Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Censorship Proclamation 32. Our Lady' Psalter 33. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain34. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 35. Bradford's Letters 36. William Minge 37. James Trevisam 38. The Martyrdom of John Bland 39. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 40. Sheterden's Letters 41. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 42. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 43. Nicholas Hall44. Margery Polley45. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 46. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 47. John Aleworth 48. Martyrdom of James Abbes 49. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 50. Richard Hooke 51. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 52. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 53. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 54. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 55. Martyrdom of William Haile 56. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 57. William Andrew 58. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 59. Samuel's Letters 60. William Allen 61. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 62. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 63. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 64. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 65. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 66. Cornelius Bungey 67. John and William Glover 68. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 69. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 70. Ridley's Letters 71. Life of Hugh Latimer 72. Latimer's Letters 73. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed74. More Letters of Ridley 75. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 76. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 77. William Wiseman 78. James Gore 79. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 80. Philpot's Letters 81. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 82. Letters of Thomas Wittle 83. Life of Bartlett Green 84. Letters of Bartlett Green 85. Thomas Browne 86. John Tudson 87. John Went 88. Isobel Foster 89. Joan Lashford 90. Five Canterbury Martyrs 91. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 92. Letters of Cranmer 93. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 94. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 95. William Tyms, et al 96. Letters of Tyms 97. The Norfolk Supplication 98. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 99. John Hullier 100. Hullier's Letters 101. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 102. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 103. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 104. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 105. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 106. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 107. Gregory Crow 108. William Slech 109. Avington Read, et al 110. Wood and Miles 111. Adherall and Clement 112. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 113. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow114. Persecution in Lichfield 115. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 116. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 117. Examinations of John Fortune118. John Careless 119. Letters of John Careless 120. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 121. Agnes Wardall 122. Peter Moone and his wife 123. Guernsey Martyrdoms 124. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 125. Martyrdom of Thomas More126. Martyrdom of John Newman127. Examination of John Jackson128. Examination of John Newman 129. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 130. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 131. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 132. John Horne and a woman 133. William Dangerfield 134. Northampton Shoemaker 135. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 136. More Persecution at Lichfield
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1524 [1498]

Q. Mary. The story and examinations of Iohn Ardeley and Iohn Symson, Martyrs.

Marginalia1555. Maye.I beleue that the sacramentes, that is to say, of Baptisme and of the Lordes supper MarginaliaTwo sacramentes of the new testament. are seales of Gods moste mercyful promises towardes mankind. In Baptisme, as by the outward creature of water I am washed from the filthynes which hangeth on my flesh: so do I assuredly beleue, þt I am by christes bloud washed cleane frō my sinnes, through which I haue sure confidence of my certaine saluation. In the partaking of the Lordes supper, as I receiue the substāce of bread and wyne (the nature of whiche is to strengthen the body:) so doo I by faith receiue the redemption wrought in Christes body broken on the crosse, life by his death, resurrection by his resurrection, and in summe, all that euer Christ in his body suffered for my saluation, to the strengthenyng of my faith in the same. And I beleue that God hath appointed the eating and drinking of the creatures of bread and wyne in his holy supper accordyng to his word, to moue and to styrre vp my minde to beleue these articles aboue written.

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This is my fayth: this I do beleue, and I am content by Gods grace to confirme and seale the truth of the same with my bloud.

By me Iohn Warne.

¶ A letter of Iohn Cardmaker to a certaine frende of his.

The peace of God be with you.

MarginaliaA letter of M. Cardmaker to a certayne frend of his.YOu shall right wel perceiue, that I am not gone backe as some men do report me, but am as readye to geue my life, as any of my brethrē that are gone before me, 

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Cardmaker's Letters

By this time, Cardmaker had clearly decided not to recant and was anxious to scupper reports that he had recanted. This letter enables Foxe to make it seem as though Cardmaker had never recanted.

although by a policie I haue a litle prolonged it, and that for the best, as already it appeareth vnto me and shortly shall appeare vnto all. That day that I recant any poynt of doctrine, I shall suffer twentie kindes of death, the Lord being mine assistance, as I doubt not, but he will. Commende me to my frende, and tel him no lesse. This the Lord strengthen you, me, and all his electe. My riches and pouertie is as it was wnot to be, and I haue learned to reioyce in pouertie, as well as in riches, for that count I now to be very riches. Thus fare ye well in Christ. Salute all my brethren in my name. I haue cōferred with some of my aduersaries, learned men, and I finde that they be but Sophistes & shadowes.

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A note concerning M. Cardmaker.

MarginaliaA note concerning the talke betwene M. Cardmaker and Beard a Promoter.MAster Cardmaker being condemned, and in Newgate, one Beard a Promoter came to hym two or three daies before he was burned, and sayd vnto hym: Syr, I am sent vnto you by the Counsaile, to knowe whether ye wyll recant or no?

