Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Censorship Proclamation 32. Our Lady' Psalter 33. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain34. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 35. Bradford's Letters 36. William Minge 37. James Trevisam 38. The Martyrdom of John Bland 39. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 40. Sheterden's Letters 41. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 42. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 43. Nicholas Hall44. Margery Polley45. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 46. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 47. John Aleworth 48. Martyrdom of James Abbes 49. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 50. Richard Hooke 51. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 52. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 53. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 54. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 55. Martyrdom of William Haile 56. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 57. William Andrew 58. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 59. Samuel's Letters 60. William Allen 61. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 62. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 63. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 64. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 65. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 66. Cornelius Bungey 67. John and William Glover 68. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 69. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 70. Ridley's Letters 71. Life of Hugh Latimer 72. Latimer's Letters 73. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed74. More Letters of Ridley 75. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 76. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 77. William Wiseman 78. James Gore 79. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 80. Philpot's Letters 81. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 82. Letters of Thomas Wittle 83. Life of Bartlett Green 84. Letters of Bartlett Green 85. Thomas Browne 86. John Tudson 87. John Went 88. Isobel Foster 89. Joan Lashford 90. Five Canterbury Martyrs 91. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 92. Letters of Cranmer 93. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 94. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 95. William Tyms, et al 96. Letters of Tyms 97. The Norfolk Supplication 98. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 99. John Hullier 100. Hullier's Letters 101. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 102. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 103. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 104. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 105. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 106. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 107. Gregory Crow 108. William Slech 109. Avington Read, et al 110. Wood and Miles 111. Adherall and Clement 112. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 113. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow114. Persecution in Lichfield 115. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 116. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 117. Examinations of John Fortune118. John Careless 119. Letters of John Careless 120. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 121. Agnes Wardall 122. Peter Moone and his wife 123. Guernsey Martyrdoms 124. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 125. Martyrdom of Thomas More126. Martyrdom of John Newman127. Examination of John Jackson128. Examination of John Newman 129. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 130. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 131. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 132. John Horne and a woman 133. William Dangerfield 134. Northampton Shoemaker 135. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 136. More Persecution at Lichfield
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1494 [1468]

Q. Mary. The examinations of Pigot, Knight, and Laurence, Martyrs.

Marginalia1555. March.And further, wee make here our protestation before God (whom we call to record in this matter) MarginaliaThere protestation.that this whiche we haue said, is neither of stubbornnes nor wylful mynde) as some iudge of vs: but euen of very conscience, truely (we trust) grounded in Gods holy word. For before we tooke this matter in hand, we besought God from the bottome of our hartes, that we might doo nothing contrary to his holy and blessed word. And in that he hath thus shewed his power in our weaknes, we cā not worthily prayse him: vnto whom wee geue harty thanks, through Iesus Christ our Lord. Amen.

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MarginaliaM. Causton and M. Higbed constant to death in their confession.When he had thus deliuered and read their confession, the Bishop still persisting sometime in fayre promises, somtyme threatning to pronounce iudgement, asked them whether they would stand to this their confession and other answeares? To whom Causton said. Yea, we wyl stande to our answeares written with our handes, and to our beliefe therin conteyned. After which answeare the Bishop began to pronounce sentence against hym.

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Then he said, that it was much rashnes, and without al loue and mercy, to geue iudgement, without aunswearing to theire confession by the truth of Gods word, whereunto they submitted them selues most willingly. MarginaliaM. Causton appealeth to the Cardinall.And therfore I, quoth Causton (because I can not haue iustice at your hande, but that ye wyll thus rashly condemne me) doo appeale from you to my Lord Cardinall.

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Then D. Smith said, that he would answeare theyr confession. MarginaliaD. Smyth ready to answere their confession, but could not be suffered.But the bishop (not suffering him to speake) wylled Harpsfielde to say his mynd, for the stay of the people: 

Commentary  *  Close

It is interesting that Bishop Bonner preferred to have John Harpsfield rather than Richard Smith answer Causton and Higbed; it suggests that Bonner considered Harpsfield the more effective debater.

Who taking theyr confession in his hande, neither touched nor aunsweared one sentence therof.

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Which done, the Bishop pronounced sentence, first against the said Thomas Causton, and then callyng Thomas Higbed, MarginaliaSentence pronounced agaynst M. Causton and M. Higbed. caused hys articles and answeares likewise to be read. In the readyng whereof Higbed said: Ye speake blaspemie agaynst Christes Passion, and ye goe about to trap vs with your subtilties and snares. And though my father and mother, and other my kinsfolke did beleue as you say, yet they were deceyued in so beleuyng.

