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 46. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 47. John Aleworth 48. Martyrdom of James Abbes 49. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 50. Richard Hooke 51. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 52. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 53. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 54. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 55. Martyrdom of William Haile 56. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 57. William Andrew 58. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 59. Samuel's Letters 60. William Allen 61. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 62. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 63. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 64. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 65. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 66. Cornelius Bungey 67. John and William Glover 68. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 69. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 70. Ridley's Letters 71. Life of Hugh Latimer 72. Latimer's Letters 73. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed74. More Letters of Ridley 75. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 76. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 77. William Wiseman 78. James Gore 79. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 80. Philpot's Letters 81. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 82. Letters of Thomas Wittle 83. Life of Bartlett Green 84. Letters of Bartlett Green 85. Thomas Browne 86. John Tudson 87. John Went 88. Isobel Foster 89. Joan Lashford 90. Five Canterbury Martyrs 91. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 92. Letters of Cranmer 93. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 94. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 95. William Tyms, et al 96. Letters of Tyms 97. The Norfolk Supplication 98. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 99. John Hullier 100. Hullier's Letters 101. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 102. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 103. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 104. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 105. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 106. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 107. Gregory Crow 108. William Slech 109. Avington Read, et al 110. Wood and Miles 111. Adherall and Clement 112. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 113. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow114. Persecution in Lichfield 115. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 116. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 117. Examinations of John Fortune118. John Careless 119. Letters of John Careless 120. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 121. Agnes Wardall 122. Peter Moone and his wife 123. Guernsey Martyrdoms 124. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 125. Martyrdom of Thomas More126. Martyrdom of John Newman127. Examination of John Jackson128. Examination of John Newman 129. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 130. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 131. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 132. John Horne and a woman 133. William Dangerfield 134. Northampton Shoemaker 135. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 136. More Persecution at Lichfield
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1488 [1462]

Q. Mary. The notable Historie of william Hunter Martyr.

MarginaliaAn. 1555. March.Then Boner caused all his Articles and confession to be agayne openly read, and so in his accustomed maner perswaded with hym to recant. To whom hee finally sayd: My Lord, I can not see but that you would haue me to forsake the truth, and to fall into errour and heresie. The Byshop seyng he would not recant, dyd proceede in his lawe, and so gaue sentence of condemnation vpon him. MarginaliaSentence read agaynst Tomkins.

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Then he deliuered hym to the Shrieffe of London, who caryed hym strayght vnto Newgate, where hee remained most ioyous and constant, vntill the MarginaliaMarch. 16.xvj. day of March 

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This date is 15 March in 1563 and was corrected to 16 March in 1570.

next after: on whiche day, hee was by the sayd Shrieffe conueyed into Smithfield, and there sealed vp his fayth in the flamyng fire, to the glory of Gods holy name, and confirmation of the weake.

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¶ A notable history of William Hunter, a young man of xix. yeares, pursued to death by Iustice Browne for the Gospels sake, worthy of all young men and parentes to be read. 
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The Martyrdom of William Hunter

William Hunter's case should have disturbed the authorities. He was one of the first of the lay people of humble background to be executed and, unlike some of the other early martyrs with similar backgrounds (e.g., Thomas Tomkins and John Warne), he had no previous history of religious dissidence. The narrative Foxe presents of his arrest and judicial ordeals presents a vivid picture of overzealous local authorities feeding the fires of persecution.

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Foxe's narrative is an excellent example of the importance of oral sources to his martyrology. The entire account of Hunter in the Rerum consists of praise of Hunter's parents for subordinating their natural love for their son to ther duty to God and their support for his refusal to submit (Rerum, pp. 427-8). This material was reprinted in the 1563 edition, with no significant change or addition. But in the second edition, Foxe added the detailed and vivid narrative of William Hunter's arrest, interrogations and martyrdom, which was clearly supplied by Hunter's brother Robert. The reader should keep this source in mind when reading the account: its strengths are its mastery of local detail and its access to the feelings of the martyr and those around him (e.g., his description of William Hunter's dreams). But partisanship may colour some of the 'facts' of the narrative: for example, did the sun shine brightly on Hunter after he prayed for the Son of God to shine upon him?

