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190 [189]

Kyng Edward the confessor. Kyng Edward the Confessor.
¶ Kyng Edward called the Confessor. 
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Foxe constructs his favourable picture of Edward the Confessor's character from a bricolage of Brompton's Chronicle (J. Brompton, 'Chronicon Johannis Brompton Abbatis Jornalensis.' In Historiæ Anglicanæ Scriptores X. [....], ed. by Roger Twysden [London, 1652], cols 936-7, Fabian's Chronicle (R. Fabyan, The Chronicle of Fabian [London, 1559], book 6, ch. 210, and Ranulph Higden's Polychronicon (J. R. Lumby, ed. Polychronicon Ranulphi Higden monachi Cestrensis: together with the English translations of John Trevisa and of an unknown writer of the fifteenth century [London: Rolls Series, 1879], book 6, ch. 23). For the early events of Edward's reign, Foxe relies heavily on Fabian, noting (without being able completely to resolve) the varying accounts of the death of Earl godwin that he found in Fabian, William of Malmesbury, Brompton and Polydore Vergil. Thereafter, he tended to follow John Brompton's Chronicle (col. 945-9) through to the end of the reign. For the final prophecy and death of Edward, he took up the leads suggested in Bale's Catalogus, p. 64, also consulting John Brompton (col 954) and William of Malmesbury's Gesta Regum (book 2, ch. 228). We should note the marginal claim by Foxe also to have used the 'Historia Richardi 2', a fourteenth-century compilation also known as the 'Evesham Chronicle', a manuscript version of which (now BL Cotton Tiberius C ix) may possibly have been in Archbishop Matthew Parker's collection (for an edition of the work, collating the two surviving manuscript version of it, see George B. Stow (ed.), Historia Vitae et Regni Ricardi Secundi [Pennsylvania, 1977]). The laws of Edward the Confessor are taken largely from Brompton (col. 957), with the post-Conquest repudiation of most of them taken from Matthew Paris' Chronica Majora (H. R. Luard, ed. Matthaei Parisiensis, monachi Sancti Albani. Chronica majora. 7 vols [London: The Rolls Series, 1872-1884], 2, p. 43). For the fascinating passage on the 'office of a king', redolent of the duties of kingship under law, Foxe interestingly notes in the margin his use of a manuscript from the Guildhall, London ('Ex libro Reg. antiquorum in praetorio Londiniensis'). It is possible that this was a source that had been found by William Lambarde in the course of his research for his collection of Anglo-Saxon laws, published by John Day in 1568 (William Lambarde, Archaionomia). If so, Foxe presumably had access to the research that Lambarde had carried out in preparation for its publication.

