Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Censorship Proclamation 32. Our Lady' Psalter 33. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain34. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 35. Bradford's Letters 36. William Minge 37. James Trevisam 38. The Martyrdom of John Bland 39. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 40. Sheterden's Letters 41. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 42. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 43. Nicholas Hall44. Margery Polley45. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 46. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 47. John Aleworth 48. Martyrdom of James Abbes 49. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 50. Richard Hooke 51. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 52. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 53. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 54. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 55. Martyrdom of William Haile 56. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 57. William Andrew 58. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 59. Samuel's Letters 60. William Allen 61. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 62. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 63. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 64. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 65. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 66. Cornelius Bungey 67. John and William Glover 68. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 69. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 70. Ridley's Letters 71. Life of Hugh Latimer 72. Latimer's Letters 73. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed74. More Letters of Ridley 75. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 76. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 77. William Wiseman 78. James Gore 79. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 80. Philpot's Letters 81. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 82. Letters of Thomas Wittle 83. Life of Bartlett Green 84. Letters of Bartlett Green 85. Thomas Browne 86. John Tudson 87. John Went 88. Isobel Foster 89. Joan Lashford 90. Five Canterbury Martyrs 91. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 92. Letters of Cranmer 93. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 94. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 95. William Tyms, et al 96. Letters of Tyms 97. The Norfolk Supplication 98. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 99. John Hullier 100. Hullier's Letters 101. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 102. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 103. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 104. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 105. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 106. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 107. Gregory Crow 108. William Slech 109. Avington Read, et al 110. Wood and Miles 111. Adherall and Clement 112. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 113. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow114. Persecution in Lichfield 115. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 116. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 117. Examinations of John Fortune118. John Careless 119. Letters of John Careless 120. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 121. Agnes Wardall 122. Peter Moone and his wife 123. Guernsey Martyrdoms 124. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 125. Martyrdom of Thomas More126. Martyrdom of John Newman127. Examination of John Jackson128. Examination of John Newman 129. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 130. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 131. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 132. John Horne and a woman 133. William Dangerfield 134. Northampton Shoemaker 135. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 136. More Persecution at Lichfield
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1540 [1514]

Q. Mary. Gods bookes forbidden. The Idolatrous bookes permitted.

 

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Censorship Proclamation

The fact that the scriptural reference in the gloss 'Astiterunt reges terræ, & principes conuenerunt in vnum aduersus Dominum & Christum eius' is given in Latin is probably because it opposes royal intentions and God in such a stark way; if so, this tells us something about what Foxe felt should be kept from vulgar eyes and ears (however, it would be simple enough to follow up the reference in an English Bible).