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William Hunter

Several notes focus upon the unnaturalness of popery: Foxe exploits the request to Hunter's father to return his son to what he suspects, with justice, will be his death; the glosses concerned with this episode use metaphors of 'fruit', and comment on the naturalnes of the relations between Hunter and his father. In the gloss 'The fruite of the Popes doctrine to set the father agaynst the sonne', Foxe sets the generative metaphors of fruit and paternity against each other to emphasise the subversion of the natural order by papal doctrine and offers a contrast in a later gloss, 'The working of nature betwene the father & the sonne'. Another gloss emphasises the comforting of Hunter by the son of the sheriff ('The Shriffes sonne geueth comfortable wordes to W. Hunter'), which suggests that a son was set against his father. Two glosses make use of phrases established in Book X as anti-catholic commonplaces: the charge that papists cannot 'abide' scripture ('The Catholickes cannot abide the Bible') and the use of the phrase 'pelting chafe' to indicate the fury of a persecutor ('M. Browne in a pelting chafe'). Some glosses near to the account of Hunter's death ('His father and mother come to cōfort him'; 'His father & mother exhort him to be constant'; 'Maister Higbed maruelleth at the constancy of Williams mother') emphasise constancy and several relate the prophetic dream Hunter had shortly before his death and the occasions of 'verification' of it ('A notable thing concerning W. Hunters dreame'; 'W. Hunters dreame verefied'; 'Williams dreame verified'). The cruel treatment of Hunter is also stressed ('Boner commaundeth W. Hunter to the stockes. W. Hunter 2. dayes & 2. nightes in the stockes, with a crust of bread, & a cuppe of water'; 'W. Hnnter layd in the conuict prison with as many yrons as he could beare'). An erroneous date in the 1563 edition is corrected in later editions.

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MarginaliaW. Hunter prentyse and Martyr. MarginaliaMarch. 26.THe 26. day of the sayd moneth of March, the yeare aforesayd, folowed the Martyrdome of William Hunter, a right godly young man of the age of xix. yeares, and borne of lyke godly parentes: by whom hee was not onely instructed in in true Religion and godlynesse, but also confirmed by them vnto death, after a rare and straunge example, worthy to bee noted and had in admiration of all parentes. Wherein may appeare a singular spectacle, not onely of a maruelous fortitude in the partie so young: but also in his parentes, to beholde nature in them striuyng with Religion, and ouercome of the same. 
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The conquering of affection and love was an important part of the stoicism which was expected of the martyrs (see Collinson [1983]). Foxe describes martyrs such as John Rogers and Rawlins White refusing to allow the sight of their families to dissaude them from martyrdom. The Hunter family supplied Foxe with an opportunity to stress this domestic stoicism from another angle, that of the martyrs' families.

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Whereby Christian parents may learne what is to be done not onely in their children, but also in them selues, if neede at any tyme do require, or godlynesse should demaunde the duetie of a Christian man agaynst naturall affection.  
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Foxe's deletion of the passages from his later editions does not indicate that he felt that the topic was unimportant, but it reflects the need to accommodate the considerable detail which Robert Hunter would supply about his brother.

Example whereof in the sequele of this hystorie we haue here present before our eyes. Which hystorie as it was faythfully drawen out by Robert Hunter his owne brother (who beyng present with his brother William, and neuer left hym till his death, sent the true reporte vnto vs) we haue here with lyke faythfulnes placed and recorded the same, as foloweth.

