Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Censorship Proclamation 32. Our Lady' Psalter 33. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain34. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 35. Bradford's Letters 36. William Minge 37. James Trevisam 38. The Martyrdom of John Bland 39. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 40. Sheterden's Letters 41. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 42. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 43. Nicholas Hall44. Margery Polley45. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 46. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 47. John Aleworth 48. Martyrdom of James Abbes 49. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 50. Richard Hooke 51. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 52. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 53. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 54. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 55. Martyrdom of William Haile 56. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 57. William Andrew 58. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 59. Samuel's Letters 60. William Allen 61. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 62. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 63. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 64. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 65. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 66. Cornelius Bungey 67. John and William Glover 68. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 69. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 70. Ridley's Letters 71. Life of Hugh Latimer 72. Latimer's Letters 73. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed74. More Letters of Ridley 75. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 76. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 77. William Wiseman 78. James Gore 79. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 80. Philpot's Letters 81. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 82. Letters of Thomas Wittle 83. Life of Bartlett Green 84. Letters of Bartlett Green 85. Thomas Browne 86. John Tudson 87. John Went 88. Isobel Foster 89. Joan Lashford 90. Five Canterbury Martyrs 91. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 92. Letters of Cranmer 93. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 94. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 95. William Tyms, et al 96. Letters of Tyms 97. The Norfolk Supplication 98. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 99. John Hullier 100. Hullier's Letters 101. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 102. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 103. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 104. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 105. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 106. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 107. Gregory Crow 108. William Slech 109. Avington Read, et al 110. Wood and Miles 111. Adherall and Clement 112. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 113. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow114. Persecution in Lichfield 115. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 116. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 117. Examinations of John Fortune118. John Careless 119. Letters of John Careless 120. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 121. Agnes Wardall 122. Peter Moone and his wife 123. Guernsey Martyrdoms 124. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 125. Martyrdom of Thomas More126. Martyrdom of John Newman127. Examination of John Jackson128. Examination of John Newman 129. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 130. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 131. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 132. John Horne and a woman 133. William Dangerfield 134. Northampton Shoemaker 135. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 136. More Persecution at Lichfield
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1625 [1599]

Q. Mary. Persecution in the dioces of Cant. Vi. Martyrs. X. Martyrs of London.

Marginalia1555. Iuly.to put of your cap: for it is not so holy that you neede to put of your cap thereunto. Farther beying apposed concerning the veritie of the sacrament geuen to Christes disciples, he affirmed, that MarginaliaChrist gaue his body, as he sayd he was a dore.euen as Christ gaue his very body to his disciples, and confessed it to be the same, so likewise Christ him selfe saide, he was a doore. &c. adding moreouer, that as he had said before, so he saith styl, that the sacrament of the aultar is an Idole and no remembrance of Christes Passion, and contrary he knoweth not. At last being required to put to his hand in subscribing to his answeres, he wrote these wordes vnder the byll of their examinations: MarginaliaThe subscription of Henry Laurence.Ye all are of Antichrist, and him ye fol. And here his hande was staied to write any further: Belike he woulde haue writtē out (followe.) &c. And so vpon the same, sentence was read agaynst hym the. 2. of August. 

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Foxe added this date in the 1570 edition.

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¶ Richard Colliar of Ashford.

MarginaliaRichard Colliar.RIchard Colliar aboue mentioned, hauing the sixteenth daye of August to appeare, examined of the Sacrament of the Popishe Aultar, aunsweared, and saide, MarginaliaThe wordes of Richard Colliar.that he dyd not beleeue, that after the Consecration there is the reall and substantiall bodye of Christ, but onely breade and wyne, 

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In a marginal gloss, Foxe was careful to 'clarify' Colliar's eucharistic theology, so that Colliar denied transubstantiation but not the sacrament itself.

MarginaliaOnly in the substance he meaneth. and that it is moste abominable, most detestable, and moste wicked to beleeue otherwise. &c. Vppon this the sentence was read against hym, and hee condemned the xvi. of August.  
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Foxe added this date in the 1570 edition.

After his condemnation  
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This detail was added in 1570 and probably came from an eyewitness to Colliar's condemnation.

he sang a Psalme. Wherfore the priestes and their officers railed at hym, saying, he was out of his wyts.

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¶ Richard Wright.

MarginaliaRichard Wright.RIchard Wright the same place and daye, beyng the sixteenth of August, appearing, and required of the Iudge what he beleeued of the reall presence in the Sacramente, aunsweared againe, that as touching the Sacrament of the Aultar and the Masse, MarginaliaRichard Wright ashamed to speake of the Sacrament of the Aultar.he was ashamed to speake of it, or to name it, and that he allowed it not, as it was vsed in the church. Against whom the sentence also was read the day and place aforesaid.