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MarginaliaAn. 1555. Iune.WHere as by the Statute made in the second yeare of king Henry the fourth concernyng the repressing of heresies, there is ordeined and prouided a great punishement, not onely for the authours, makers, and writers of bookes conteinyng wicked doctrine and erroneous and hereticall opinions contrary to the Catholicke fayth, and determination of the holy Church, and lykewise for their fautors and supporters, but also for such as shall haue or keepe any such bookes or writynges, and not make deliuey of them to the Ordinary of the Dioces or his Ministers, with in a certaine tyme limited in the sayd Statute, which MarginaliaOf this Acte or statute, read before Pag. 507.Acte or Statute beyng by authoritie of Parliament of late reuiued, was also openly proclaimed, to the intent the subiectes of the realme vpon such Proclamation should the rather eschew the daūger and penaltie of the sayd Statute, and as yet neuertheles, in most partes of the Realme the same is neglected, and litle regarded: MarginaliaAstiterunt reges terræ, & principes conuenerunt in vnum aduersus Dominum & Christum eius. Psal. 2.The Kyng and Queene our soueraigne Lord and Lady, therfore. &c. straitly charge and commaunde, that no person or persons, of what estate, degree, or condition soeuer he or they be, from henceforth presume to bring or conuey, or cause to be brought or conueyed into this Realme, any bookes, writynges or workes hereafter mentioned: that is to say, any booke or bookes, writynges or workes made or set forth by or in the name of MarginaliaGood bookes prohibited.Martin Luther, or any booke or bookes, writynges or workes made or set forth by or in the name of Oecolampadius, Zwinglius, Iohn Caluin, Pomerane, Iohn Alasco, Bullinger, Bucer, Melanthon, Bernardinus Ochinus, Erasmus Sarcerius, Peter Martyr, Hugh Latymer, Robert Barnes, other wisecalled Frier Barnes, Iohn Bale, otherwise called Frier Bale, Iustus Ionas, Iohn Hoper, Myles Couerdall, William Tyndall, Thomas Cranmer late Archbyshop of Caunterbury, William Turner, Theodore Basill, otherwise called Thomas Beacon, Iohn Frith, Roy, and the booke commonly called MarginaliaAgaynst Halles Chronicle.Halles Chronicle, or any of them, in the Latine toung, Dutch toung, English toung, Italian toung, or French toung, or any other like booke, paper, writyng, or worke, made, printed, or set forth, by any other person or persons, conteinyng false doctrine contrary, and agaynst the Catholicke fayth, and the doctrine of the Catholicke Church: MarginaliaWhat adoe is here to keepe downe Christ in his sepulchre, and yet will he ryse in spite of all his enemyes.And also that no person or persons presume to write, print, vtter, sell, read, or keepe, or cause to bee writtē, printed, vttered, read, or kept any of the sayd bookes, papers workes or writynges, or any booke or bookes written or printed in the Latin or English toung, concerning the common seruice and administration set forth in Englishe to be vsed in the Churches of this Realme, in the tyme of kyng Edward the sixt, commonly called the Communion booke or booke of common seruice and orderyng of Ministers, otherwise called The booke set forth by authority of Parliament, for common prayer and administration of the Sacramentes, to be vsed in the mother toung within the Church of England, but shall within the space of xv. dayes next after the publication of this Proclamation, bryng or deliuer, or cause the sayd bookes, writynges, and workes, and euery of them remainyng in their custodies & keepyng, to be brought and deliuered to the Ordinary of the Diocesse, where such bookes, workes, or writinges be or remaine: or to his Chaūcellour or Commissaries, without fraude, coulour, or deceite, at the sayd Ordinaries will & disposition, to be burnt, or otherwise to be vsed or ordered by the sayd Ordinaries, as by the Canons and spirituall lawes it is in that case limitted and appointed, vpon payne that euery offender contrary to this Proclamation, shall incurre the daunger and penalties contayned in the sayd Statute, and as they will auoyde their Maiesties high indignation and displeasure, and further aunswere at their vttermost peril.

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MarginaliaThe power of this world set against Christ.And their Maiesties by thys Proclamation geue full power and authoritie to all Byshops and Ordinaries, and all Iustices of peace, Maiors, Shiriffes, Bayliffes of Cities and Townes corporate, and other head Officers within this Realme and the dominions thereof, and expresly commaundeth and willeth the same and euery of them, that they and euery of them within their seuerall limites and iurisdictions, shall in the default and negligence of the sayd Subiectes, after the sayde fiftene dayes expired, enquire and searche out the sayd bookes, writynges, and workes, and for this purpose enter into the house or houses, closettes, and secrete places of euery person, of what so euer degree, beyng negligent in this behalfe, and suspected to keepe any such booke, writyng, or workes, contrary to this Proclamation: And that the sayd Iustices, Maiors, Sheriffes, Bailiffes, and other head Officers aboue specified, and euery of them within their sayd limites and iurisdictions, findyng any of the sayd subiectes negligent and faulty in thys behalfe, shall commit euery such offender to Ward, there to remaine with out bayle or maynprise, till the same offender or offenders haue receiued such punishment, as the sayd Statute doth li-

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mite and appoint in this behalfe. Geuen vnder our Signes Manuell, at our Honor of Hampton court, the. xiij. daye of Iune, the fyrst and second yeares of our raignes.

¶ Imprinted by Iohn Cawod. Anno. 1555.

