Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Censorship Proclamation 32. Our Lady' Psalter 33. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain34. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 35. Bradford's Letters 36. William Minge 37. James Trevisam 38. The Martyrdom of John Bland 39. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 40. Sheterden's Letters 41. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 42. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 43. Nicholas Hall44. Margery Polley45. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 46. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 47. John Aleworth 48. Martyrdom of James Abbes 49. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 50. Richard Hooke 51. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 52. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 53. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 54. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 55. Martyrdom of William Haile 56. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 57. William Andrew 58. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 59. Samuel's Letters 60. William Allen 61. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 62. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 63. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 64. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 65. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 66. Cornelius Bungey 67. John and William Glover 68. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 69. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 70. Ridley's Letters 71. Life of Hugh Latimer 72. Latimer's Letters 73. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed74. More Letters of Ridley 75. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 76. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 77. William Wiseman 78. James Gore 79. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 80. Philpot's Letters 81. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 82. Letters of Thomas Wittle 83. Life of Bartlett Green 84. Letters of Bartlett Green 85. Thomas Browne 86. John Tudson 87. John Went 88. Isobel Foster 89. Joan Lashford 90. Five Canterbury Martyrs 91. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 92. Letters of Cranmer 93. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 94. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 95. William Tyms, et al 96. Letters of Tyms 97. The Norfolk Supplication 98. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 99. John Hullier 100. Hullier's Letters 101. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 102. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 103. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 104. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 105. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 106. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 107. Gregory Crow 108. William Slech 109. Avington Read, et al 110. Wood and Miles 111. Adherall and Clement 112. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 113. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow114. Persecution in Lichfield 115. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 116. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 117. Examinations of John Fortune118. John Careless 119. Letters of John Careless 120. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 121. Agnes Wardall 122. Peter Moone and his wife 123. Guernsey Martyrdoms 124. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 125. Martyrdom of Thomas More126. Martyrdom of John Newman127. Examination of John Jackson128. Examination of John Newman 129. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 130. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 131. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 132. John Horne and a woman 133. William Dangerfield 134. Northampton Shoemaker 135. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 136. More Persecution at Lichfield
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1504 [1478]

Q. Mary. The Vicar of Crondal falling out of the pulpit. The story of G. Marsh.
MarginaliaAn. 1555. Aprill.¶ A spectacle for all Christians to beholde and to take heede of the Popes blasphemous Doctrine. 
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Nightingale was not named in the 1563 edition; instead he was identified, or misidentified, as the parson of 'Arundall in Canterbury'. Nor was the sermon quoted in the 1563 edition nor was Robert Austen mentioned in this edition. Clearly, Austen read the account in the 1563 edition and sent Foxe further details, clarifying and correcting the original account.

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MarginaliaA Popish parson preaching to his parishioners.BY many and sundrye wayes almighty God hath admonished men of all nations in these our latter yeares to embrace and not violently to repugne againste the light of his Gospell, as first by preachyng of his woorde, secondly, by the bloud of the Martyrs, and thirdly, by terrible examples shewed from tyme to tyme vppon his aduersaryes. In the number of whom commeth here to be remembred the notable woorkyng of Gods hande vpon a certayne Priest in Kent named Nightingall, Parson of Crondall besides Canterbury: who vppon Shrouesonday, whiche was about the third daye of the sayde moneth of March, and yeare of our Lorde aforesaid, reioysing belike not a litle at this alteration of Religion, MarginaliaA terrible exāple of Gods seuere punishment vpof Nightingall Parson of Crondall in Kent.beganne to make a Sermon to his Parishioners, takyng his Theme out of the wordes of S. Iohn: He that saith, he hath no sinne, is a lyer, and the truth is not in him. &c. And so vpon the same very impertinently declared to them all suche Articles as were set foorth by the Popes authoritie, and by the commaundement of the Bishops of this realme: saying moreouer vnto the people in this wise: Nowe maisters & neighbours reioyce and be mery, for the prodigall sonne is come home. For I know that the most part of you be as I am: for I knowe your hartes wel enough. And I shal tel you what hath happened in this weeke past. I was before my Lord Cardinal Pooles grace, & MarginaliaBlasphemy to Christes Gospell punished.he hath made me as cleane frō sinne, as I was at the fontstone: and on Thursday last being before hym, he hath appoynted me to notifie (I thank hym for it) the same vnto you. And I wyl tel you what it is. And so reading the Popes Bull of pardon that was sent into Englande, he saide, he thanked God that euer he had lyued to see that daye, adding moreouer that he beleeued, that by the vertue of that Bull he was as cleane from sinne, as that night that he was borne: and immediately