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MarginaliaW. Hunter prentise in Colman streete wyth Thomas Taylour.William Hunter being a Prentise in London in the fyrst yeare of Queene Mary, was commaunded at the Easter next following, to receaue the Communion at a Masse, by the Priest of the Parishe where hee dwelt, called Colman streete: whiche, because he refused to doe, MarginaliaW. Hunter threatned for not receauing at a Masse.he was very much threatned that he should bee therefore brought before the Byshop of London. Wherefore William Hunters Maister one Thomas Taylour, a Silke weauer, MarginaliaW. Hunter willed of his Mayster to depart.required William Hunter, to goe and departe from hym, lest that he should come in daunger, because of hym, if he continued in his house. For the whiche causes, William Hunter tooke leaue of his sayd maister, MarginaliaW. Hunter commeth to his father at Burntwoode.and thence came to Burntwoode where his father dwelt, with whom hee remayned afterward, about the space of halfe a quarter of a yeare.

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After this it happened, within. fiue or vj. weekes, that William goyng into the Chappell of Burntwood, and finding there a Bible lying on a Deske, dyd reade therein. In the meane time there came in one father Atwell a Sumner, 

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A summoner for the bishop: that is, an official responsible for collecting small sums of money owed to the bishop and with ensuring attendance at ecclesiastical courts.

which hearyng William read in the Bible, sayd to him, what medlest thou with the Bible? Knowest thou what thou readest, and canst thou expounde the Scriptures?

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To whom William aunswered and sayd: MarginaliaFather Atwell a Sumner or Promotor.father Atwell, I take not vppon me to expounde the Scriptures, except I were dispensed 

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I.e., licensed.

withall, but I finding the Bible here when I came, read in it to my comfort. To whom father Atwell sayd: it was neuer mery since the Bible came abroad in English.

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To the which wordes William aunswered saying: MarginaliaTalke betwene Atwell and W. Hunter concerning the Bible.Father Atwell, say not so for Gods sake, for it is Gods booke, out of the whiche euery one that hath grace may learne to know what things both please God, & also what displeaseth him. Then sayd father Atwell: could we not tell before this tyme, as well as now, how God was serued? William aunswered: no father Atwel, nothyng so wel, as we may now, if that we might haue his blessed word, amōgst vs still as we haue had. It is true sayd father Atwell, if it be as you say.

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Well sayd William Hunter, it liketh me very well, and I pray God that we may haue the blessed Bible amongest vs continually. To the which wordes father Atwell sayd, I perceiue your mynde well inough, MarginaliaThe Catholickes can not abyde the Bible.you are one of them that misliketh the Queenes lawes, and therfore you came from London, I heare say. You learned these wayes at London, but for all that, sayd father Atwell, you must turne an other leafe, or els you and a great sorte moe heretickes wyll broyle for this geare, I warrāt you. To the which wordes William sayd: God geue me grace that I may beleue hys word and confesse his name, whatsoeuer come therof. Con-

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fesse his name, quoth olde Atwell? no, no, ye will go to the deuill all of you, and confesse his name.

What, sayd William? you say not well father Atwell. At the whiche woordes he went out of the Chappell in a great fury, saying: MarginaliaAtwell not able to reason, but he is able to accuse the innocent.I am not able to reason with thee, but I will fetch one straight way which shall talke with thee, I warrant the thou hereticke. And hee leauyng William Hunter readyng in the Bible, straight wayes brought one Thomas Wood, who was then Vicar of Southwelde, which was at an Alehouse euē ouer agaynst the sayd Chappell: who hearyng olde Atwell saye that William Hunter was reading of the Bible in the Chappell, came by and by to hym, MarginaliaThe vicar of Southweild angry with W. Hunter for reading in the Bible.and findyng hym readyng in the Bible, tooke þe matter very haynously, saying: Sirha who gaue the leaue to read in the Bible and to expound it?

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Then William aunswered: I expounde not the Scriptures Syr, but read them for my comfort. What medlest thou with them at all, sayd the Vicar? It becommeth not thee, nor none such to medle with the Scriptures, But William aunswered: I will read the Scriptures god willing, while I liue, and you ought (M. Vicar) not to discourage any man for that matter, but rather exhort mē diligently to read the scriptures for your discharge & their own.

