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191 [190]

King Edward the 3. the Confessor. King Edward the office of kynges.

MarginaliaThe enuy and discorde of brethrenthat Tostius saw his brother Harold so greatly aduaunced in the kinges fauour, that at Herford, the said Tostius slue all his brothers men. Whom when he had cut in pieces, he poudered their quarters and mangled partes, in barrels of salt, vinegre, wine, and other liquors. That done, he made a power against his brother Harold (being kyng) with the ayde of certaine Danes and Norgaynes, and fought a battaile with hym in the North as after shall folowe (God willyng) to be seene. MarginaliaVngracious children of a wicked father.So vngratious were these wicked children of Erle Godwine: that if they had seene any faire mansion or maner place: they would sley the owner therof with all his kinrede, and enter the possession thereof themselues.

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At length it came in the minde of this Harold to sayle ouer the sea (as Polydore sayth) into Normandy to see his brother Wilnotus, as also his cosine Hacus, whom þe kyng had sent thither to be kept for pledges, as ye heard before. MarginaliaA place of Polydorus Virg. examined.Polydore saith these pledges were Tosto & Byornon, but that can not be, for Tostius was then in england. But as Henricus Archdeacon of Huntington saieth, hys iourney was into Flaunders, as semeth more like. For it is not to be thought, that Harold who was a doer in the cruel murther of Alphred, and of the Normanes: would venter into Normandy, and therfore more lyke it is that his sailing was into Flaunders. But as the story procedeth, he being in the course of his sailing, was wether driuen by tempest into the prouince of Pountith, MarginaliaHarold takē of the Normandes.where he was taken as a prisoner, and sent to Duke William of Normandy. To whome he was made to sweare, that he in tyme folowyng shoulde marry his daughter: and that after the death of king Edward, he should kepe the land of england to hys behoue, according to the will and mynde of Edward (after some writers) MarginaliaHarold promiseth Duke William to marry hys daughter & to keepe the realme for his behofe.and so to liue in great honor & dignitie next vnto hym in the realme. This promise faithfully made to the Duke, Harold returneth into england (with his cosin Hacus the sonne of his brother Suanus beyng deliuered vnto hym) But Wilnotus brother of Harold, the Duke kepeth still for performance of the couenauntes. Thus Harold, I say, returning home, sheweth the king all that he had done in the foresayd matters. Wherewith the king was well contented. Wherby it may be gathered, that kyng Edward was right well willyng that Duke William should reigne after hym, and also semeth not vnlike, but that he had geuen hym hys promise therunto before.

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MarginaliaErle Leofricus euer true & faithfull to his prince.Among all that were true and trusty to king Edward of the english nobilitie, none had lyke commendation as had Leofricus erle of Mercia and of Chester. MarginaliaHow Couentry was made free
Godina wife to Leofricus.
This Leofricus purchased many great liberties for the towne of Couētry, and made it free of all maner thinges, except only of horse. Which freedom there was obtained by meanes of his wyfe Godina, by riding (as the fame goeth) after a strange maner through þe towne. MarginaliaThe abbey of Couentry builded by Leofricus.This Leofricus with his wife Godina, builded also þe abbey of Couētry, and indued the same with great landes and riches.

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You heard a little before, of the comming ouer of Edward called the outlaw, sonne of kyng Edmund Ironside: MarginaliaEdward the outlaw.
Edgar Adeling.
Margeret Queene of Scots
Matilde Queene of England.
Dauid kyng of Scots.
whom kyng Edward had purposed to haue made king after him. But soone after his comming ouer, he deceased at London. This Edward had by his wife Agatha, a sonne & a daughter called Edgar Adelyng, and Margaret. Whiche Margaret beyng maried afterward to the kyng of Scots, was the mother of Matild or Maude Quene of England, and of Dauid king of Scots. &c.

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MarginaliaThe death of K. Edward.
Westminster. repayred.
This vertuous and blessed king Edward, after he had raigned 23. yeares, and 7. monethes, died and was buried in the Monastery of Westminster, which he had greatly augmented and repaired, but afterward was more inlarged after this forme which it hath now, by Henry the third sonne of kyng Iohn.

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MarginaliaGuliel. Malmesbir.
Ex Iornalen.
Ex historia Richardi. 2. iussu composita.
They that write the history of this king, here make mētion of a dreame or reuelation that should be shewed to hym in tyme of his sicknes: how, that because þe peeres & bishops of the realme were seruantes not of God, but of the deuill: God would geue this realme to the hande of others. And the king desired vtteraunce to be geuen him that he myght declare the same to the people, whereby they might repent. It was answered againe, that neither would they so do, or yet if they did, it should be geuen to an other people. But because it is a dreame, I let it passe.

