Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Censorship Proclamation 32. Our Lady' Psalter 33. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain34. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 35. Bradford's Letters 36. William Minge 37. James Trevisam 38. The Martyrdom of John Bland 39. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 40. Sheterden's Letters 41. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 42. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 43. Nicholas Hall44. Margery Polley45. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 46. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 47. John Aleworth 48. Martyrdom of James Abbes 49. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 50. Richard Hooke 51. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 52. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 53. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 54. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 55. Martyrdom of William Haile 56. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 57. William Andrew 58. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 59. Samuel's Letters 60. William Allen 61. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 62. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 63. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 64. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 65. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 66. Cornelius Bungey 67. John and William Glover 68. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 69. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 70. Ridley's Letters 71. Life of Hugh Latimer 72. Latimer's Letters 73. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed74. More Letters of Ridley 75. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 76. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 77. William Wiseman 78. James Gore 79. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 80. Philpot's Letters 81. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 82. Letters of Thomas Wittle 83. Life of Bartlett Green 84. Letters of Bartlett Green 85. Thomas Browne 86. John Tudson 87. John Went 88. Isobel Foster 89. Joan Lashford 90. Five Canterbury Martyrs 91. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 92. Letters of Cranmer 93. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 94. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 95. William Tyms, et al 96. Letters of Tyms 97. The Norfolk Supplication 98. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 99. John Hullier 100. Hullier's Letters 101. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 102. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 103. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 104. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 105. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 106. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 107. Gregory Crow 108. William Slech 109. Avington Read, et al 110. Wood and Miles 111. Adherall and Clement 112. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 113. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow114. Persecution in Lichfield 115. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 116. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 117. Examinations of John Fortune118. John Careless 119. Letters of John Careless 120. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 121. Agnes Wardall 122. Peter Moone and his wife 123. Guernsey Martyrdoms 124. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 125. Martyrdom of Thomas More126. Martyrdom of John Newman127. Examination of John Jackson128. Examination of John Newman 129. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 130. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 131. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 132. John Horne and a woman 133. William Dangerfield 134. Northampton Shoemaker 135. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 136. More Persecution at Lichfield
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1674 [1648]

Q. Mary, The last examinatiōs of B. Ridley & M. Latimer, Martyrs.

MarginaliaAnno. 1555. October. Marginaliai. Of things gottē by fraude, guile, & deceat, as of thinges gotten by open theft and robbery.partis. Wherfore let not your brother maister N. by cauillation continue in the deuils possession. I wil do the best I can, & wrastle with the deuill, omnibus viribus, 

Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
A letter from Latimer to a certain gentleman.
Foxe text Latin

omnibus viribus

Foxe text translation

Not translated.

Translation (Wade 2003)

with all strength

to deliuer you both frō him. I will leaue no one stone vnmoued, to haue bothe you and your brother saued. There is neither Archbishop nor Bishop, nor yet any learned man either in Vniuersities or elswhere, that I am acquaynted withall, that shall not write vnto you, & in theyr writyng by their learnyng confute you. There is no Godlie man of Lawe in this realme, that I am acquainted withall, but thei shall write vnto you, and confute you by the Lawe. There is neither Lorde nor Ladie, nor yet any noble personage in this realme that I am acquainted withall, but thei shall write vnto you, and Godlie threaten you with their authoritie. MarginaliaGodly threats of M. Latymer to saue the soule of his friend.I will doe all this: yea, and kneele vppon bothe my knees before the Kynges Maiestie, & all his honorable Counsaill, with moste humble petition for your reformation, rather then the deuill shall possesse you stil, to your finall damnation. So that I doe not despaire, but verely trust, one waie or other, to plucke bothe you, and also your crabbed brother, as crabbed as you saie he is, out of the deuilles clawes, maugre the deuilles harte.

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These premisses well considered, looke vpon it, good maister N. that we haue no farther adoe. Gods plague is presently vpon vs: therefore let vs now diligently looke about vs, and in no wise defende, but willyngly reknoweledge and amende what soeuer hath been amisse. These were the capitall pointes of your talke (as I was informed,) after you had perused that my nipping and vnplesaunt letter: and I thought good to make you some aunswer to them, if perchaunce I might so moue you, the rather to call your self to some better remembraunce, & so more earnestly applie your self, to accomplishe and performe what you haue begun & promised to doe, namely the thing it self beyng of suche sorte, as apparently tēdeth both to your own worship, & also to gods high pleasure.

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Thus loe with a mad heade, but yet a good will, after long scriblyng, I wot not well what (but I knowe you cā reade it, and comprehende it well enough) I bidde you most hartly well to fare in the lorde, with good health, and long life to Gods pleasure, Amen. From Baxsterley the. xv. of Iuly.