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William Stere.

MarginaliaWilliam Stere, Martyr.WIlliam Stere of the foresaide Parishe of Ashford, likewise detected and accused, was brought to appeare the

MarginaliaThe Martyrdome of v. Martyrs, W. Coker, W. Hopper, Henry Laurence, Rich. Colliar, R. Wright, W. Stere, at Cant. Anno. 1555. August.The burning of sixe godly Martyrs in one fire.

woodcut [View a larger version]

Commentary on the Woodcuts  *  Close
The image of six men in one pyre (Type 1), the first small woodcut of a group burning, was to be put to repeated use - not always for this number (see 1583, p. 2039, the seven Smithfield martyrs). This was a block that had been used earlier (backing the title page) in John Day's 1564 edition of Certain most godly, fruitful, and comfortable letters of such true Saintes and holy Martyrs (STC 5886).

saide. xvi. daye of August, where he in the saide Chapterhouse of Canterbury, being required to make aunsweare to

the positions laide to hym by the Iudge, made answeare againe, that he should commaund his dogges, and not hym: and further declared, 

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These details of Stere's condemnation were added in 1570 and probably came from an eyewitness to it.

that MarginaliaDicke of Douer: so they termed then Richard Thornton B. of Douer.Dicke of Douer had no authoritie to sit againste hym in iudgement, and asked where his authoritie was. Who then shewed hym certaine Bulles & writinges from Rome, as he saide. William Stere denying that to be of sufficient force, the said Dicke saide also he had authoritie from the Queene. Then the Martyr alleging that the Bishop of Canterburye MarginaliaHe meaneth D. Cranmer imprisoned at Oxford. (who then was in prison) was his Diocesan, vrged hym to shew his authoritie from the Archbishop, or els he denyed hys authoritie to be sufficient.  
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Stere is arguing that Thomas Cranmer was the true archbishop of Canterbury and that as such Cranmer alone had the authority to try him.

And as touching the Sacrament of the aultar, he founde it not (he said) in the scripture, and therefore he would not answeare therunto.

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And moreouer, the Iudge speaking of the sacrament of the aultar with reuerence therof, and putting of his cap, he saide that he needed not to reuerence that matter so highly. And thus saying to the Iudge, that he was a bloudy man. &c. MarginaliaSentence against William Stere.the sentence was pronounced againste hym: after which sentence being read, he said, that the sacrament of the aultar was the most blasphemous Idol that euer was. &c.

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And thus these sixe heauenly martyrs and witnes bearers to the truth, being cōdemned by the bloudy Suffragā & Archdeacō of Cant. M. Collins & M. Faucet, 

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The names of Collins and Faucet were added in 1570.

were burned al altogether in the same town of Canterb. at three stakes and one fire, about the latter ende of August.

The copy of their sentence cōdemnatorie you may finde aboue in the storie of Iohn Rogers, pag. 1417. MarginaliaRead before, pag. 1417 for the papistes in all their condemnations folowe one maner of sentence of course commonly against all that be cōdemned thorow their vnmercyfull tyrannie.

¶ The persecution of ten martyrs together sent by certaine of the Counsaile to Boner to be examined. 
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The Martyrdom of George Tankerfield and Elizabeth Warne

All that the Rerum says about these martyrs is that George Tankerfield wasexecuted at St Albans in late August 1555 (p. 513). Almost all of the account of these martyrs was first printed in the 1563 edition. The letter from the royal commissioners and the summary of Elizabeth Warne's examinations are taken from London diocesan accounts; the rest of this material came from oral sources. These accounts were unchanged in the 1570 and 1576 editions, but in the 1583 edition a detailed account of Tankerfield's final hours was added for the first time; the accountcertainly came from an eyewitness or eyewitnesses.

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MarginaliaTen Martyrs sent vp together to Byshop Boner.AFter the burning of these sixe aboue named, nexte folweth the persecution of ten other true seruants & saints of the Lorde, not such saintes as the Pope maketh, or whiche are mentioned in Legenda sanctorū 

Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
Book titles
Foxe text Latin

Legenda sanctorum ... vitis patrum ... de vita sanctorum Wallensium. etc.

Foxe text translation

Not translated.

Translation (Wade 2003)

Legends of the saints ... lives of the fathers ... on the life of the Valdensian saints. etc

or in vitis patrum, 
Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
Book titles
Foxe text Latin

Legenda sanctorum ... vitis patrum ... de vita sanctorum Wallensium. etc.

Foxe text translation

Not translated.

