Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Censorship Proclamation 32. Our Lady' Psalter 33. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain34. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 35. Bradford's Letters 36. William Minge 37. James Trevisam 38. The Martyrdom of John Bland 39. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 40. Sheterden's Letters 41. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 42. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 43. Nicholas Hall44. Margery Polley45. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 46. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 47. John Aleworth 48. Martyrdom of James Abbes 49. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 50. Richard Hooke 51. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 52. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 53. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 54. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 55. Martyrdom of William Haile 56. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 57. William Andrew 58. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 59. Samuel's Letters 60. William Allen 61. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 62. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 63. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 64. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 65. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 66. Cornelius Bungey 67. John and William Glover 68. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 69. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 70. Ridley's Letters 71. Life of Hugh Latimer 72. Latimer's Letters 73. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed74. More Letters of Ridley 75. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 76. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 77. William Wiseman 78. James Gore 79. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 80. Philpot's Letters 81. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 82. Letters of Thomas Wittle 83. Life of Bartlett Green 84. Letters of Bartlett Green 85. Thomas Browne 86. John Tudson 87. John Went 88. Isobel Foster 89. Joan Lashford 90. Five Canterbury Martyrs 91. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 92. Letters of Cranmer 93. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 94. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 95. William Tyms, et al 96. Letters of Tyms 97. The Norfolk Supplication 98. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 99. John Hullier 100. Hullier's Letters 101. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 102. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 103. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 104. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 105. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 106. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 107. Gregory Crow 108. William Slech 109. Avington Read, et al 110. Wood and Miles 111. Adherall and Clement 112. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 113. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow114. Persecution in Lichfield 115. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 116. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 117. Examinations of John Fortune118. John Careless 119. Letters of John Careless 120. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 121. Agnes Wardall 122. Peter Moone and his wife 123. Guernsey Martyrdoms 124. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 125. Martyrdom of Thomas More126. Martyrdom of John Newman127. Examination of John Jackson128. Examination of John Newman 129. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 130. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 131. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 132. John Horne and a woman 133. William Dangerfield 134. Northampton Shoemaker 135. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 136. More Persecution at Lichfield
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1640 [1614]

Persecution in Kent. V. Martyrs burned.

and substauntially in the Sacrament of the aultar, MarginaliaThe reall presence of Christ onely in heauen.aunswered that the body of CHRIST borne of the blessed virgine was in heauen, and otherwise (he sayd) he would not aunswere, because he had read it in the Scripture, that Christ did ascend, and did neuer descend since, and therfore sayd that he had not learned in the Scripture, that Christ shoud be in the Sacrament. MarginaliaQ. Mary. An. 1555. Septemb.

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Furthermore beyng demaunded, whether he would obey the lawes of the Realme of England made for the vnitie of fayth, or no, hee aunswered, that his body should be at the Kyng and Queenes commaundement so farre, as the law of GOD would suffer. &c. 

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While Foxe is entirely correct in his reports of what Cobb said, he is very selective in his reporting of it. He did not report Cobb's remark 'that he cannot rede in scripture that Baptisme shuld be a Sacrament' nor did he report that Cobb declared that 'he cannot fynde in goddes worde that any Sacrament is in the Church' (BL, Harley 421, fo. 217v). Foxe would have found both views completely unorthodox. It is worth repeating that Foxe must have known what Cobb actually said; he had taken the statements of Cobb which he printed from the interrogation of Cobb, and the copy of the interrogation found in Foxe's papers is in the martyrologist's handwriting.

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Foxe obtained the date of Cobb's condemnation from his sentence; the original sentence is in Foxe's papers (BL, Harley 421, fos.203r-204r).

MarginaliaThe Martyrdome of Thomas Cobbe at Thetford. Anno. 1555. September.In fine the sayd Thomas Cobbe beyng condemned the same xij. day of August, with the other his fellowmartyrs, was burned in the Towne of Tetford. An. 1555. Mens. Septemb.

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☞ The Martyrdome of George Catmer, Robert Streater, Anthony Burward, George Brodbridge, and Iames Tuttye. 
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The Martyrdoms of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge and Tutty

A note in the Rerum relates that George Brodbridge, James Tutty, GeorgeCatmer, Robert Streater and Anthony Burwood were burned together at Canterbury on 6 September 1555 (Rerum, p. 525). Foxe's complete account of these martyrs appeared in the 1563 edition; it seems to be drawn from a description of the examination of the six martyrs by a sympathetic observer, although it is possible that it is drawn from an official record. There are no substantial changes in the account of these martyrs in the 1570, 1576 and 1583 editions.

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NOw from Northfolke and Suffolke to returne agayne into the Diocesse of Caunterbury, 

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Note that a savage denunciation of Nicholas Harpsfield as 'a whelpe of Bonners owne hear[t]e' which appeared in the 1563 edition was replaced by this bland introductory sentence. This is a good example of Foxe tending to moderate some of his more inflamatory rhetoric in the second edition of the Acts and Monuments.

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we haue to entreate of fiue woorthy Martyrs, whose bloud in the same yeare and moneth of September was spilt for the true testimony of Christ, and his Gospelles cause. The names of the which fiue Martyrs were these.