Cardmaker. From whiche Counsaile are ye come? I thinke ye are not come, nor yet sente from the Quenes Counsaile, but rather from the Commissioners, vnto whō (as I suppose) ye belong. And where as ye would know, whether I wyll recant or no, thus, I pray you, reporte of me, to those, whom ye said, sent you. I knowe you are a Taylor by your occupation, and haue endeuoured your selfe to be a connyng workeman, and therby to get your lyuyng: so I haue bene a Preacher these twentie yeares, and euer since that God by his great mercy hath opened myne eyes to see his eternal truth, I haue by his grace, endeuored my selfe to call vpon hym, to geue me the true vnderstanding of his holy word, & I thanke hym for his great mercy, I hope I haue discharged my conscience in the setting forth of the same, to that litle talent that I haue receiued.

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Beard. Yea sir, but what say you to the blessed sacrament of the aultar?

Card. I say, and marke it wel, that Christ the nyght before his bytter passion, ordeyned the holy and blessed Communion, and hath geuen commaundement, that his death should be preached before the receiuyng therof, in the remēbraunce of his body broken, and his precious bloud shed for the forgeuenes of our sinnes, to as many as faithfully beleue and trust in hym.

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MarginaliaThe sentence and iudgement of M. Cardmaker touching the sacrament.And furthermore, to conclude the matter briefly with hym, he asked of hym, whether the Sacrament he spake of, had a beginnyng, or no? Whereunto when he had graunted and affirmed the same to be, then maister Cardmaker againe thus inferred thereuppon: If the sacrament (saide he) as you confesse, haue a beginnyng, and an endyng, then it can not be God: for God hathe no begynnyng nor ending, and so wyllyng hym well to note the same, he departed from hym.

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The story of Iohn Ardeley and Iohn Symson, of the parishe of Wygborow the great, in Essex. 
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The Martyrdoms of Ardley and Simpson

There is some evidence that John Simpson was a more important figure among the Marian protestants then even Foxe realized. He had been one of the organizers of the Bocking conventicle, a major meeting of evangelicals from Kent, Essex and Suffolk during Edward VI's reign (see Freeman [2002], pp. 130-31). There are also a number of manuscript copies of a letter which Simpson wrote to followers in Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex and Kent (BL, Lansdowne 389, fos. 144v-145v and 243r-v as well as ECL 260, fos. 47r-48v, 55r-v and 252v-253v). Interestingly, two other martyrs, John Denley and John Newman, were apprehended journeying from Kent to visit Simpson and Ardley in Essex.

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In the Rerum, however, Foxe confused John Simpson with another Marian martyr, Cuthbert Simpson (Rerum, p. 462). The Rerum also states that Simpson and Ardley were both burned on 11 June 1555 (the correct date is 10 June 1555) at Rochford and Rayleigh respectively (Rerum, p. 462). The Rerum (p. 462) also contains a story of a false rumour of a riot causing a panic at the condemnation of Ardley and Simpson which would be reprinted in every edition of the Acts and Monuments.

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Foxe added a great deal of material in his 1563 edition; in fact, all of the information Foxe printed on Ardley and Simpson appears in his first edition. In 1563, Foxe added the letter from Philip and Mary to Bonner, which was copied from Bonner's register. He also added the articles charged against the two martyrs, their answers and an account of their condemnation, all taken from a now lost official record. probably a court book. And in the appendix of the 1563 edition, Foxe added a short account of the defiance of Ardley and Simpson at their condemnation. This came from an eyewitness while the first edition was being printed.

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In the second edition, Foxe did not add any material but he rearranged it. First he placed the overall narrative of Ardley and Simpson in its proper chronological place. Then Foxe conflated the articles and answers of the two martyrs, and he moved the story of the defiance of the two martyrs at their condemnation from the appendix. This version of the account of Ardley and Simpson was printed unchanged in the third and fourth editions of the Acts and Monuments.

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WIth Maister Cardmaker and Iohn Warne, vppon the same day, & in þe same companye, and for the same

cause was also condemned Iohn Ardeley and Iohn Symson, 

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The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson

The usual narrative pointers are given in the glosses in this section, along with glosses giving summaries of the contents of articles alleged against the martyrs and their answers. As it often does, 1563 uses numbers in the margin to mark out the articles and the answers to them; this is in line with its generally (though not universally) less ambitious attitude to annotation in comparison with later editions. Two notes continue Foxe's campaign to portray Bonner as the slave to his passions: 'Q. Mary stirreth Boner to shedde innocent bloud' and 'A note of the sodaine fear of Boner'. The first of these is an interestingly unreserved comment on the role of the Queen in the persecutions: she is portrayed as the principal agent in the stirring up of Bonner, even though the letter was also from her husband.