Translation (Wade 2003)

Legends of the saints ... lives of the fathers ... on the life of the Valdensian saints. etc

or in the fabulous 
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I.e., full of fables and legends, not factual.

booke de vita sanctorum Wallensium. &c. 
Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
Book titles
Foxe text Latin

Legenda sanctorum ... vitis patrum ... de vita sanctorum Wallensium. etc.

Foxe text translation

Not translated.

Translation (Wade 2003)

Legends of the saints ... lives of the fathers ... on the life of the Valdensian saints. etc

 
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These were all medieval collections of saints' lives.

but such as are spoken of in the holy Apocalyps, of whom it is written: MarginaliaApoc. 22.Hi sunt qui sequūtur Agnū quocūq; ierit, quiq; lauarūt stolas suas in sanguine agni. i. 
Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
St. John, Revelation, 7. 14.
Foxe text Latin

Hi sunt qui sequuntur Agnum quocunque ierit, quique lauarunt stolas suas in sanguine Agni.

Foxe text translation

These be they that folowe the Lambe wither soeuer he goeth, and whiche haue washed their stooles in the bloud of the Lambe. &c.

Actual text of St. John, Revelation 7, 14: (Vulgate)

hii sunt qui veniunt de tribulatione magna et laverunt stolas suas et dealbaverunt eas in sanguine agni.

These be they that folowe the Lambe wither soeuer he goeth, and whiche haue washed their stooles in the bloud of the Lambe. &c.
Thus these saints be not of the Popes making, or rather to say þe truth, they are of the Popes making, of the popes making (I say) in this respect, not that the saintes of God are made by the Pope, MarginaliaSaintes of the Popes making. but that the saintes of God are tryed and declared by the Pope: so as by afflictiōs of Satan Iobs pacience was proued, by Pharao Gods power declared, and by Salinator, Tarentum  
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Note that this was spelled as 'Salvator' in the 1563 edition, but was corrected in the 1570 edition to 'Salinator'. This is an indication of the thoroughness of the proof-reading of the 1570 edition. The name was misprinted as 'Salmator' in the 1583 edition.

was won (as Tullie  
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Marcus Tullius Cicero (106 - 143 BCE), the Roman orator and writer.

writeth) for except he had lost it before, Q. Fabius could not haue recouered it:  
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Foxe is quoting from Cicero, Cato Maior de Senectute, sections 7 and 11. Marcus Livius Salinator was the Roman governor of the city of Tarentum during the Second Punic War. Salinator held the citadel when the rest of the city was captured by Hannibal. After the Roman consul Quintus Fabius Maximus Cunctator had recaptured Tarentum in 209 BCE, Salinator was irritated that all of the glory went to Fabius and commented that the city would not have been recaptured if not for him. Fabius responded that this was indeed true, for if Salinator had not lost Tarentum, then he, Fabius, could not have recaptured it. Foxe is saying that the pope similarly created saints, for if there were no persecution, there would be no martyrs.

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so in like maner, vnlesse by Antichriste good men had bene destroyed, otherwise they had not bene tryed true Martyrs of Christ. The names of these were. MarginaliaTen Martyrs sent by the commissioners.

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Elizabeth Warne.
George Tankerfield.
Robert Smyth.
Steuen Harwood.
Thomas Fust.

William Hale.
Thomas Leyes.
George King.
Iohn Wade.
Ioane Layshford.

The Prisons of London beginnyng nowe to be replenished with Gods saintes, and styll moe and moe comming in, the Counsaile and Commissioners thinking to make redy dispatch with the poore prisoners, caused these ten aboue named to be sent with their letter directed to Boner Bishop of London by hym to be examined, and ryd out of the way. 

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The privy council was putting pressure on Bonner to speed up the trials of those accused of heresy; this would become particularly clear in the case of John Philpot.

The copie of which their letter, with their names subscribed, here foloweth to be read and noted.

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¶ A letter sent by the Commissioners to the Bishop of London Doctour Boner. 
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This letter was almost certainly copied out of a now lost court book of Bishop Bonner.

MarginaliaThe letter of the commissioners to Byshop Boner.AFter our harty commendations to your good Lordship, we send you here Iohn Wade, William Hayle, George King Thomas Leyes of Thorpe in Essex, Thomas Fust Hosier, Robert Smyth Painter, Steuē Harwod Bruer, George Tankerfield Cooke, Elizabeth Warne, Ioane Layshford of London, Sacramentaries: all whiche we desire your Lordship to examine, & to order according to the Ecclesiasticall lawes: praying your Lordship to appoynt some of your officers to receiue thē at this bearers hand. And thus most hartily, fare your Lordship wel. From London this 2. Iuly.

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Your Lordships louyng frendes. MarginaliaNames of the Commissioners.


Nicholas Hare.
William Roper.

Richard Rede.
William Cooke.

In
GGGG.iiij.
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