George Catmer, of Hyth.
Robert Streater, of Hyth.
Anthony Burward, of Calete.
George Brodbridge, of Bromfield. 

Commentary  *  Close

In 1551, it was testified that George Brodebridge had stated that predestination was conditional (BL, Harley 421, fo. 134r). It is unclear whether or not Brodebridge held these views when he died.


Iames Tuttye, of Brencheley.

MarginaliaExaminations of these fiue Martyrs.Who vppon the thyrd day of August were brought before Thornton the foresayd Byshop of Douer and his complices, and there were both ioyntly and seuerally examined vpon certaine Articles, touchyng the Sacrament of their aultar, auricular confession, and other such lyke.

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MarginaliaExamination and aunsweres of Catmer.To the whiche the sayd Catmer (beyng first examined) made aunswere on this wise: Christ (quoth hee) sitteth in heauen on the right hand of God the Father, and therfore I do not beleue him to bee in the Sacrament of the aultar: but he is in the worthy receiuer spiritually, and the Sacrament as you vse it, is an abhominable Idoll.

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MarginaliaThe Martyrdome of Catmer, Streater, Burvvard, Brodbridge, Tuttie, at Canterbury. Anno. 1555. September. Ex Registro.¶ The burnyng of fiue Martyrs at Caunterbury.

woodcut [View a larger version]

Commentary on the Woodcuts  *  Close
The small woodcut of five men, burned in September 1555 at two stakes in one fire at Canterbury (Type 1), was reused for two subsequent multiple burnings, including that of three men and two women at Canterbury in November 1558.

MarginaliaExamination and aunsweres of Streater.Next vnto hym was called forth Robert Streater: who beyng also asked whether hee dyd beleue the reall presence of Christ in the Sacrament of the aultar, sayd, that he dyd not so beleue: for you do maintayne Heresie and Idola-

try (quoth hee) in that ye teach to worshyp a false God in the Sacrament, enclosed in a boxe. It is you that are the malignaunt Church: for in your Churche there are twenty thynges vsed agaynst the law of God.

MarginaliaBurward examined.The like obiection was articulate also agaynst Anthony Burward, who also sayd, that their Sacrament was made an Idoll.

After him was George Brodbridge demaunded what he sayd to those Articles. MarginaliaBrodbridge examined. Who aunswered, that hee would not be confessed of a Priest, because he could not forgeue his owne sinnes: and further sayd, that in the Sacrament of the aultar there is not the reall body of our Sauiour Christ, but bread geuen in the remembraunce of him. Moreouer, as for your holy bread, your holy water, and your Masse, I do (quoth he) vtterly defie them.

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MarginaliaIames Tuttie examined with his aunswere to the same.And last of all did also Iames Tuttye make and confirme their sayd former aunsweres.

And therefore they were all fiue condemned to be burned as heretickes, and so were they all in one fire at Canterbury aforesayd, about the vj. day of September then next followyng.

¶ Thomas Hayward, and Iohn Goreway, Martyrs. 
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The Martyrdoms of Thomas Hayward and John Goreway

A note in the Rerum states that Thomas Hayward and Thomas [sic] Goreway were burned at Lichfield in September 1555. Apart from correcting Goreway's name, this note was repeated in the 1563 edition. In the 1570 edition, Foxe added a statement that while the persecution was concentrated in London, East Anglia, Essex and Kent, other parts of the realm were affected as well.

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MarginaliaThomas Hayward. Iohn Goreway, Martyrs.ALthough the rage and vehemencie of this terrible persecution in Queenes Maryes dayes dyd chiefly light in London, Essex, Northfolke, Suffolke, and Kēt, as hath bene partly already declared: yet notwithstandyng besides the same, we finde but few partes of this Realme from this fatall storme, but some good Martyrs or other there shed their bloud. And first to begyn with the Dioces of Lichfield & Couentry, there we finde these two to be condemned, MarginaliaThe Martyrdome of Thomas Hayward and Iohn Goreway, at Lichfield. Anno. 1555. September.and also burned about the middest of the sayd moneth of September at the Towne of Lichfield: whose names were Thomas Hayward, and Iohn Goreway.

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¶ The persecution and story of M. Robert Glouer Gentleman, and of Iohn Glouer his brother, in the Dioces of Lichfield. 
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The Martyrdom of Robert Glover

Robert Glover was married to Hugh Latimer's niece Mary and was closely tied to people in Latimer's circle, most especially Augustine Bernher, Latimer's amanuensis and confidante. For important background on Mary Glover and her close relationship to her uncle see Susan Wabuda, 'Shunamites and Nurses of the English Reformation: The Activities of Mary Glover Niece of Hugh Latimer' in Diana Webb, ed., Women in the Church, Studies in Church History 37 [Oxford, 1990], pp. 335-44. Richard Bott, Mary Glover's second husband, testified that Hugh Latimer arranged the marriage of Mary to Robert Glover (Wabuda, 'Shunamites,' p. 340). If this is true, it is a powerful indication that Robert Glover held strong evangelical convictions from an early date.

