Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Censorship Proclamation 32. Our Lady' Psalter 33. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain34. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 35. Bradford's Letters 36. William Minge 37. James Trevisam 38. The Martyrdom of John Bland 39. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 40. Sheterden's Letters 41. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 42. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 43. Nicholas Hall44. Margery Polley45. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 46. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 47. John Aleworth 48. Martyrdom of James Abbes 49. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 50. Richard Hooke 51. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 52. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 53. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 54. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 55. Martyrdom of William Haile 56. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 57. William Andrew 58. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 59. Samuel's Letters 60. William Allen 61. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 62. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 63. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 64. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 65. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 66. Cornelius Bungey 67. John and William Glover 68. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 69. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 70. Ridley's Letters 71. Life of Hugh Latimer 72. Latimer's Letters 73. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed74. More Letters of Ridley 75. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 76. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 77. William Wiseman 78. James Gore 79. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 80. Philpot's Letters 81. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 82. Letters of Thomas Wittle 83. Life of Bartlett Green 84. Letters of Bartlett Green 85. Thomas Browne 86. John Tudson 87. John Went 88. Isobel Foster 89. Joan Lashford 90. Five Canterbury Martyrs 91. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 92. Letters of Cranmer 93. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 94. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 95. William Tyms, et al 96. Letters of Tyms 97. The Norfolk Supplication 98. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 99. John Hullier 100. Hullier's Letters 101. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 102. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 103. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 104. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 105. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 106. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 107. Gregory Crow 108. William Slech 109. Avington Read, et al 110. Wood and Miles 111. Adherall and Clement 112. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 113. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow114. Persecution in Lichfield 115. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 116. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 117. Examinations of John Fortune118. John Careless 119. Letters of John Careless 120. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 121. Agnes Wardall 122. Peter Moone and his wife 123. Guernsey Martyrdoms 124. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 125. Martyrdom of Thomas More126. Martyrdom of John Newman127. Examination of John Jackson128. Examination of John Newman 129. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 130. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 131. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 132. John Horne and a woman 133. William Dangerfield 134. Northampton Shoemaker 135. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 136. More Persecution at Lichfield
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1520 [1494]

Q. Mary. The Martyrdome of William Flower.

Marginalia1555. Aprill.and I trust to the liuyng God he wyll geue me his holye spirite to continue to the ende. Then he desired all the

world to forgeue hym, whom he had offended, as he forgaue all the worlde.

¶ The burnyng of William Flower at Westminster, the. 24. of Aprill. 1555.

woodcut [View a larger version]

Commentary on the Woodcuts  *  Close
The illustration of William Flower, among those that show the moment just before the pyre was lit, portrays the horrific detail of the martyr praying after his right hand, impaled on a pike, was cut off as he stood at the stake. The witnesses present who 'credibly informed' the martyrologist about this are not shown. The circle standing round the stake (with some indication of the density of the urban setting) seems to consist only of ecclesiastical and secular officials - apart from two heads looking out of a window in the distance. The banderole containing Flower's last words retained its framing line intact until 1583, when the text (still in the roman lettering it had in all four editions) was reset.

This done, first his right hand being held vp againste the stake, was stroken of, his leaft hand being stayed behinde hym. At the which striking of his hand, certaine that were present beholders of the matter, and purposely obseruyng the same, credibly enformed vs, that he in no part of his body did once shrinke at the striking thereof, but once a litle hee sturred his shoulders. 

Commentary  *  Close

Once again, Foxe is concerned to emphasize the stoicism of his martyrs, even when they were undergoing excruciating physical pain. This is also the reason for Foxe's detailed, graphic, even disgusting, account of Flower's death. On the polemical importance of the stoicism of the martyrs see Collinson (1983) and Freeman (1997).

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And thus fire was set vnto hym, who burning therin, cryed with a loude voyce: Oh the Sonne of God haue mercy vpon me, Oh the Sonne of God receiue my soule, 

Commentary  *  Close

Curiously Foxe gives a different version of these words in the 1563 edition than he does in later editions. Presumably he altered these words but why he did so remains unclear.

three tymes, and so his speach being taken from hym, he spake no more, lifting vp notwithstanding his stump with his other arme, as long as he could.