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MarginaliaThe sodaine death of one Nightingall Parson of Crondall in Kent who was made by the Cardinals authoritye chiefe Penitentiary of that Deanry.The description of a popishe Prieste, who when he had taken away the glory and office of Christ, fell downe sodaynly, and dyed.

woodcut [View a larger version]

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Like the burning of John Lawrence (1583, p. 1543) this image belongs to the small group of single-column cuts that were narrative and specific. The exemplary image of the popish priest of 'Crondall' (i.e. Crundale, Kent, in the diocese of Canterbury) illustrates the punishment that was visited on the preacher for applying words of St John to his papal bull of pardon. The depiction implies passive inertia on the part of the congregation who heard this message, rosaries in hand. But the church in which they sit has the features of a reformed building. Here and elsewhere (compare the burning of Tomkins' hand) the illustrators depict white glass with distinctive oval quarries, and in this case the plain windows, together with the pulpit, represent a properly reformed church. In fact St Mary's, Crundale, still has some fragments of its medieval stained glass.

vpon the same fel sodaynly downe out of the pulpit, and neuer styrred hand nor foote, and so lay he. Testified by Rob. Austen of Cartham 

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Nightingale was not named in the 1563 edition; instead he was identified, or misidentified, as the parson of 'Arundall in Canterbury'. Nor was the sermon quoted in the 1563 edition nor was Robert Austen mentioned in this edition. Clearly, Austen read the account in the 1563 edition and sent Foxe further details, clarifying and correcting the original account.

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which both heard and saw the same, & is witnessed also by the whole countrey round about.

Iohn Awcocke. 
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The Martyrdom of John Alcock

There was a brief note in the Rerum stating that John Alcock died on 2 April 1555 in Newgate prison and was buried in the fields (p. 431). This note was reprinted in all editions of the Acts and Monuments, without change, except that Newgate was only mentioned in the Rerum.

This John Alcock, or Awcock, is very probably the Hadleigh shearman whose arrest and imprisonment is described elsewhere by Foxe. There is a manuscript copy of Alcock's answer to the privy council's interogation of him in Foxe's papers (BL, Lansdowne 389, fo. 212v).

MarginaliaAprill. 2. Iohn Awcocke, Martyr.IN the moneth of Aprill, and the seconde day of the same moneth, dyed in prison Iohn Awcocke, who after was

buryed in the fieldes, as the maner of the Papistes was to deny their Christian burial to such as dyed out of their popish Antichristian Church.

A declaration of the lyfe, examination, and burnyng of George Marshe, who suffered most constant martyrdome for the profession of the gospel of Christ, at Westchester, the fourth day of April. Ann. 1555. 
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The Martyrdom of George Marsh

The information, and lack of information, on George Marsh in the Rerum is revealing. Foxe stated that Marsh was the curate of [Church] Langton and that he received the living from Laurence Saunders, the martyr, who was the rector of Church Langton. Foxe added that Marsh was burned on 24 April 1555 (Rerum, p. 432). He then stated that nothing else had reached him about Marsh apart from two letters, which are printed in Rerum, pp. 432-41. Once again, the Rerum was strong on documents but weak on oral sources and eyewitness accounts.

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In the 1563 edition, Foxe added the background on Marsh's early life, Marsh's own account of examinations by Bishop Cotes of Chester and an eyewitness account of Marsh's death and Cotes's sermon denouncing the martyr. In the second edition, Foxe added Marsh's account of his treatment and examinations by the earl of Derby and members of his household. (It is quite interesting that Marsh's accounts of his imprisonment and examinations by Derby first, and then by Bishop Cotes, came to Foxe at separate times and, presumably, from separate sources. The source for the information used in 1563 appears to have been in Chester. This is an important reminder of Foxe's dependence on informants, particularly informants who were able to send eyewitness accounts or material written by the martyrs themselves). Marsh's letter summarizing his examinations was also added to 1570, while Foxe shortened and modified his earlier account of Bishop Cotes's sermon against Marsh and its aftermath.