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MarginaliaThe story of Iohn Symson, and Iohn Ardeley Martyrs. whiche was the fiue and twentie daye of May. But before we come to the storye of them, first here is to be noted the copie of the King and Queenes letter, directed from the Court the same day, and sent by a Poste early in the mornyng to the Bishop, in tenor and forme as foloweth.

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¶ To the right reuerende father in God, our right trustie and welbeloued, the Bishop of London. 
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Foxe copied this letter from Bonner's register; see GL, 9531/12, fol. 363r.

MarginaliaThe king & Queenes letter to B. Boner.RIght reuerend father in God, right trusty and welbeloued, we grete you well. And where of late we addressed our letters to the Iustices of peace within euery of the Counties of this our Realme, wherby amongest other instructions geuen them for the good order and quiete gouernement of the Countrey about them, they are willed to haue a speciall regarde vnto such disordred persons, as forgetting their dueties towardes God and vs, doo leane to any erroneous and hereticall opinions, refusing to shewe them selues conformable to the Catholique Religion of Christes church: wherein if they can not by good admonitions and fayre meanes reforme them, they are willed to deliuer thē to the Ordinary, to be by him charitably trauailed withal, and remoued (if it may be) from their noughty opinions, or els if they continue obstinate, to be ordered according to the lawes prouided in that behalfe: vnderstanding now, to our no litle marueile, that diuers of the said disordred persons, being by the Iustices of the peace for their contempt & obstinanacie, brought to the Ordinaries 

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An ordinary was any person exercising authority by virtue of holy orders, in this case the bishop in charge of the diocese to which the accused person belonged.

to be vsed, as is aforesaide, are either refused to be receiued at their handes or if they be receiued, are neither so trauailed with, as Christian charitye requyreth, nor yet proceeded wythall accordyng to the order of Iustice, but are suffered to continue in their errors, to the dishonour of almighty God, and daungerous example of others:  
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Philip and Mary were claiming that the bishops were failing to prosecute the heresy cases brought before them and were ordering their bishops to take a tougher line against them.

like as we finde this matter very strange, so haue thought cōuenient, both to signifie this our knowledge, and therwith also to admonish you to haue in this behalfe such regarde henceforth to the office of a good pastour and Bishop, MarginaliaQ Mary stirreth Boner to shedde innocent bloud.as when any such offenders shalbe by the sayd officers or Iustices of peace brought vnto you, you to vse your good wisedome and discretion in procuring to remoue thē from their errors, if it may be, or els in proceeding against them (if they shal continue obstinate) according to the order of the lawes: so as through your good furtherance, both Gods glory may be better aduanced, and the cōmon wealth more quietly gouerned. Yeuen vnder our signet, at our honour of hampton Court, the. 24. of May, the first and second yeares of our raignes.

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This letter thus commyng from the Courte to the Bishop, made hym the more earnest and hastye to the condemnation, as wel of others, as of these men, of whom nowe we haue presently to entreate, of Iohn Symson I meane, and Iohn Ardeley. MarginaliaIohn Ardeley and Iohn Symson both husbādmen in the towne of Wigborow.Whiche both being of one countrey, and of one towne together, and of one trade, that is, being both husbandmen in the towne of Wigborowe in Essex, and also almost both of one age, saue that Symson was of the age of 24. the other of. 30. were brought vp both together, by the vnder Sheriffe of Essex, to Boner Bishop of London, vpon the accusatiō (as in that time it was called) of heresie.

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As touching the order & maner of their examinations before the bishop, as the articles ministred against thē, were much like: so their answeres againe vnto þe same were not much discrepant in maner and forme, as out of the bishops owne Registers here foloweth expressed.

¶ Articles obiected againste Iohn Symson, and Iohn Ardeley, of the parish of Wigborow the great in Essex, husbandman, by Boner Bishop of London, at Fulham. 22. of Maye. 1555. 
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The articles and answers of Ardley and Simpson were taken from an official record of Bonner's which is now lost, probably a court book. Note that in the second edition Foxe conflated the two sets of identical articles and nearly identical answers.

MarginaliaArticles ministred agaynst Iohn Symson, & Iohn Ardeley.1. FIrst, that thou Ioh. Symson (or Ioh. Ardeley) husbandman, of the age of. 24. yeres, or thereabout, wast and art of the parish of great Wigborow, within the dioces of London, and thou hast not beleued, nor doest beleue that there is here in earth one Catholike and vniuersall whole Church, which doth hold & beleue all the fayth and Religiō of Christe and all the necessary articles and sacramentes of the same.

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2. Item, that thou hast not beleeued, nor doest beleeue, that thou art necessaryly bounden vnder the payne of damnation of thy soule, to geue full fayth and credence vnto the sayde Catholique and vniuersall Church, and to the Religion of the same, in al necessary pointes of the sayde fayth and Religion, without wauering or doubting in the sayde

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fayth
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