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And further, where you say that my lord, named Cranmer (late Archbishop of Canterbury) and others specified in the sayd articles, be heretikes: I do wishe that I were such an heretike as they were and be. Then the Bishop asked him againe, whether he would turne from his error, and come to the vnitie of their church? To whom he said, No, I would ye should recant, for I am in the truth, and you in errour.

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Wel, quoth the Bishop, if ye wyl returne, I wil gladly receyue you.

No, sayd Higbed, I wyll not returne as you wyll haue me, to beleue in the sacrament of the altar your God.

Wherupon the Bishop proceeded, and gaue iudgement vpon hym, as he had done before vpon Tho. Causton. MarginaliaM. Causton and M. Higbed condemned and sent to Newgate.Whē al this was thus ended, they were both deliuered to þe Sheriffes, and so by them sent to Newgate, where they remained by the space of. xiiij. dayes, praysed be God, not so much in afflictions, as in consolations.

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For the encrease wherof, they earnestly desired al their good brethren and sistern in Christ to pray, that God for his sonnes sake woulde goe forth with that great mercye, which alredy he had begon in them, so that they might perseuer vnto the ende, to the prayse of the eternal God, & comfort of al their brethren.

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These. xiiij. dayes (after their condemnation) once expired, MarginaliaM. Causton and Maister Higbed brought from Newgate into Essex.they were the. xxiij. day of this moneth of March, fetched from Newgate at foure of the clocke in the mornyng, and so led through the citie vnto Algate, where they were deliuered vnto the Shieriffe of Essex, and there being fast bound in a cart, were shortly after MarginaliaMarch. 26. brought to their seueral appoynted places of burning: that is to say, Thomas Higbed to Hornden on the hyll, and Thomas Causton to Rayly (both in the Coūtrie of Essex) MarginaliaThe constant Martyrdome of M. Thomas Causton, and M. Higbed Martyrs.where they dyd most constantly, the. xxvi. day of the same moneth, seale this their fayth with shedding of their bloud by most cruel fire, to the glory of God, and great reioysing of the godly.

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At the burnyng of whiche Maister Higbed, Iustice Browne was also present, as is aboue specified, and diuers Gentlemen in the shiere were commaunded to be present, for feare belike, least they should be taken from them. And thus much touching the apprehension, examination, confession, cōdemnation, and burnyng of these two godly and constant martyrs of God.

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William Pigot, Steuen Knight, and Iohn Laurence, with their examina-
tions and constant Martyrdome. 
Commentary  *  Close
The Martyrdoms of Pygot, Knight and Laurence

All the information which Foxe had on these martyrs in the Rerum was acopy of Stephen Knight's prayers and the dates and places of the execution of the three martyrs, together with a brief but vivid account of Laurence being carried to the stake in a chair (Rerum, pp. 427 and 428). In the 1563 edition, Foxe added the articles put to the three and their answers, as well as accounts of the appearance before the Consistory Court of St Paul's. He also added the unforgettable story of children encouraging Laurence to remain constant, as he was burning alive, to his first edition. There were no significant changes made to the account of thesethree martyrs in subsequent editions of the Acts and Monuments.

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Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
Pigot, Knight and Laurence

Narrative dominates the glosses in this section, along with an account of the issues discussed between the martyrs and their persecutors. As is usual, the day of death is given at the start (for two of the martyrs who died on the same day). The gloss 'Beliefe of the pretensed Catholicke church' qualifies the term 'catholic': the term was thus not always to be conceded to the other side without comment. The glosses remind the reader that Laurence was a priest and register the fact of his conversion from monastic life to protestantism ('Talke betweene Boner and Iohn Laurence Priest'; 'Iohn Laurence sometymes a Fryer'; 'The Martyrdome of Iohn Laurence Priest at Colchester. Anno. 1555'), illustrating that even those at the heart of the pope's church could see the truth if they wished.

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MarginaliaMarch. 28.IN the Storie before of Thomas Tomkyns and his felowes, mentiō was made of sixe which were examined & cōdeēned together, by Bishop Boner, the nynth day of February. Of the which sixe condemned persons, two, which wer Tomkyns and William Hunter (as ye heard) were executed, the one vpon the. 26. of Februarye, the other vpon the. 26. of March. Other three, to wyt, MarginaliaWilliam Pigot, Steuen Knight, Iohn Laurence, Martyrs.William Pigot and Steuen Knight suffered vpon the eight and twenty day, and Iohn Laurence the nine and twenty of the sayd moneth of march.