¶ Articles to be enquired vpon by the wardens of euery, company, touching sedicious bookes, especially touching the booke called MarginaliaThis booke called a warning for England, looke for hereafter, when we come (God willing) to the Spanish Inquisition.A warning for England. 
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Foxe almost certainly printed these articles from a copy in Bonner's records. The inquiries were duly made among the London companies and copies of banned books were found among members of the draper's company. (See Brigden, p. 595).

MarginaliaArticles to be Inquired vppon.1 WHether they haue sene any of the foresayd bookes.

2 Whether they haue heard of any of the sayd bookes.

3 Where they were, & in what place they haue sene thē.

4 Whom they know to haue lately come frō beyond the sea, especially from Zurike, Strausbrough, Frankforde, Wezel Emden, and Disburge.

5 Whom they know, or vehemently suspect to be common cariers of letters or money thether from hence.

6 That they bryng to my Lord Maior all such seditious bookes as they haue, or shall haue found hereafter.

 

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Our Lady's Psalter

This section may be compared with the reproduction of the 'Rubric of the Mass' in Book X: as on the earlier occasion, the glosses constitute a running attack based on interlinked themes against the content of catholic devotion. In contrast to the glosses next to the rubric of the mass, the tone here is less varied: there is nothing like the mocking of the arbitrariness of the mass found in book X. The reason for this difference is that the subject is not so much a pointless if insulting ritual, but the place of Mary in the Christian scheme, and so the glosses seek, firmly but without mockery, to put her in a more modest position than that accorded to her by the catholic texts criticised. The organising principle of the critique is the divine hierarchy, and many of the glosses point out that the primer and psalter contain ideas which displace God and (especially) Christ from their places in that hierarchy ('One mediatour betwene God and men, the man Iesus Christ'; 'Wrong mediation'; 'The office of Christ geuen to our Lady'; 'If Maryes merites might helpe vs, then Christ dyed in vayne'; 'Treason agaynst Christes person and dignitye'; 'All iudgement is geuē to Christ alone, and before him the virgin also her self shalbe iudged'; 'If our Lady be all in all then God belyke sitteth idle in heauen';' O impious blasphemye'; 'If Mary forgeue sinnes, then is our fayth in Christ in vayne'; 'The Deuill and the Pope sayth so and not God'; 'Mary made a commaunder of Christ'; 'Christ made a captiue and a prisoner in the Popes Church'; 'Our Lady made equall with God in the Church Rome'). One consequence of the misdirection of devotion is that it does the misdirector no spiritual good, and various glosses point out the vain or false nature of the devotional formulations they lie next to ('False merite'; 'Vayne trust'; 'Wrong inuocation'; 'False trust'). As with the critique of the mass in Book X, such a misdirection of effort is not merely useless, it is also dangerous because it constitutes an insult to God, or blasphemy ('Horrible blasphemye and derogation to Christes bloud'; 'Derogation of the Crosse of Christ'; 'Derogation of Christes passion'; 'Horrible blasphemy agaynst the Lord'), and furthermore it invests objects and subjects with a spiritual significance they do not deserve, which is idolatry ('Idolatrye to the material Crosse'; 'Blasphemous Idolatrye'; 'Manifest Idolatrye'; 'Idolatrye of the cloysterers'; 'These wordes stincke of blasphemous Idolatrye'; 'The Church of Rome conuict of manifest idolatry'). Thus, Foxe's critique works through a few intertwined points which he makes again and again.

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MarginaliaThe contentes of a Popish Primer set forth in Queene Maryes tyme.In this proclamation 
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Our Lady's Psalter

The entire section on the passages on the Virgin Mary in the Sarum missal and the Psalter of Our Lady first appears in the 1570 edition. It takes as its logical starting point the previous section on the Marian government's attempts to ban seditious and heretical literature. Here Foxe is contrasting the literature which the Marian church championed with the literature it banned. This section is less of anattack on the cult of the Virgin Mary per se, than an attack on the popular Wayland primers which contained the versions of the Sarum primer quoted by Foxe. The Wayland primers were sponsored by the Marian government and were a popular and effective means of disseminating a Christocentric catholic piety to lay people (see Duffy, pp. 526-27, 538-39 and 542-43). Foxe sought to undermine the Wayland primers, partly through misquotation and partly through linking them to the Psalter of Our Lady, a thirteenth-century work which was attributed to St Bonaventure. The theology of the Psalter of Our Lady was sufficiently distinct from that of the catholic reformation to cause embarrassment. And Foxe was ready to alter the passages he was quoting to achieve the desired result. (For Foxe's polemical objectives in printing this section see Freeman [2004]).

