Thematic Divisions in Book 4
1. Lanfranc2. Gregory VII3. William the Conqueror4. William Rufus5. Henry I6. Stephen and Henry II7. Frederick Barbarossa8. Thomas Becket9. Becket's letters10. Becket's martyrdom and miracles11. Events of 1172-7812. Waldensians13. Other incidents of Henry II's reign14. First year of Richard I's reign15. Strife at Canterbury16. Richard I and Third Crusade17. William Longchamp18. King John19. Henry III's early reign20. Innocent III and mendicant orders21. Papal oppression of the English Church22. Albigensian Crusade23. Hubert de Burgh24. Gregory IX25. Schism between Greek and Latin Church26. Papal exactions from England27. Louis IX on Crusade28. Frederick II29. Opponents of Papacy30. Robert Grosseteste31. Aphorisms of Robert Grosseteste32. Persecution of Jews33. Papal oppression and Alexander IV34. Conflicts in universities and mendicant orders35. Henry III and the barons36. Battle of Lewes37. Battle of Evesham38. End of baronial war39. Ecclesiastical matters and Edward prince of Wales goes on crusade40. Foreign events in Henry III's reign41. First seven years of Edward I's reign42. War with Scotland43. Philip IV and Boniface VIII44. Events of 1305-745. Cassiodorous's letter46. Pierre de Cugniere47. Death of Edward I48. Piers Gaveston49. The Despensers and the death of Edward II50. John XXIII and Clement VI51. Rebellion in Bury St. Edmunds52. Edward III and Scotland53. Edward III and Philip VI54. Edward III and Archbishop Stratford55. Events of 1341-556. Outbreak of the Hundred Years War57. Anti-papal writers58. Quarrel among mendicants and universities59. Table of the Archbishops of Canterbury
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284 [283]

K. Iohn poysoned of a Monke. K. Henry the third crowned.

that was within him. This done, he conueyed it into a cuppe of wine, and with a smiling and flattering countenance, he said thus to the king: If it shal like your princely maiestie, here is such a cup of wine, as ye neuer dronke a better before in all your lyfe time. I trust this Wassall shall make all England glad. And with that he dranke a great draught thereof, þe king pledging him. MarginaliaThe monke dyeth of his owne poyson.The Mōke anon after went to the farmery, and there dyed (his guts gushing out of his belly) and had continuallye from thenceforth three Monkes to sing masse for his soule, confirmed by their generall chapter. What became after that of kyng Iohn, ye shall know right well in the proces following. I would ye did marke well the wholesome proceedyngs of these holy votaries, how vertuously they obey their kynges, whom God hath appointed: and how religiously they bestow their confessions, absolutions and Masses.

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The kyng within a shorte space after (feelyng great grief in his body) asked for Symon the monke: and aunswere was made that he was departed this life. Then God haue mercy vpon me (sayd he) I suspected as much, after he had sayd, that all England should therof be glad: he ment now I perceaue then of his owne generation. With that he commaunded his chariot to be prepared, for he was not able to ryde. So went he from thence to Slaford Castell, & from thence to Newerke vpon Trent: and there within lesse thē three dayes he dyed. MarginaliaThe death of kyng Iohn.Vpon his deathbed he much repented his former lyfe, and forgaue all them with a pitifull hart, that had done him iniury: desiryng that his elder sonne Henry might be admonished by his example, and to learne by his misfortunes, MarginaliaA prince to be louing to hys subiectes.to be naturall, fauourable, gentle, and louyng to his natiue people. When his body was enbawmed & spiced (as the maner is of kyngs) his bowels or intrailes were buryed at Cropton Abbey, which was of the sect of Premonstratenses or Chanons of S. Norbert. His hired souldiours, both Englishmen and straungers were still about him, and followed his corps triumphantly in their armour, MarginaliaK. Iohn Buryed at Worceter.til they came to the Cathedrall Church of Worcester: and there honorably was he buried by Siluester the byshop, betwixt S. Oswald & S. Wolstane, ij. byshops of that church. MarginaliaAn. 1216.He dyed in the yeare of our Lod. 1216. the. 19. day of October, after he had raigned in such calamitie, by the subtle cōueyaunce of his Clergy, xviij. yeares, vj. monethes, and odde dayes. So soone as kyng Iohn was dead and buryed (as is sayd afore) the Princes, Lordes and Barōs, so many as were of his part (as well of straungers as of them that were borne here) by counsayle of the Legate Gnalo: gathered thēselues together, and all with one consent proclaymed Henry his sonne for their kyng. Of whom more shall folow (the lord willyng) hereafter.

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MarginaliaThe death of K. Iohn.Many opinions are among the Chroniclers of the death of kyng Iohn. Some of them do write that he dyed of sorrow and heauines of hart, as Polydorus: some of surfetyng in the night, as Radulphus Niger: some of a bloudy flixe, as Roger Houeden: some of a burnyng ague, some of a cold sweat, some of eatyng appels, some of eatyng peares, some plummes, &c.

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Thus you see what varietie is among the writers concerning the death of this kyng Iohn. Of which writers, although the most agree in this that he was poysoned by the monke aboue named: yet Math. Parisiensis. (somthyng differyng from the other) writeth thus concernyng his death. MarginaliaMath. Parisi. in vita Ioannis Regis.That he goyng frō Linne to Lincolneshyre, and there hearyng of the losse of his cariage, and of his treasures vpon the washes, fell in great heauines of mynde: in so much that he fell therby into a feruent feuer being at the abbey of Swinested. This ague he also encreased through euill surfettyng & noughty dyet, by eating Peaches and drinking of new Ciser, or as we call it Sidar. Thus beyng sicke, he was caried from thence to the Castel of Laford, and from thence to the Castell of Newerke: where callyng for Henry his sonne, gaue to him the successiō of his crowne and kingdome, writyng to all his Lordes and nobles to receiue him for their kyng. And shortly after vpō S. Lucies euen, departed this lyfe, beyng buryed at Worcester, &c.