Duryng the tyme that the said M. Latimer was prisoner in Oxforde, we read not of muche that he did write, besides his conference with D. Ridley, and his protestation at the tyme of his disputation. Otherwise of letters, we finde verie few or none that he did write to his frēdes abroad, saue onely these fewe lines, which he wrote to one maistres Wilkinson of London, a godlie matron, and an exile afterwarde for the Gospelles sake. Who so long as she remained in Englande, was a singular patronesse to the good Sainctes of God, and learned Bishops, as to maister Hoper, to the Bishoppe of Hereford, to maister Couerdale, M. Latimer, Doctour Cranmer with many other. The coppie and effecte of whiche his letter to maistres Wilkinson here followeth.

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¶ A letter sent to maistres Wilkenson of London, widowe, from M. Hugh Latimer out of Bocardo in Oxforde. 
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ECL MS 260, fo. 276v.

JF the gifte of a pot of cold water, shall not be in obliuion with God, how can God forget your manifold & bountifull giftes, whē he shall saie to you: I was in prison, and you visited me. God graunt vs all to do & suffer while we be here, as maie be to his will and pleasure, Amen.

Yours in Bocardo. Hugh Latimer.

Touchyng the memorable actes and doynges of this worthie man, among many other this is not to bee neglected, what a bold enterprise he attempted, in sendyng to kyng Henry a present: the maner whereof was this. 

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This implausible story first appeared in an appendix to the 1563 edition (p. 1734) and was integrated into the section containing Latimer's letters in the 1570 edition.

There was then, and yet remaineth still, an old custome receiued frō the old Romans, that vpon Newyeares daie, beyng the first daie of Ianuary, euery Bishop with some handsome Newyeares gifte, should gratifie the Kyng: and so thei did, some with gold, some with siluer, some with a purse full of money, & some one thing, some an other: MarginaliaM. Latymers Newyeares gift sent to K. Henry.but Maister Latimer beyng Byshop of Worcester then, among the rest presented a newe Testamente, for his Newyeares gift, with a napkyn hauing this posie about it: Fornicatores & adulteros iudicabit Dominus. 
Latin/Greek Translations  *  Close
A letter from Latimer to Mistress Wilkinson of London, quoting from Hebrews, 13. 4.
Foxe text Latin

Fornicatores & adulteros iudicabit Dominus.

Foxe text translation

Not translated.

Translation (Wade 2003)

God will judge fornicators and adulterers.

Actual text of Hebrews, 13. 4. (Vulgate)

fornicatores enim et adulteros iudicabit Deus.

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And thus haste thou, gentle reader, the whole life, bothe of M. Ridley, & of M. Latimer, twoo worthy doers in the Churche of Christe, seuerally and by them selues set forthe, and described with all their doynges, writynges, disputations, sufferynges, their painful tra-

uailes, faithfull preachynges, studious seruice in Christes churche, their pacient imprisonment, and constant fortitude in that whiche thei had taught, with all other their proceedynges from tyme to tyme, since their firste springyng yeares, to MarginaliaB. Ridley, and M. Latymer brought forth to examinatio.this present tyme and Monethe of Queene Mary, beyng the Monethe of October. Anno. 1555. MarginaliaOctober. 1. In the whiche Moneth thei were bothe broughte forth together, to their finall examination and execution. Wherfore, as we haue heretofore declared, bothe their liues seuerally, and distinctly one from the other, so now ioyntly to couple them bothe together, as thei were together both ioyned in one societie of cause and Martyrdome, we will by the grace of Christe prosecute the rest that remaineth concernyng their latter examination, disgradyng, and constant sufferyng, with the order and maner also of the Commissioners, MarginaliaM. White B. of Lincolne M. Brokes B. of Glocester the Popes deputies.which were Maister White Bishoppe of Lincolne, Maister Brokes Bishoppe of Glocester, with others: and what were their woordes, their obiections, their Orations there vsed, and what againe were the aunsweres of these men to the same, as in processe here foloweth to bee seen.

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¶ The order and maner of the examination of Doctor Ridley & M. Latimer, had the. xxx. daie of September. 1555. 
Commentary  *  Close
The Final Examinations and Martyrdoms of Ridley and Latimer

There were relatively brief accounts of the examinations of Ridley and Latimer, on both 30 September and 1 October, in the Rerum (pp. 705-08). These accounts were clearly based on the commission to examine the two bishops, the articles on which they were interrogated and brief versions of their replies. Foxe obviously had copies of the first two documents in exile, supplemented with what may well have been a copy one of the notarial records of the examinations. Curiously, there was nothing in the Rerum on the condemnation and degradation of Ridley and Latimer and only a terse note of their executions (Rerum, p. 538).

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This deficiency was made good in the 1563 edition. The entire accounts of the examinations, condemnations, and executions of the two martyrs were first printed in this edition as well as the accounts of Ridley's degradation and his behaviour on his final night on earth. These accounts, apart from one famous, almost certainly apocryphal, remark first attributed to Latimer in the 1570 edition,were substantially unchanged in subsequent editions.