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MarginaliaThe lawes of kyng Edward.Diuers lawes were before in diuers countreys of this realme vsed, as þe law first of Dunuallo Molinucius, with the lawes of Marcia called Mercenelaga: then the lawes of Westsaxone kinges, as of Iue, Offa, Alfred &c. which was called Westsaxenlaga. The third were the lawes of Canutus & of Danes called Danelaga. Of all these lawes which before were diuersly in certaine particular countreis vsed and receaued: this Edward compiled one vniuersall & common law for all people through the whole realm, which were called K. Edwards lawes: which lawes being gathered out of þe best & chiefest of the other lawes, were so iust, so equall, & so seruyng þe publike profite & weale of all estates: that mine authors say: þe people long after did rebell against their heads and rulers, to haue the same lawes agwne (beyng taken from them) and yet could not obtaine them.

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MarginaliaEx Maathco parisiensi.
William Cōqueror sworne to it.
Edwards lawes, yet went from it.
Furthermore, I read and find in Math. Paris. that whē Will. Conquerour at his commyng in, did sweare to vse and practise the same good lawes of Edward, for the common lawes of this realme: afterward (being established in hys kingdome) he forswore hymselfe, and placed his own lawes in their rowme, much worse and obscurer then the other were. &c.

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Notwithstanding among the sayd lawes of Edward, and in the first chapter and beginnyng therof, this I finde among the auncient recordes of the Guildhall in London. The office of a kyng, with such other appurtenances as belong to the realme of Britaine: set forth and described in the latine stile, which I thought here not vnmete to be expressed in the english tong, for them that vnderstande no latine. The tenor and meanyng wherof thus followeth.

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¶ De iure & appendiis regni Britanniæ, & quod sit officium Regis.

REx autem quia vicarius summi regis est, ad hoc est constitutus, vt egnum terrenum & populum domini, & super omnia sanctam eius veneretur ecclesiam & regat, & ab iniuriosis defendat, & maleficos ab ea auellat & destruat, & penitus disperdat. Quod nisi fecerit, nomen regis non in eo constabit. Verum Papa, Ioanne testante, nomen regis perdit, cui Pipinus & Carolus filius eius nec dum reges, sed principes sub rege Francorum stulto scripserunt quærentes: si ita permanere deberent Francorum reges, solo regio nomine contenti A quo responsum est, illos decet vocare reges, qui vigilanter defendunt, et regunt ecclesiam Dei & populum eius. &c. In English thus.

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MarginaliaEx libro Reg. antiquorum in prætorio Londinensi.
The office of a king described in the lawes of kyng Edward.
The king because he is the vicare of the hiest king, is appointed for this purpose: to rule the earthly kingdome, and the lordes people: and aboue all thinges, to reuerence his holy church: to gouerne it, and to defend it from iniuries: to plucke away wicked doers, and vtterly to destroye them. Which vnlesse he do, the name of a kyng agreeth not vnto him, but he loseth the name of a kyng as witnesseth Pope Ihon: to the which Pope, Pipinus and Carolus his sōne (beyng not yet kyngs but princes vnder the French king beyng not very wise) did write: demaundyng this questiō, whither the kings of france ought so to continue hauyng but onely the name of a kyng. MarginaliaA king the vicare of God in earth.Vnto whome Pope Ihon aunswereth agayne, that it was conuenient to call thē kyngs which vigilantly do defend and gouerne the church of God and his people, following the saying of kyng Dauid the Psalmograph. He shall not dwell in my house which worketh pride. &c. Moreouer, the king by right, and by his office: ought to defend & conserue fully and wholy in all amplenesse without diminution, all the lands, honors, dignities, rights and liberties of the crowne of his kyngdom. And further to reduce into their pristine state, all such thinges as haue bene dispersed, wasted and lost, which apperteine to his kyngdō. MarginaliaThe limits of the kyngdome of England how far they do extende.Also the whole and vniuersal land with all Ilelandes about the same vnto Norwey and Denmarcke, be apperteining to the crowne of hys kingdome, and be of the appurtenaunces & dignitie of the kyng: making one monarchie and one kingdome, which somtime was called the kingdom of Britains, and now the kingdome of England: such bondes & limites as is aboue sayde, be appointed & limited to the name of this kyngdome.

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Moreouer, in the foresaid lawes of this king Edward it followeth in the same booke where the foresayde Edward describing the office of a kyng, addeth in these wordes. MarginaliaThe office of a king farther describedA kyng sayth he, ought aboue all things to feare God: to loue and to obserue hys commaundements: and cause them to be obserued through hys whole kingdom. He ought also to kepe, cherish, maintayne and gouerne the holy church within his kingdome, with all integritie and libertie, accordyng to the constitutions of his aunciters and predecessors: and to defend the same agaynst all enemies, so that God aboue all things be honored, and euer be before his eyes. He ought also to set vp good lawes and customes, such as be wholesome and approued: such as be otherwise, to repeale them, & thrust them out of his kingdom. Itē, he ought to do iudgement and iustice in his kingdome, by the counsel of þe nobles of hys realme. All these thinges ought a kyng in hys owne person to do, takyng his othe vpon the Euangelist &

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