Thematic Divisions in Book 11
1. The Martyrdom of Rogers 2. The Martyrdom of Saunders 3. Saunders' Letters 4. Hooper's Martyrdom 5. Hooper's Letters 6. Rowland Taylor's Martyrdom 7. Becket's Image and other events 8. Miles Coverdale and the Denmark Letters 9. Bonner and Reconciliation 10. Judge Hales 11. The Martyrdom of Thomas Tomkins 12. The Martyrdom of William Hunter 13. The Martyrdom of Higbed and Causton 14. The Martyrdom of Pigot, Knight and Laurence 15. Robert Farrar's Martyrdom 16. The Martyrdom of Rawlins/Rowland White17. The Restoration of Abbey Lands and other events in Spring 155518. The Providential Death of the Parson of Arundel 19. The Martyrdom of John Awcocke 20. The Martyrdom of George Marsh 21. The Letters of George Marsh 22. The Martyrdom of William Flower 23. The Martyrdom of Cardmaker and Warne 24. Letters of Warne and Cardmaker 25. The Martyrdom of Ardley and Simpson 26. John Tooly 27. The Examination of Robert Bromley [nb This is part of the Tooly affair]28. The Martyrdom of Thomas Haukes 29. Letters of Haukes 30. The Martyrdom of Thomas Watts 31. Censorship Proclamation 32. Our Lady' Psalter 33. Martyrdom of Osmund, Bamford, Osborne and Chamberlain34. The Martyrdom of John Bradford 35. Bradford's Letters 36. William Minge 37. James Trevisam 38. The Martyrdom of John Bland 39. The Martyrdom of Frankesh, Middleton and Sheterden 40. Sheterden's Letters 41. Examinations of Hall, Wade and Polley 42. Martyrdom of Christopher Wade 43. Nicholas Hall44. Margery Polley45. Martyrdom of Carver and Launder 46. Martyrdom of Thomas Iveson 47. John Aleworth 48. Martyrdom of James Abbes 49. Martyrdom of Denley, Newman and Pacingham 50. Richard Hooke 51. Martyrdom of William Coker, et al 52. Martyrdom of George Tankerfield, et al 53. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Smith 54. Martyrdom of Harwood and Fust 55. Martyrdom of William Haile 56. George King, Thomas Leyes and John Wade 57. William Andrew 58. Martyrdom of Robert Samuel 59. Samuel's Letters 60. William Allen 61. Martyrdom of Roger Coo 62. Martyrdom of Thomas Cobb 63. Martyrdom of Catmer, Streater, Burwood, Brodbridge, Tutty 64. Martyrdom of Hayward and Goreway 65. Martyrdom and Letters of Robert Glover 66. Cornelius Bungey 67. John and William Glover 68. Martyrdom of Wolsey and Pigot 69. Life and Character of Nicholas Ridley 70. Ridley's Letters 71. Life of Hugh Latimer 72. Latimer's Letters 73. Ridley and Latimer Re-examined and Executed74. More Letters of Ridley 75. Life and Death of Stephen Gardiner 76. Martyrdom of Webb, Roper and Park 77. William Wiseman 78. James Gore 79. Examinations and Martyrdom of John Philpot 80. Philpot's Letters 81. Martyrdom of Thomas Whittle, Barlett Green, et al 82. Letters of Thomas Wittle 83. Life of Bartlett Green 84. Letters of Bartlett Green 85. Thomas Browne 86. John Tudson 87. John Went 88. Isobel Foster 89. Joan Lashford 90. Five Canterbury Martyrs 91. Life and Martyrdom of Cranmer 92. Letters of Cranmer 93. Martyrdom of Agnes Potten and Joan Trunchfield 94. Persecution in Salisbury Maundrell, Coberly and Spicer 95. William Tyms, et al 96. Letters of Tyms 97. The Norfolk Supplication 98. Martyrdom of John Harpole and Joan Beach 99. John Hullier 100. Hullier's Letters 101. Christopher Lister and five other martyrs 102. Hugh Lauerocke and John Apprice 103. Katherine Hut, Elizabeth Thacknell, et al 104. Thomas Drury and Thomas Croker 105. Thomas Spicer, John Deny and Edmund Poole 106. Persecution of Winson and Mendlesam 107. Gregory Crow 108. William Slech 109. Avington Read, et al 110. Wood and Miles 111. Adherall and Clement 112. A Merchant's Servant Executed at Leicester 113. Thirteen Burnt at Stratford-le-Bow114. Persecution in Lichfield 115. Hunt, Norrice, Parret 116. Martyrdom of Bernard, Lawson and Foster 117. Examinations of John Fortune118. John Careless 119. Letters of John Careless 120. Martyrdom of Julius Palmer 121. Agnes Wardall 122. Peter Moone and his wife 123. Guernsey Martyrdoms 124. Dungate, Foreman and Tree 125. Martyrdom of Thomas More126. Martyrdom of John Newman127. Examination of John Jackson128. Examination of John Newman 129. Martyrdom of Joan Waste 130. Martyrdom of Edward Sharpe 131. Four Burnt at Mayfield at Sussex 132. John Horne and a woman 133. William Dangerfield 134. Northampton Shoemaker 135. Prisoners Starved at Canterbury 136. More Persecution at Lichfield
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1688 [1662]