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The account of Marsh's martyrdom was unchanged in the third and fourth editions of the Acts and Monuments.

 

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George Marsh

As is usual, many of the glosses in this section describe the various stages of apprehension, interrogation and execution. Some of the glosses suggest Marsh's approximation to / imitation of Christ ('G. Marsh of his owne voluntary minde offereth himself to his enemies'; 'Peters counsell to Christ, to saue himselfe'; 'G. Marsh followeth Christes aunswere to Peter'). Opposed to him are the forces of Antichrist, characterised in the usual ways: Marsh is cruelly treated during his imprisonment (the favoured term is 'straitness') and is forced to do things asked of common criminals ('G. Marsh caused to hold vp his handes at Lancaster amongest other malefactours'; 'The vnmercifull straitenes of the Byshop toward G. Marsh in prison'; 'The strayt keeping of Marsh in prison'). Bishop Cotes is particularly disliked by Foxe. One gloss accuses Cotes of prejudice ('The B. iudgeth Marsh to be an hereticke, before he heareth him'), followed soon after with a series of glosses accompanying an account of bad bishops of the ancient church ('No new thing for Byshops to be persecutors', 'Examples of persecuting Bishops in the old tyme', 'Byshop Iasan', 'B. Annas and Cayphas'). There is a reference to the lustful demise of the bishop ('Gods iust reuenging hand vpō a persecuting Bishop'); the text reveals Foxe's source to have been rumour.

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Further attacks on the ungodly include a gloss pointing to the disloyalty of catholic nobles to Edward I ('The Earle of Darby, L. Windsor, and Lord Dacars in K. Edwards time agreed not to the Actes of Religion') and an attack on the blasphemous utterance of one of Marsh's detractors ('This blasphemous mouth of the parson of Grapnal'). There are also glosses objecting to the manner in which discussions with Marsh were conducted ('The Byshops clergy more able to examine than to dispute'; 'So sayth the Turke in his Alcaron that no man must dispute of his lawe'). These objections may have been motivated by Marsh's less than authoritative performance in the face of his interrogators. The glosses point to his reluctance to answer on the crucial question of the sacrament, and his later sense that this was due to a lack of boldness ('G. Marsh loth to aunswere to the question of transubstantiation'; 'Marsh troubled in his consciēce for being no more bolde touching the Sacrament'), a quality he eventually obtains ('G. Marsh strengthened in prison with the boldnes of Gods spirite').

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There is an interesting contrast between the glosses 'Neither the place nor person of the Pope spoken agaynst but onely his doctrine' and 'Gods mercy preferred before the Queenes mercy': the first reproduces Marsh's relatively sophisticated point that his dislike of the papacy is not to be taken as hatred for particular popes. The latter gloss emphasises his stark choice between the queen's authority and his faith. Unlike the earlier gloss, it omits his qualifications (in this case his loyalty to the queen in all but this), presenting the reader with the bare terms of his choice; the precedence of faith over political allegiance was too crucial a point to be obscured. Foxe occasionally sharpens or adds logical matters to Marsh's words ('Christes breaking of bread. Luke 24 proueth not the receiuing vnder one kinde'; 'Argument. Linus and Anacletus were good men. Ergo the Pope is the supreame head of all Churches'). Some glosses are out of position in the 1583 edition.