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MarginaliaAn. 1043.
Kyng Edward the confessour.
FOr somuch as God of his mercy and prouidence, who is onely the maker of heyres: thought it so good, after the wofull captiuitie of this English nation, to graunt now some respite of deliuerance, in takyng away the Danish kynges without any issue left behynd them: MarginaliaEnglād afflicted by the Danes the space of. 255. yeares.who reignyng here in England, kept the English people in miserable subiection, about the space of xxviij. yeares, and that from their first landyng in the tyme of Kyng Brightricus: wastyng and vexyng this land, the terme of cc.lv. yeares: Now their tyranny here commyng to an end, the next election and right of the crown fel (as apperteined) to Edward the yoūger sonne of kyng Egelred and Emma, a mere Englishmā: who had bene now long banished in Normādy, as is aboue declared. A man of a gentle and soft spirite: more applyable to other mens counsailes, then able to trust to his owne: of nature and condition so geuen from all warre & bloudshed: that beyng in his banishment, he wished rather so to continue all his lyfe long in that priuate estate, then by warre or bloudshed to aspire to any kyngdome. This Edward, after the death of Canutus the second or hardecanute, beyng sent for of þe Lordes into Normādy to take possession of the Realme, although he somethyng mistrusted the vnconstant and fekle heades of Englishmen (yet hauyng sufficiēt pledges layd for him in Normādy) came ouer, with a few Normandes accompanyed: MarginaliaKing Edward crowned.and not long after was crowned at Winchester an. 1043. by Edsius then Archbishop of Cant. And not long after that, he maried Goditha, or Editha daughter of earle Godwyne: whom he entreated after such sort, that he neither put her from his bed, not yet delt with her fleshly. Whether it were for hate of her kynne (as most like it was) or for loue of chastitie, it remaineth vncertaine. MarginaliaHoly K. Edward, a virgine in maryage.But most writers agree, that he continued his lyfe without offence with woman: for the which he is highly exalted among our story writers and called holy kyng Edward. After he had thus taken vpon hym the gouernenment of the realme, he guided the same with much wisedome and iustice, the space of xxiiij. yeares, lackyng two monethes: from whō issued (as out of a fountaine) much godlynes, mercy, pitie, & liberalitie toward the poore: gentilnes and iustice toward all mē: and in all honest lyfe he gaue a vertuous example to his people. He discharged the Englishmen of the great tribute called Dane gelt, which before tyme was yearely leuyed to the great impouerishyng of the people. He subdued the Scottes and Welshm ē, which in their borders began to rebell against him. In much peace he continued his reigne, hauing no forene enemy to assault him: Albeit, as some chronicles do shewe, certaine Danes and Norgwaynes there were, which entended to set vpon England: But as they were, taking shippyng, there was brought to them first one bowle, thē an other, of mede or methe, MarginaliaMethe in Greke signifieth dronkennesto drinke vpon a bon viage. Thus one cup commyng after an other: after drinke came dronkennes, after dronkennes folowed ianglyng, of ianglyng came strife: and strife turned into stripes, wherby many were slayne, and the other returned to their home agayne. And thus the mercyfull prouidence of the Lord dispatched that iourney.

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In the tyme of this Edward: Emma his mother was accused to be familiar with Alwyn the bishop of Winchester: vpon whiche accusation (by counsaile of Earle Godwyn) he tooke from her many of her iewels, and caused her to be kept somdele more straitly, in the Abbay of warwell: and the Byshop committed to the examination of the Clergy. Polydore saith, they were both in prison at Winchester: where she sorowyng the defame both of her selfe and of the Byshop, and trustyng vpon her conscience, desireth them of iustice, offeryng her selfe ready to abyde any lefull triall: yea although it were with the sharpest.

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Then diuers of the Byshops made labour to the kyng for them both, and had obteined, had not Robert then Archbishop of Cant. stopped the sute. Who not well contented with their labour sayd vnto them: MarginaliaAccusation of the Archbish. against Emma the kinges mother.My brethren, how dare ye defende her which is no woman but a beast? she hath defamed her owne sonne the kyng, and takē her lecherous leman the Bishop. And if it be so, that the woman will purge the Priest? who shall then purge the womā that is accused to be consentyng to the death of her sonne Alphred: and procured venim to the poysonyng of her sonne Edward? But whether she be giltie or giltles: if she will go barefooted for her selfe foure steppes, and for the Byshop five continually vpon ix. plough shares fire hote: then if she escape harmeles, he shalbe assoyled of this chalenge and she also.

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To this she graunted, the day was appointed: at which day, the kyng and a great part of his nobles were present, except onely Robert the Archbyshop. This Robert had MarginaliaFalse accusation purged by hote yron.bene a monke of a house in Normandy, and an helper of the kyng in his exile: and so by the sendyng for of the kyng, came ouer and was made first Byshop of London, after Archbishop of Cant. Thē was she led blindfield vnto the place betwene two men, where the yrons lay brennyng hote, MarginaliaA straunge thyng, if it were true, & without false conueyaunce.& passed the ix. shares vnhurte. At last sayd she, good Lord when shall I come to the place of my purgation. When they then opened her eyes, and she saw that she was past the payne, she kneeled downe geuyng God thankes.

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Then the kyng repented (sayth the story) and restored vnto her, that he had before taken from her, and asked her forgeuenes. But the Archbyshop fled into Normandy.

Neare about this tyme, about the x. yeare of his reigne: fell passing great snow, from the begynnyng of Ianuary, to the xvij. day of March. MarginaliaGreat snow and mortalitie in Englād.After which insued a great mortalitie of men, morrian of cattel and by lightnyng the corne was wonderfully blasted and wasted.