Q. Mary. The death and Martyrdome of B. Ridley & M. Latimer.

MarginaliaAnno. 1555. October.M. Latimer gaue nothyng, but verie quietly suffered hys keper to pull of his hose, and his other arraye, whiche to loke vnto was verie simple: and beyng stripped into his shroude, MarginaliaM. Latymer standing at the stake in his shirte. he seemed as comely a persone to them that were there present, as one should lightly see: and wheras in his clothes, he appered a withered and crooked selie old man, he now stoode bolte vpright, as comely a father, as one might lightly beholde.

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Then M. Ridley standyng as yet in hys trusse, 

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A close-fitting body garment or jacket (OED).

said to his brother: it were beste for me to goe in my trusse still. No (quod his brother) it will put you to more paine: and the trusse will doe a poore man good. Whereunto M. Ridley saied: be it, in the name of God, and so vnlaced hym self. Then beyng in his shirte, he stoode vppon the foresaied stone, and helde vp his handes, and saied: MarginaliaB. Ridley thanketh God for his Martyrdome, and prayeth for England.Oh heauenly Father, I giue vnto thee moste hartie thankes, for that thou hast called mee to be a professour of thee: euen vnto death. I beseche thee Lorde God, take mercy vpon thys Realme of Englande, and deliuer the same from all her enemes.

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Then the Smith tooke a chaine of iron, & brought the same about both Doctor Ridleys and maister Latimers middles: and as he was knockyng in a staple, Doctor Ridley tooke the chaine in his hande, and shaked the same, for it did girde in his bealie, and looking aside to the Smith, saied: good fellowe, knocke it in hard, for the fleshe will haue his course. 

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Ridley is asking that he be tied firmly to the stake for fear that might appear to shrink or flee from the fire, thus discrediting his cause by seeming to die without the requisite fortitude of a martyr. (On the propaganda importance of this fortitude see Collinson [1983] and Freeman [1997]).

MarginaliaGunpouder geuen to the Martyrs.Then his brother did bryng hym gunpouder in a bagge, and would haue tied the same about his necke. Master Ridley asked what it was. His brother saied gunpouder. Then said he, I take it to be sent of God, therefore I will receiue it as sent of hym. And haue you any, saied he, for my brother, meanyng maister Latimer? Yea sir, that I haue (quod his brother.) Then giue it vnto hym, saied he, betyme, 
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Promptly, speedily.

least ye come to late. So his brother went, and carried of the same gunpouder vnto M. Latimer.

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In the meane tyme Doctor Ridley spake vnto my lorde Willyams, and said. MarginaliaB. Ridleys sute to the L. of Tame for leases of poore men.My lorde I must be a suter vnto your lordship, in the behalfe of diuers poore mē, and especially in the cause of my poore Sister: 

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For the final time, a mention of Ridley's wishes that his leases of diocesan property to the Shipsides be confirmed is pulled into the narrative.

I haue made a supplication to the Queenes Maiestie in their behalfes. I beseche your Lordship for Christes sake, to be a meane to her grace for them. My brother here hath the supplication, and will resort to your lordship, to certifie you hereof. There is nothyng in al þe worlde that troubleth my conscience (I praise God) this onely excepted. Whiles I was in the Sea of London, diuers poore men tooke Leases of me, and agreed with me for the same. Now, I heare saie, MarginaliaD. Boner taketh awaye the leases from poore mē graūted before by B. Ridley.the Bishoppe that now occupieth the same rome, will not allow my graūtes vnto thē made, but contrary vnto al lawe and conscience, hath taken from them their liuynges, and will not suffer them to enioye the same. I beseche you my lorde, be a meane 
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A mediator or intercessor.

for them: you shall doe a good deede, and God will reward you.