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MarginaliaAprill. 24. George Marsh Martyr.THe saide George Marshe was borne in the Parishe of Deane, in the Countie of Lancaster, and was well brought vp in learnyng and honest trade of lyuyng by hys Parentes, who afterwardes about the. xxv. yeare of his age, tooke to wyfe an honest mayden of the countrey, with whom he continued earnyng their liuyng vpon a Farme, MarginaliaGeorge Marsh first a farmer. hauyng chyldren betweene them lawfully begotten: and then God takyng his wyfe out of this worlde, he beyng most desirous of godly studyes, (leauyng his houshold and children in good order) went vnto the vniuersitie of Cambridge, where he studyed, and muche encreased in learnyng and godly vertues, and was a MarginaliaGeorge Marsh made Minister.minister of Gods holy worde and Sacramentes, and for a while was Curate to Laurence Saunders, as he hym selfe reporteth. 
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Marsh was also the curate of Laurence Saunders' other living at All Hallow's Bread Street, London. Clearer evidence that Marsh's career was being fostered by powerful Edwardian protestants could not be desired.

In whiche condition of lyfe, he continued for a space, earnestly settyng foorth Gods true Religion, to the defacyng of Antichristes false doctrine, by his godlye Readynges and Sermons, as well there and in the Parishe of Deane, as els where in Lanckeshire.

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Whereupon at length by detection of certayne aduersaries he was apprehended, and kept in close prison by MarginaliaD. Cotes Byshop of Chester, a persecuter.George Cotes, then Bishop of Chester, in strayte Prison in Chester, within the precinct of the Bishoppes house, about the space of foure monethes, MarginaliaGeorge Marsh detected. being not permitted to haue reliefe and comfort of his frendes: but charge beyng geuen vnto the Porter, to marke who they were that asked for hym and to signifie their names vnto the Bishop, as by the particular description of his story testified and recorded with his own penne, more euidently may appeare in the processe here vnder folowyng.

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The handlyng, entreatyng, and examination of George Marsh, being sent first by the Earle of Derby to Doct. Cotes Bishop of Chester.

MarginaliaThe examination of George Marsh, written wyth his owne hand.ON the monday before Palme Sonday, which was the xij. day of March, it was told me at my mothers house that Rog. Wrinstone with other of M. Bartons seruaunts dyd make diligent search for me in Bolton, 

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It becomes clear, later in this account, that the earl of Derby ordered that a determined search be made for Marsh. This suggests that Marsh had been quite active preaching in the area of Bolton, Lancashire, where he clearly had friends, family and a network of supporters.

and when they perceyued that I was not there, they gaue strayt charge to Roger Ward and Rob. Marsh, to find & bring me to MarginaliaM. Barton Gentleman, and persecutour.maister Barton the day next folowing, wt others, to be brought before the honourable Earle of Darby to be examined in matters of Religion. &c.

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I knowyng this by relatiō of diuers of my frēdes, was diuersly affected, MarginaliaGeorge Marsh aduertised by his frendes to flye.my mother and other my frendes aduertising me to flee and to auoyd the peryll, which thing I had intended afore after a weeke then next ensuyng, if this in the meane while had not chaunced, seeyng, that if I were taken, and would not recant in matters of religion, (as they thought I would not, and as God strengthenyng and assisting me with his holy spirite I neuer wyl) it woulde not only haue put thē to great sorow, heauynes, & losses, with costes & charges, to their shame & rebuke in this worlde, but also myne owne selfe after troubles and painful prisonment, vnto shameful death.

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This considered, they aduised and counsayled me to depart & flee þe coūtrey, as I had entēded to haue done, if this had not happened. MarginaliaG. Marsh in a perplexitie whether to flye or to tary.To whose coūsel my weake flesh would gladly haue cōsented, but my spirit did not fully agree: thinking and saying thus to my selfe: that if I fled so away, it would be thought, reported, and saide, that I dyd not onely flee the countrey and my nearest and dearest frendes: but much rather from Christes holy woorde, according as these yeares past I had with my hart, or at least with mine outward liuyng professed, and with my mouth & word taught, according to the small talent geuen me of the Lord. I being thus with their aduise & counsel, and the cogitations & counselles of myne owne mynde drawen, as it were diuers wayes, went from my mothers house, saying, I woulde come againe at euenyng.

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In the meane tyme I ceased not by earnest prayer to aske and seeke counsell of God MarginaliaG. Marsh consulteth with God. (who is the geuer of all good gyftes) and of other my frendes, whose godly iudgementes and knowledge I much trusted vnto. After this, I mette with one of my said frendes on Deane Moore, about sunne going downe: and after we had consulted together of my busines, not without harty prayer kneeling on

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