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This section is a very revealing example of how clever and ruthless a propagandist Foxe could be.

thou hast heard (Christian reader) the profound and learned censure of the Catholyke Church of England, what bookes they mislike and reiect as hereticall, schismaticall, and pernicious. Agaynst the whiche Catholycke censure of these learned fathers, I haue not at this tyme to inferre: neyther doth my laysure serue now to write Apologies in defense of these Authours here condemned. Only so much leaue it may please the reader to graunt me to set before him here a payre of balaunce, wherein to waygh þe bookes on the one side condemned, with the bookes on the other side allowed, to the end that we weyng the one wyth the other, MarginaliaThe bookes of the protestantes to be weyed with the bookes of the Papistes.may discerne the better betwene them, which part weyeth best with Gods holye truth and true Catholicke Church agaynst manifest Idolatry and palpable abomination. And now therfore, as they haue in this present Proclamation geuen their condemnation vpon these bookes aboue recited, so I desire the to giue thy censure vpon their bokes by them alowed, and vpon the matter in them conteined, and marke well what good stuffe it is.

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Foxe is quoting from one of the primer (book for the instruction of children) printed by John Wayland. These works were sponsored by Mary's government (see Duffy, pp. 526-27 and 538-39). It should be cautioned that Foxe's quotations from the primer are not always accurate (for details see Freeman [2004]).

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And fyrst to begyn with the MarginaliaThe Primer set forth in Q. Maryes time, printed by Iohn Wayland.Primer in English for children after the vse of Salisbury, Imprinted with Priuiledge accordyng vnto the Kyng and Queenes Maiesties letters patentes in the raygne of Queene Mary. Let vs repeate and suruey some part of the sayd Primer (for to expresse all it were to long) begynnyng with the fyrst lesson of our Lady, in these woordes:

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Holy Mary: mother most pure of virgines all: Mother and daughter of the kyng celestiall: So comfort vs in our desolation: That by thy prayer and speciall meditation, we enioy the reward of the heauenly reigne. &c.

Conferre this with the Scriptures, good reader, and iudge vprightly whether this doctrine be tolerable in the Church or not.

It followeth more in the second Lesson.

Holy Mary of all godly the godlyest.
Pray for vs of all holy the holyest.
That he our prayers accept may in good wise.
which of thee was borne and reigneth aboue skies. &c.

In the thyrd Lesson.

Thy sonne besech with humble intercession,
To purge vs cleane of our Transgression,
That so beyng redemed we may the place ascende
where thou dwellest with him world without end.

The Versicle.

Pray for the people, entreat for the Clergie, Marginalia>One mediatour betwene God and men, the man Iesus Christ.make entercession for the deuout womankynd: let all feele thy helpe that worthely solemnise thy memoriall. &c.

An other Versicle.

Holy mother of God make thy petition: that we may MarginaliaFalse meritedeserue Christes promission. &c.

And in the Antheme after Benedictus, thus it foloweth.

We besech thee of thy pitie to haue vs in remembraūce, and to make meanes for vs vnto Christ, that we being supported by thy helpe, may deserue to attayne the kingdōe of heauē.

Furthermore in the Collect after it foloweth.

And graunt that MarginaliaWrong mediation.through the gracious intercession of the virgine thy mother, we may bee deliuered from this present heuynes, and haue the fruition of eternall gladnes.

It foloweth moreouer in the sayd Primer thus, concernyng the materiall Crosse.

O God whiche haste ascended thy most holy Crosse, and hast giuen lyght to the darkenes of the world, MarginaliaIdolatrie to the materiall crosse.vouchsafe by the vertue of thy Crosse: to illumine, visite, and comfort both our hartes and bodies. &c.

Moreouer, in þe name of s. Iohn Baptist thus it prayeth.

O
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