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Robert Glover's letter to his wife, describing his arrest and imprisonment, which is the main source for Foxe's account of his martyrdom, was printed in the Rerum (pp. 525-30 and 533-37). Foxe interrupted the letter to compare Robert Glover with his brother John (Rerum, pp. 530-32). This material was reprinted in the 1563 edition, with Foxe only adding comments that Robert Glover wrote nothing else in prison except this letter and that Glover was burned at Coventry on 19 September (it was actually 20 September). An account of Glover's sudden elation as he walked to the stake came to Foxe while the 1563 edition was being printed and was placed in an appendix to this edition. Augustine Bernher, who is mentioned in the story, was almost certainly Foxe's source for it.

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Glover's letter to his wife was reprinted in the Letters of the Martyrs (pp. 527-42). (A letter to the mayor of Coventry which was part of Robert's letter was printed separately inthe Letters of the Martyrs [p. 542]). A farewell letter from Glover to his wife and children was also printed in Letters of the Martyrs (pp. 542-43), but was never printed by Foxe. In the 1570 edition, Foxe rearranged this material so that the discussion of John and Robert Glover preceded Robert's letter instead of interrupting it. The description of Glover's elation on the way to the stake was expanded and incorporated into the account of Robert Glover. Aware that Bull had uncovered another letter written by Glover in prison, Foxe dropped his statement that Glover had written nothing else in prison and instead declared that he was unable to find official records of Glover's examinations, trial and condemnation. The 1570 account of Robert Glover was printed without change in subsequent editions.

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MarginaliaThe story of M. Rober Glouer Martyr, and of M. Iohn Glouer his brother.VNto this present tyme and moneth of September pertaineth also the memorable Martyrdome of Maister Robert Glouer Gentleman, in the Dioces of Lichfield and Couentry. Of whose apprehension and troubles, because I can not well entreate but I must also intermixte some mention of hys brother Iohn Glouer, for somuch as this priuy Commission was chiefly sent downe for the sayd Iohn, and not for Robert Glouer (albeit it pleased almightye GOD, that Iohn escaped, and Robert in hys stede was apprehended) I thought therfore in one story to comprehend them both, in describyng some part of their vertuous institution and order of lyfe, and first to begyn with Iohn the eldest brother. Who beyng a Gentleman borne, and heyre to hys father, dwellyng in the Towne of Mancetor, was endued wyth fayre possessions of worldly goodes, but yet much more plentyfully enriched, with Gods heauenly grace and inwarde vertues. Whiche grace of GOD so workyng in hym, hee with hys two other brethren Robert and William, MarginaliaIohn Glouer, Rob. Glouer, William Glouer. 3. godly brethrē & zelous professors of the Gospell.not onely receiued and embraced the happy light of Christes holy Gospell, but also most zelously professed, and no lesse diligently in theyr liuyng and conuersation followed the same: much vnlike vnto our tablegospellers now a dayes, Virtutem qui verba putãt, vt lucum ligna, 

Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
Horace, Epistles I. 6. 31 - 32
Foxe text Latin

Virtutem qui verba putant, vt lucum ligna

Foxe text translation

Not translated.

Translation (Wade 2003)

Who think that virtue is just words, as a grove is trees.

Actual text of Horace, Epistles, Book I. 6. 31-2

virtutem verba putas et lucum ligna:

as Horace sayth. 
Commentary  *  Close

Foxe is paraphrasing Horace (Epistles I, no. 6, line 31): 'virtutem verba putas et Lucum ligna' [you think that virtue is (merely) words and a sacred grove (merely) trees]. Foxe's version makes little grammatical sense but if one assumes that 'ut' is a printer's error for 'et' then Foxe's version reads: 'who think that virtue is [merely] words and a sacred grove [merely] trees'.

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And as touchyng this foresayd Iohn Glouer (who through his manifold afflictions seemed to haue a deeper tast and contemplation of spirituall thynges, ioyned with mortification from all worldly cares more then the other had) although sufficient relation bee made before in our first edition to be sene, pag. 1277. MarginaliaTouching further mention of M. Iohn Glouer, read in the first edition. pag. 1277. yet as concernyng his spirituall conflictes, and the Lordes gracious workyng in him, because the consideration therof is both worthy of memory, and the example may worke experience peraduenture to the comfort of the godly, it shall not be hurtfull to rehearse some parte of the same. So it pleased GOD to lay his heauy hand of inward afflictions and greuous passions vpon this man, that though he suffered not the paynes of the outward fire, as his brother and other Martyrs did: MarginaliaThe inward conflictes and exercises of M. Iohn Glouer.yet if we consider what inwardly in spirite and mynde this man felt and suffered, and that of so long tyme, he may well be counted with his brother Robert for a Martyr, beyng no lesse desirous with him of the same Martyrdome: yea end in comparison may seeme to be chronicled for a double Martyr. MarginaliaIohn Glouer a double Martyr.

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For as the sayd Robert was speedely dispatched with the sharpe and extreme tormentes of the fire in a shorte tyme: so this no lesse blessed Saint of GOD, what & how much more greuous panges, what sorrowfull tormentes,

what
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