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Then brought thei a fagot kindeled with fire, and laied the same doune at Doctour Ridleis feete. To whom M. Latimer spake in this maner: MarginaliaThe Churche lightened by þe Martyrdome of Sainctes.Bee of good comfort M. Ridley, and plaie the manne: we shall this daie light suche a candle by Gods grace in Englande, as (I trust) shall neuer be put out. 

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This remark was only added in the 1570 edition, although the remainder of this account of Ridley and Latimer's martyrdom appeared in the 1563 edition. Since George Shipside was undoubtedly a source for this account and he would hardly have overlooked such a striking remark, the authenticity of this quotation must be questioned. It is suggestive that the remark echoes Eusebius's account of the martyrdom of Polycarp. (These points, and other examples of spurious remarks being invented for martyrs by their co-religionists, and then printed by Foxe, are in Freeman [1997]).

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And so the fire beyng giuen vnto them, when Doct. Ridley sawe the fire flamyng vp toward hym, he cried with a wonderfull loude voyce: In manus tuas Domine commendo spiritum meum, Domine recipe spiritum meum, 

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Ridley quoting St. Luke, 23. 46. etc.
Foxe text Latin

In manus tuas Domine commendo spiritum meum, Domine recipe spiritum meum

Foxe text translation

[Not translated] ...Lord, Lord, receiue my spirite

[The first time the citation from St. Luke would seem to have been cried out by Ridley in Latin, followed by another Latin phrasing of the sentiment of Ridley's own composition (Domine, recipe spiritum meum) which was then repeated often in English (Lord receive my spirit).]

Actual text of St. Luke, 23. 46. (Vulgate)

Pater in manus tuas commendo spiritum meum.

 
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Luke 23: 46 in the Vulgate; these were Christ's last words on the cross and were often uttered by those about to be executed.

and after repeated this latter parte often in Englishe: Lorde Lorde receiue my spirite: Maister Latimer criyng as vehemently on the other side: MarginaliaM. Latymers prayer and Martyrdome.Oh Father of heauen receiue my soule: who receiued the flame as it were embrasyng of it. After, as he had stroked his face with his handes, and (as it were) bathed them a little in the fire, he sone died (as it appeared) with verie little paine or none. And thus muche concernyng the ende of this old and blessed seruaunte of God M. Latimer, for whose laborious trauailes, fruitfull life, and constaunte death, the whole Realme hath cause to giue greate thankes to almightie God.

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But M. Ridley by reason of the euill makyng of the fire vnto hym, because the woodden fagottes were laied about the gosse 

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Gorse. A prickly shrub; here it was being used as kindling to help ignite the wood about the two martyrs.

and ouer high built, the fire burned firste beneath, beyng kepte doune by the woodde. Which when he felt, he desired them for Christes sake to let the fire come vnto hym.  
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There was too much wood on top of the gorse and it partially smothered the burning gorse which did not burn hotly enough to ignite the wood. Ridley is being scorched by the burning gorse and is calling for his executioners to let the fire spread and finish him off.

MarginaliaThe order of B. Ridleys burnyng.Whiche when his brother in lawe heard, but not well vnderstode, entending to rid him out of his pain (for the whiche cause he gaue attendaunce) 
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Shipside, with the best of intentions but calamitous results, heaped more wood on the fire which made the gorse burn hotter but which further impeded the fire from igniting the wood. Ridley was burned severely, but not fatally, below the waist while the upper part of his body (and the bags of gunpowder around his neck) were untouched.

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as one in suche sorrowe, not well adui-

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sed what he did, heaped fagottes vpon hym, so that he cleane couered hym, whiche made the fire more vehemente beneath, that it burned cleane all his neather partes, before it once touched the vpper, and that made hym leape vp and doune vnder the fagottes, and often desire them to lette the fire come vnto hym, saiyng: I can not burne. Whiche in deede appeared well: for after his legges were consumed by reason of his strugglyng through the paine, (whereof he had no release, but onely his contentation 

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Acquiesence, satisfaction.

in God) MarginaliaD. Ridley long in burning.he shewed that side towardes vs cleane, shirt & all vntouched with flame Yet in all this torment he forgat not to call vnto God still, hauyng in his mouth: Lorde haue mercie vpō me, intermedlyng this crie, let the fire come vnto me, I can not burne. MarginaliaThe death and Martyrdome of D. Ridley.In whiche paines he laboured til one of the standers by with his bill, 
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A bill was a long pole with a curved scythe at the end. When this was used to pull some of the logs off the top of the pile, the remaining logs finally caught fire.

pulled of the fagottes aboue and wher he sawe the fire flame vp, he wrested hym self vnto that side. And when the flame touched the gunpouder, he was seen stirre no more, but burned on the other side, falling doune at M. Latimers feete. Which some said happened, by reason that the chaine loosed: other said that he fel ouer the chaine, by reason of þe poise of his bodie, and the weakenes of the neather limmes.