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What were Foxe's sources for this wealth of information? Ridley's examinations may have been written by Ridley himself; if not, they were certainly written by a co-religionist. But Ridley could not have recorded Latimer's examinations as he was not present at them; they were probably recorded by a sympathetic observer, quite possibly at Ridley's instruction. (They do not appear to have been written by Latimer himself; for one thing, the detailed descriptions of Latimer's dress and appearance suggest that the bishop did not describe his own examinations). Ridley's condemnation, degradation, behaviour in his final days and his execution were all recounted to Foxe by George Shipside, Ridley's devoted brother-in-law. (Shipside is specifically mentioned as being present on each of these occasions and the accounts frequently address a concern of his: Ridley's efforts to have leases bestowing property on Shipside's wife honoured by Mary). Augustine Bernher, Latimer's amanuensis, was very probably present at the bishops's execution and he may well have been a source for Foxe as well.

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MarginaliaThe last examination of B. Ridley and M. Latymer.FIrste, after the apperyng of Thomas Cranmer Archbishoppe of Canterburie, before the Popes Delegate, and the Queenes Commissioners in sainct Maries Churche at Oxford, about the. xij. daie of September, whereof more shalbee saied (by the Lordes grace) when we come to the death of the saied Archbishoppe: shortly after, vpon the xxviij. daie of the saied Moneth of September, was sent doune to Oxford an other Commission 

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From here down to the words 'all such heresy and schism' Foxe is clearly quoting from the commission to examine the bishops.

from Cardinall Poole Legate a latere,  
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There are three types of papal (personal representatives of the pope): a legatus natus, a nuncio and a legate à latere. A legatus natus is the holder of an office (e.g., the archbishopric of Canterbury before the reformation) which automatically confers legatine status on the officeholder. Today a numcio is a diplomatic representaive from the Holy See, but in the sixteenth century he was a papal official with the authority to collect revenue due to the papacy from a particular province. Legates à latere acted as deputies for the pope on important missions. They have full papal power in much the same way as a viceroy has royal powers. The trials of Ridley and Latimer were conducted under Cardinal Pole's legatine authority.

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to Ihō White, Bishoppe of Lincolne, to Doctor Brokes Bishop of Glocester, and to Doctor Holiman, Bishop of Bristow. The contentes & vertue of whiche commission was, MarginaliaThe effect of the Cardinals commission sent downe to Oxford.that the saied Iohn of Lincolne, Iames of Glocester, and Ihou of Bristow, thei or twoo of them, should haue ful power and authoritie, to ascite, examine, and Iudge M. Hugh Latimer, and M. Doctour Ridley, pretensed 
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Mary's government refused to accept the validity of ordinations conducted under the 1550 ordinal, which included the episcopal ordinations of Latimer and Ridley.

Bishops of Worcester and London, for diuerse and sundrie erronious opinions, whiche the saied Hugh Latimer, and Nicholas Ridley, did holde and maintaine in open disputations had in Oxforde, in the Monethes of Maie, Iune, and Iuly, in the yeare of our Lorde 1554, as long before in the time of perdition  
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The period between Henry VIII's break with Rome and Mary's accession.

and sithen. The whiche opinions if the named persones would now recant, geuyng and yeldyng them selues to the determination of the vniuersal and catholicke churche, planted by Peter in the blessed Sea of Rome, that then the deputed Iudges by the said authoritie of their commission, should haue power to receiue the saied penitent persones, and forth with ministre to them the reconciliation of the holy father the Pope: but if the saied Hugh Latimer, and Nicholas Ridley would stoutly and stubburnly defende, & maintaine these their erronious assertions, that then the said lordes by their commission, should proceede in forme of Iudgement, accordyng to the Lawe of Heretickes, that is, degradyng them from their promotion, and dignitie of Bishoppes, Priestes, and all other ecclesiasticall orders, shoulde pronounce them as Heretickes, and therfore cleane to cut thē of from the churche and so to yelde them to receiue punishemente, due to all suche heresie and schisme.

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MarginaliaD. Ridley and M. Latymer ascited to appeare, the last of Septemb.Wherfore, the last of September, the said two persones Nicholas Ridley & Hugh Latimer, were ascited to appere before the said lordes, in the diuinitie schoole at Oxford, at. viij. of the clocke. At what tyme thether repaired the Lordes, 

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The bishops trying Ridley and Latimer: Bishop White of Lincoln, Bishop Brooks of Gloucester and Bishop Holyman of Bristol.

placyng them selues in an highe seate, made for publicke lectures and disputations, according to the vsage of that schoole, beyng then faire set, and trimmed with cloth of Tissue and cushynges of veluet: and after the saied Lordes were placed and set, the said Latimer and Ridley were sent for: and first appered M. Doctour Ridley, and anon M. Latimer. But because it semed good seuerally  
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Separately.

to examine them, M. Latimer was kept backe, vntill Doctour Ridley was throughly examined. Therefore sone after the cōmyng of Doctour Ridley into the schole, the commission was published by an appointed Notarie, and openly read. But Doct. Ridley standing bare headed, humbly expecting the cause of that his apperance, eftsones  
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Repeatedly.

as he had heard the Cardinall named and the Popes

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holinesse,
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