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Touchyng the which three Martyrs, now somthyng to say of their examinations, it was first demaunded of them, what their opinion was of the sacrament of the Aultar. Whereunto they seuerally answeared, and also subscribed, that in the sacramēt of the altar, vnder formes of bread and wine there is not the very substance of the body and bloud of our saueour Iesus Christ, but a spiritual partaking of the bodye and bloud of Christe: the very body and bloud of Christ beyng onely in heauen, and no where els. This answeare thus made, the Bishop caused certaine articles to be read vnto them tending to the same effect as did the articles before of Tomkyns and of M. Causton. The tenor wherof here foloweth.

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¶ Articles or interrogatories obiected by the Bishop of London to William Pigot, Steuen Knight, and Iohn Laurence, the eight of February. 1555. 
Commentary  *  Close

The accounts of the appearances of Pygot, Knight and Laurence before the Consistory Court of St Paul's as well as the articles put to them, together with their answers, are all taken from Bishop Bonner's records, probably from a court book which is now lost.

MarginaliaArticles obiected to W. Pigot and his felowes.VVHether do you thinke and stedfastly beleue that it is a catholick, faythful, christian, and true doctrine, to teache, preach and say, that in the sacrament of the altar, vnder the formes of bread and wine, there is without any substaunce of bread and wine there remayning, by the omnipotent power of almighty God and his holy word, really, truly, and in very deed the true and naturall body, and bloud of our sauyour Iesus Christ, the selfe same in substance (though not in outward forme & appearance) which was borne of the Virgine Mary, and suffred vpon the crosse, yea, or nay?

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MarginaliaBeliefe of there forelders.Whether doe you thinke, and stedfastly beleeue, that your Parents, Kinsfolke, Frends, and Acquaintance, here in thys Realm of England, before your Birth, a great while, and also after your Birth, professing and beleeuing the sayde Doctrine and Fayth, concerning the sayde Sacrament of the aultar, had a true Christiā fayth, and were faithfull and true christen people, or no?

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MarginaliaBeliefe of their Godfathers and Godmothers.Whether do you thinke and stedfastly beleue that youre Godfathers, and Godmother, professing and beleeuing the sayd Doctrine and Fayth, concerning the sayd Sacrament of the aultar, had a true christen faith, and were faithfull and true christen people or no?

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MarginaliaBeliefe of their young age.Whether do you thinke and stedfastly beleue that your owne selfe in tymes past, being of the age of 14. yeares, and aboue, did thinke and beleue concernyng the sayd sacrament of the aultar in all poyntes, as your said parentes, kinsfolke, frends, acquaintāce, godfathers, and godmother did then thinke and beleue therin, or no?

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Whether do you thinke, and stedfastly beleue, that our soueraignes the King, & the Queene of this Realme of Englande, and all the Nobilitie, Clergie, and Laitie of this Realme, professing and beleuyng the sayd doctrine & fayth, as other Christian Realmes doo, concernyng the saide sacrament of the altar, haue a true christian fayth, and beleue as the Catholike and true Church of Christ hath alwayes beleued, preached, and taught, or no? MarginaliaBelief of the King, Queene, and the Nobilitie.

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Whether doo you thinke, and stedfastly beleue that our saueour Christ and his holy spirite, hath bene, is, and shalbe with his Catholike Church, euen to the worldes ende, gouernyng and rulyng the same in all thinges, especially in the necessary poyntes of Christian Religion, not suffering the same to erre or to be deceyued therin? MarginaliaBeliefe of the pretensed Catholicke Church.

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Whether it is true that you, being suspected, or infamed, to be culpable, and faultye in speakyng agaynst the sacramente of the Aultare, and against the very true presence of Christes natural body, and the substaunce thereof in the sayde Sacrament, and thereupon called before me vppon complaint made to me againste you, haue not bene a good space in my house, hauyng freely meate and drinke, and also diuers times instructed and infourmed, as well by one beyng our Ordinarye, as also by my Chaplaynes and diuers other learned men, MarginaliaThe reall presence and transubstantiation. some whereof were Bishoppes, some Deanes, and some Archdeacons, and euery one of them learned in diuinitie, and myndyng well vnto you, and

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desiring
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