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Some saie that before he was like to fall from the stake, he desired them to holde hym to it with their billes. Howsoeuer it was, surely it moued hundredes to teares, in beholdyng the horrible sighte. MarginaliaThe lamenting hartes of the people, at the Martyrdome of these two sainctes. For I thynke there was none that had not cleane exiled all humanitie and mercie, whiche would not haue lamented to beholde the furie of the fire so to rage vpon their bodies. Signes there were of sorrow on euery side. Some tooke it greuously to see their deathes, whose liues thei held full deare. Some pitied their persones þt thought their soules had no neede thereof. His brother moued many men, seyng his miserable case: seyng (I saie) hym cōpelled to suche infelicitie, that he thought then to do hym best seruice, whē he hastened his ende. Some cried out of the lucke, to see his endeuour, who moste dearely loued hym, and sought his release, tourne to his greater vexation, and encrease of paine. But who so considered their prefermentes in tyme past, the places of honor that thei somtyme occupied in this cōmon wealthe, the fauor thei wer in with their princes, and the opiniō of learnyng thei had, could not chuse but sorrowe with teares, to see so great dignitie, honour, and estimation, so necessarie members sometyme accoumpted, so many godlie vertues, the studie of so many yeres, suche excellent learnyng, to be putte into the fire, and consumed in one moment. Well, deade they are, and the rewarde of this world thei haue already. What reward remaineth for them in heauen, the day of the lordes glory when he cōmeth with his sainctes, shall shortly I trust, declare.

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Albeit, I haue differred and put ouer many treatises, letters, and exhortations belonging to the storie of the Martyres, vnto the latter appendix in the ende of this volume: thinkyng also to haue doen the like with these farewels, and exhortations folowyng of D. Ridley, yet for certain purposes mouing me thereunto, and especially consideryng the fruitfull admonitions, holesome doctrine, and necessarie exhortations conteined in the same, I thought best here to bestowe, & consequently to adioyne the saied tractations 

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Treatises.

of that learned Pastour, with the life and storie of the authour. Whereof the two first be in maner of his farewels, the one to his kinsfolkes, and generally to all the faithfull of the nūber of Christes congregation: the other more special to the prisoners, and banished Christians in the Gospelles cause: the third cōtaineth a fruitfull and a generall admonition to the Citie of London, and to all other, with necessarie preceptes of Christian office, as by the tenour of them here followeth in order to be seen.  
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In 1559, almost immediately after his return from exile, Foxe published one of the 'farewell' letters of Nicholas Ridley. (Nicholas Ridley, A frendly farewell which master doctor Ridley did write unto all his lovers and frendes in God, a little before that he suffered, ed. John Foxe [London, 1559], STC 21051). It was not reprinted in the first edition of the Acts and Monuments. A portion of this letter was reprinted in Letters of the Martyrs (pp. 80-103). This portion was reprinted in the 1570 edition and the remainder of the original letter was reprinted as well (misleadingly headed 'another farewell'). And a second (or third) farewell letter was also added. This is one of the very few letters written by one of the Marian martyrs which eluded the diligent researches of Bull and Foxe. It was first printed, and anonymously edited, as A pituous lamentation of the miserable estate of the church of Christ in Englande. (London, 1556), STC 21052.

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¶ A treatise or a letter written by D. Ridley in steede of his laste farewell, to all his true and faithfull frends in God, with a sharpe admonition withall vnto the Papistes. 
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This letter is reprinted from sigs. A2r-E3v of Ridley's Frendly farewell. ECL 260, fos. 98r-108r is an incomplete copy of this letter.

MarginaliaThe first farewell of B. Ridley to his frendes.AT the name of Iesus let euery knee bow, both of thynges in heauen, and thynges in yearth, and thynges vnder the yearth, and let euery tongue confesse, that Iesus Christ is the lorde vnto the glorie of God the Father, Amen.

As a manne mindyng to take a farre iourney, and to depart from his familiar frēdes, commonly and naturally hath a desire, to bidde his frendes farewell, before his departure: so likewise now I lookyng daiely, when I should be called for to depart hence from you,

(O
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