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Not long after this: a certaine Earle of Bolōgne, who had maried kyng Edwardes sister, came into England: through the occasion of whom: when execution should be done vpō the Citezins of Douer, for a fray betwene them, & the Earles mē: MarginaliaVariaunce betwene the kyng and Godwyn.variance happened betwene kyng Edward & earle Godwyne. Who perceauyng that he could not withstand the kyngs malice, (although he gathered a great company to worke therein what he could) fled into Flaunders, MarginaliaGodwyn with his v. sonnes outlawed. Godwyn recōciled to the king Vpon pledges geuē.and was outlawed with his fiue sōnes. Kyng Edward repudiated his wife the daughter of the sayd Godwyn: but the second yeare after, by mediatours he was reconciled to the kyng agayne, and called from banishment: And for his good a bearyng he gaue for pledges his two sonnes, Byornon, and Tostius, which were sent to the Duke of Normandy there to be kept.

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MarginaliaWilliam Duke of Normandy came into England to K. Edward.Duryng the tyme of the outlawrie of Godwyn: William Bastard Duke of Normandy came with a goodly company into England to see kyng Edward, and was honorably receaued. To whom the kyng made great cheare, and at his returne inriched him with great giftes and pleasures. And there (as some write) made promise to him, that if he dyed without issue, the sayd William should succede him in the kyngdome of England.

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MarginaliaMarianus Scotus. Whē he lyued.
The end & death of vngodly Godwyn.
In this kinges reigne lyued Marianus Scotus the story writer. As concernyng the end of erle godwin, þe cruell murderer of Alphred, and of the Normandes: although diuers histories diuersly do vary: Yet in this the most part do agre, that as he sate at the table with king Edward at Windsore, it happened one of the cupbearers one of erle godwins sonnes to stumble and recouer againe, so that he dyd shead none of the drinke: wherat godwine laughed, & sayd, how the one brother had sustained the other. With whiche wordes the kyng callyng to mynde his brothers death, that was slaine by godwine: beheld the erle (saying) so should my brother Alphred haue holpen me had not godwin bene. MarginaliaEx Iornalensi.Malmesberiensi.Polydor.Fabiano. & alijs.godwine then fearing the kynges displeasure to be newly kindled, after many wordes in excusing himselfe, sayd: So mought I safely swalow this morsel of bread, as I am giltles of the deede. But as soone as he had receiued the bread, forthwith he was choked. MarginaliaGods iust punishment vpon Godwyn, for the murthering of Alphred.
Periurye plaged.
Then the king commaūded him to be drawne from the table, and so was cōueyed by Harold his sonne to Winchester, and there buried.

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About the 13. yeare of this kinges reigne, the sayd king Edward sent Aldred bishop of Worceter to the Emperour Henricus the 4. praying him, that he would send to þe king of Hungary, that his cosin Edward sonne of Edmund Ironside, might come to England: Marginalia Edward the outlaw, sōne of Edmond Yronsyde sent for to England.
1056.
for so much as he intended to make hym king after him, which which was called Edward Outlaw. The which request was fulfilled, so that he came into England with his wife Agatha, and with his children, to witte, Edgar Adeling, Margarete, and Christina. But the yeare after his returne into the realme, MarginaliaThe death of Edward, sonne of Edmond Yronside.this Edward deceased at London, and was buried at Westminster: or as Iornalensis sayth, at Paules church in London. After whose decease, the king then receaued Edgar Adeling his sonne, as his owne child: thinkinge to make him his heyre. But fearing partly the vnconstant mutabilitye of the Englishmen, partly the pride and malice of Harold the sonne of godwine, and of other, (perceauing therby, that he could not bring that his purpose so wel to passe) directed solemne Embassadours vnto Williā Duke of Normandy, his kinsman: MarginaliaWilliam Duke of Normandy admitted heire to the crowne.admitting & assigning him to be his lawfull heyre next to succeede after him to the crowne.

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After the death of godwin, Harold his sonne waxed so in the kings fauour: that he ruled the most and greatest causes of the realme, and was liefetenant of the kinges army: Who with his brother Toston or Tostius (sent by þe king against the Welchmen) subdued their rebellion. But afterward, such enuy grew betwene these two brethren, for

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