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And thus endured thys constant witnes and faythfull seruaunt of God, the extremitie of the fire, being therein cruelly handled, by reason that to his burnyng litle woode was brought, so that for lacke of fagottes there not sufficient to burne hym, they were faine to strike hym downe into the fire. Where he lying along (whiche was doulfull to beholde) vpon the grounde, his neather parte was consumed in the fire, whilest his vpper part was cleane without the fire, his tongue in all mens sight styll mouyng in his mouth. 

Commentary  *  Close

Once again, Foxe is concerned to emphasize the stoicism of his martyrs, even when they were undergoing excruciating physical pain. This is also the reason for Foxe's detailed, graphic, even disgusting, account of Flower's death. On the polemical importance of the stoicism of the martyrs see Collinson (1983) and Freeman (1997).

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¶ The burnyng and martyrdome of Iohn Cardmaker, and Iohn Warne Vpholster, which suffered both together in Smythfield. Anno. 1555. May. 30. 
Commentary  *  Close
The Martyrdoms of Cardmaker and Warne

The executions of Cardmaker and Warne mark a point at which the Marian persecution began to go wrong in two ways. In the case of Cardmaker, the effort to secure a recantation from a prominent evangelical was initially succesful, only to backfire and produce a martyr instead. In the case of Warne, the persecution was beginning to turn away from prominent clerics to ordinary layfolk, although admittedly in Warne's case, layfolk with long-standing heretical views which were outspokenly expressed. Foxe does not say exactly what brought Warne to the attention of the authorities in Mary's reign, although the articles brought against Warne suggest he publicly derided the Marian religious reforms.

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In the Rerum, Foxe printed an account of Cardmaker's arrest with William Barlow, of Barlow's refusing to recant, thanks to the persausive influence of Laurence Saunders, Cardmaker's debates in prison with Thomas Martin and of Cardmaker's execution along with John Warne, a citizen of London (Rerum, pp. 442-43). This material was reprinted, with only minor changes, in all editions of the Acts and Monuments. It was derived from a narrative account of these events which was probably sent from a protestant in London to a co-religionist in exile and which was obtained by Grindal or one of his associates. This narrative - or more accurately, a copy of it - survives among Foxe's papers as BL, Harley 425, fol. 68r-v. There was also a passage in the Rerum (p. 443), stating that Warne had made a confession of faith which commented on the Apostle's Creed. Foxe probably had the document at this time, but he did not print it.

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In the 1563 edition, Foxe added the articles put to Cardmaker and Warne, along with their answers as well as an account of Bishop Bonner's examination of Warne. All of these were obtained from Bonner's records. Foxe also printed the confession of faith to which he had alluded in the Rerum.

In the second edition, Foxe added details of Cardmaker's background - that the martyr had been an Observant Franciscan and that he was a reader in St Paul's - undoubtedly obtained from oral sources. This may well have included the unnamed friend to whom Cardmaker sent a letter, which was printed for the first time in 1570. Foxe also added a note relating a final attempt, by Thomas Beard, to secure a recantation from Cardmaker. Cardmaker probably sent this account to a friend, possibly the same one to whom he had sent the letter.

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There were no changes made to the narrative of Cardmaker and Warne in the third or fourth editions of the Acts and Monuments.

 

Commentary on the Glosses  *  Close
Cardmaker and Warne

Most of the glosses in this section are the usual narrative pointers. There are glosses mocking the articles alleged against the martyrs ('The beliefe of the Popes Catholicke church'; 'To speake naturally of the naturall body of Christ, these two canot stād together at one tyme, vnles we graunt Christ to haue 2. bodyes'; 'That Christ neuer willed, neyther can the Scriptures beare it'; 'Heresye for laughing at a Spaniell shorne on the head'). A gloss which records that Warne was pardoned under Henry VIII makes the useful (implicit) point that the religious policy of his daughter was even more conservative. As ever, constancy is the signature of the martyrs as portrayed in the glosses ('Iohn Warne constant agaynst the Bishops persuasions'; 'Iohn Cardmaker standeth constantly to the fier'; 'The reioycing of the people at Cardmakers constancye'), and there is also a gloss recording the (as it emerged, groundless) fears of the people about Cardmaker's constancy ('The people afrayd at Cardmakers recanting').