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Vnto the which the Vicar aunswered: MarginaliaThe Catholickes in no wyse will be controled.It becommeth thee well to tell mee what I haue to doe. I see thou art an hereticke, by thy wordes, William sayd, I am no hereticke for speakyng the truth. But the Vicar sayd, it is a mery worlde when such as thou art, shall teach vs what is the truth. Thou art medlyng, father Atwell tels me with the vi. of Iohn, wherein thou mayest perceiue, how Christ sayth? Except that ye eate the flesh of Christ and drynke his bloud, ye haue no lyfe in you. William sayd. I read the vi. of Iohn in deede: howbeit, I made no exposition on it.

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Then sayd father Atwell, when you read it I sayd, þt you there might vnderstand how that in the Sacrament of the aultar is Christes very naturall body and bloud: vnto the whiche you aunswered, how that you would take the Scriptures as they are, & that you woulde medle with no great exposition, except that ye were dispensed withall.

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Ah, sayd the Vicar? MarginaliaW. Hunter examined of the Sacrament.what say you to the blessed sacrament of the aultar) beleuest thou not in it, and that þe bread and wyne is transubstantiated into the very body & bloud of Christ? William aunswered, I learne no such thing in þe vj. of Iohn, as you speake of. Why sayd the Vicar, doest thou not beleue in the Sacrament of the aultar? I beleue sayd William Hunter, all that Gods worde teacheth. why sayd the Vicar thou mayest learne this which I say plainly in the sixt of Iohn.

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Then sayd william, you vnderstand Christs words much like the carnall MarginaliaThe Catholickes lyke to the Capernaites.Capernaites, 

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Capernaite is a derogatory term for a believer in transubstantiation. The term is a reference to John 6: 52.

whiche thought that Christe would haue geuen them hys fleshe to feede vpon which opinion our sauiour Christ corrected, whē he sayd The words which I speake to you, are spirite and lyfe.

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Now, quoth the Vicar, I haue found you out: nowe I see that thou art an hereticke in deede, and that thou doest not beleue in þe sacrament of the aultar.

Then sayd William Hunter, wheras you doubt my belyefe, I would it were tryed whether that you or I would stand faster in our faith. MarginaliaHeresie mistaken with the Papistes.Yea thou hereticke (sayd the Vicar) wouldest thou haue it so tryed? William Hunter aunswered, that which you call heresie, I serue my Lord God withall.

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Thē sayd the Vicar: canst thou serue god with heresie? But William aunswered, I woulde that you and I were euen nowe fast tyed to a stake, to proue whether that you or I would stand strongest to our fayth. But the Vicar aunswered: It shall not so be tryed. No quoth William, I thinke so: for if it might, I thinke I know who woulde soonest recant, for I durst set my foote agaynst yours euen to the death. That we shall see, quoth the Vicar, and so they departed, the Vicar threatnyng Willyam much, how that he would complayne of him: with much other communication which they had together.

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MarginaliaThe vicar complaineth to Iustice Browne of W. Hunter.Immediately after, this Vicar of Weild 

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I.e., vicar of the South Weald.

tolde Maister Browne of the communication which william Hunter and hee had together. Whiche when M. Browne vnderstoode, MarginaliaIustice Browne sendeth for Hunters father.immediatly he sent for Williams father and the Constable, one Robert Salmon. For immediately after William Hunter and the Vicar had reasoned together, he tooke his leaue of his father and fled, because wood the Vicar threatned him. Now when the Constable and Williams father were come, and were before M. Broune, he asked where Williā Hunter was. His father aunswered, saying: if it please you Syr, I know not where he is become. No, quoth maister Browne? I will make the tell where he is, and fetch hym foorth also ere I haue done with thee. Syr sayd Williams father, I know not where he is become, nor where to seeke for him.

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Then
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