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MarginaliaIohn Cardmaker and Iohn Warne, Martyrs.VPon the thirty day of May suffred together in Smith fielde Iohn Cardmaker, otherwise called Taylour, Prebendarie of the Churche of Welles: and Iohn Warne Vpholster, of the Parishe of saint Iohn in Walbrooke. Of whom it remayneth nowe particularly to entreate, beginnyng first with master Cardmaker, who first was an obseruaunt Fryer 
Commentary  *  Close

I.e., Cardmaker was an Observant friar. These were members of the Franciscan order who claimed to be observing the original, and more rigorous, rules laid down by St Francis of Assisi, the order's founder.

before the dissolution of the Abbeyes: then after was a maryed Minister, MarginaliaMaister Cardmaker reader in Paules.and in king Edwards tyme appoynted to be Reader in Paules. Where the Papistes were so much agreeued with hym for his doctrines sake, that in his reading they cut and mangled his gowne with

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their kniues. This Cardmaker being apprehended in the beginnyng of Queene Maryes raigne, with master Barlow Bishop of Bathe, was brought to London: 

Commentary  *  Close

In August 1553, Cardmaker, together with William Barlow, the bishop of Bath and Wells, were apprehended while trying to flee England disguised as merchants (Machyn, p. 75 and APC IV, p. 321).

and layde in prison in the Fleete, MarginaliaCardmaker with M. Barlow apprehended, and layd in the Fleete. king Edwardes lawes yet being in force.  
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What Foxe means is that Cardmaker and Barlow were not charged with heresy because there was no law then in force against it. They were arrested for trying to leave the realm without royal permission.

But after the Parlament was ended, in which the Pope was againe admitted as supreme head of the church, and the Bishops had also gotten power and authoritie, Ex officio,  
Commentary  *  Close

There were technical meanings to the phrase 'ex officio' but here Foxe means it literally: the bishops now had offcial authority to proceed against Cardmaker and Barlow for heresy.

to exercise their tyrannie: these two were both brought before Winchester Chauncellour, and others appoynted by Commission (as before is mentioned) to examine the fayth of such as were then prisoners, and as vnto others before, so nowe vnto them, the Chauncellour offered the Queenes mercye, if they would agree and be conformable. &c.

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MarginaliaBarlow and Cardmaker acceptable of Winchester as Catholickes.To this they both made such an answere, 

Commentary  *  Close

Although Foxe had an official account of their examination (BL, Harley 421, fol. 39v), he is following the narrative he printed in the Rerum.

as the Chancelour with his felow Commissioners allowed thē for Catholike. Whether they of weakenes so answeared, or he of subtiltie would so vnderstand their answere, that he might haue some forged example of a shrinking brother, to laye in the dishe of the rest, which were to be examined, it may easily be perceiued by this, that to all them whiche folowed in examination, he obiected the example of Barlow and Cardmaker, commending their sobernes, discretion, and learning. But what soeuer their aunsweare was, yet notwithstanding Barlow was led againe to the Fleete, MarginaliaM. Barlow exiled for the truth.from whence he afterwarde beyng deliuered, dyd by exile constantly beare witnes to the truth of Christes Gospell. 
Commentary  *  Close

Foxe's account of what happened during the examination of Barlow and Cardmaker is tendentious. Barlow and Cardmaker did agree to recant (BL, Harley 421, fol. 39v; cf. Machyn, p. 75; Wriothesley II, p. 126 and OL, I, p. 171). Barlow recanted and was released from prison; he then fled into exile (Garrett). Cardmaker refused to recant as promised and was ultimately executed.

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Cardmaker was conueyed to the Counter in Breadstreate, the Bishop of London procuring it to be published, that he should shortly be deliuered, after that he had subscribed to Transubstantiation and certaine other articles.

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To the same prison where Cardmaker was, Laurence Saunders was brought (after the sentence of excommunication and condemnation was pronounced against hym) MarginaliaConference betwene Laurence Sauders and Iohn Cardmaker.where these two prisoners had suche Christian conference, that what soeuer the breath of the bishops blustred, and the fickle eares of the people too lightly beleued, 

Commentary  *  Close

Foxe is rather skillfully obscuring the fact that Cardmaker had promised to recant.

in the ende they both shewed them selues constant confessors, and woorthy martyrs of Christ: as of Laurence Saunders it is alredy writtē. After whose departure, Cardmaker remained there

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prisoner,
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