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MarginaliaAn other description of kyng Iohns death.
Ex histor. Gualt. Hemyngford, Gilburnensi.
In Gisburn. I finde otherwise, who dissenting from other, sayth: that he was poysoned with a dishe of Peares which the Monke had prepared for the kyng therewith to poyson him. Who asking the kyng whether he would tast of his frute, and being bidde to bring them in, according to the kinges biddyng so did. At the bringing in wherof, sayth the said story, the pretious stones about the king begā to swete. In so much that the Kyng misdoubting some poysō, demaunded of the mōke, what he had brought. He sayd: of his frute, and that very good, the best that he did euer tast. Eate, sayd the king:& he tooke one of þe peares, which he did know, and did eate. Also beyng byd to take an other, did eate likewisesauerly. And so likewise the third. Then the Kyng refraynyng no lenger, tooke one of the poysoned peares, and was therewith poysoned, as is before. &c.

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MarginaliaThe first Maior of London.In the raigne of this kyng Iohn the Citizens of London first obtained of the kyng to chose yearely a Maior. In whose tyme also the bridge of London was first builded of stone: which before was of woode, Rastall.

¶ Kyng Henry the third. 
Commentary  *  Close
Henry III's early reign

The account of Henry III's reign is full of evidence that the papacy was abusing its power and taking heavy taxes to the impoverishment of the country. Apart from a short paragraph on King John's children taken from The Chronicle of Walter of Guisborough, ed. Harry Rothewell, Camden Society, 3rd Series, 89 (London, Camden Society, 1957), pp. 156-7 the account is a new addition to the 1570 edition partly added to from Guisborough, pp. 157-8 but also largely extracted from Matthew Paris, Chronica Majora, ed. Henry Richards Luard, Rolls Series (7 vols, London, 1872-1884), vol. 3, pp. 1-6, 31, 43, 121-2. The account of the Viscount of Meluns on his deathbed confessing the French plans to the rebellious English Barons was taken from Guisborough, pp. 158-9 and Matthew Paris, Flores Historiarum, ed. Henry Richards Luard, Rolls Series (3 vols., London, 1890), vol. 2, p. 163. Foxe also accuses Legate Guala Bicchieri of using the situation to heavily tax the rebellious clerics once the rebellion had ended (taken from Chronica Majora III, pp. 31-2) extending the metaphor of 'gathering the harvest' from Matthew Paris' own words. This is a theme to which Foxe would continually return.

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The early reign of Henry III is completed with a premonition of Cencio (the future Pope Honorius III) that he would become Pope. Foxe denounces this premonition as a piece of propaganda to gain support for the fifth crusade taken from Konrad of Lichtenau, Burchardi et Cuonradi Urspergnsium Chronicon, ed. Abel H. Friedrich Otto and Ludwig Weiland (Hannoverae, 1874), pp. 104-6. The account of Honorius III's accession to the papal see is taken from Matthew Paris' Chronica Maiora, vol. 3, p. 529. A brief mention is also made to the canonisation of Thomas Becket, which is taken from Arundel MS 5, now in the Royal College of Arms. The 'Scala mundi' was the name Foxe gave for this manuscript.

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Matthew Phillpott
University of Sheffield

MarginaliaK. Henry the third.AFter this kyng Iohn had raigned as some say, xvij. yeares, or as some say, 19. yeares, was, as is aboue sayd, poysoned and dyed. This kyng left behinde him iiij. sonnes, and iij. daughters, first Henry, second Richard, and he was Earle of Cornwall. Third William of Valentia: Fourth, Guido Disenay. He had also an other sonne, who afterward was made Byshop. Of his daughters first was Isabell maryed afterward to Friderike the Emperour. The second named Alinour, maried to William Marshall Earle. The third to the Earle of Leycestour, &c. MarginaliaThe issue of kyng Iohn.An other story sayth that he had but two daughters, Isabell and Elionore, or as an other calleth her Ioane which was after Queene of Scotland, Ex Chronico vetusto Anglic.

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This kyng Iohn beyng deceassed which had many enemyes both of Earles, Barōs, and especially of the Popish Clergy, Henry his eldest sonne was then of the age of nine yeares. At what tyme the most of the Lordes of England did adhere to Ludouicke or Lewes the French kyngs son, whom they had sent for before, in displeasure of kyng Iohn to be their kyng, and had sworne to him their allegeance. MarginaliaAn example of a worthy & faythfull Coūsailour.
The oration of the Earle Marshall for young kyng Henry.
Then William Earle Marshall a noble man, and of great autoritie, and a graue and a sound counseller, frendly and quietly called vnto him diuers Earles and Barōs: and takyng this Henry the young prince, sonne of king Iohn, setteth him before them, vsing these words: Behold (sayth he) right honourable and welbeloued: although we haue * Marginalia* Truely said, that you persecuted hym, for persecutors ye were of a true mā & your owne natural king. But well might Englād cry out of your blinde guides and setters on.persecuted the father of this young Prince for his euill demeanour, and worthely: yet this young child, whom here ye see before you, as he is in yeares tender, so is he pure and innocent from these his fathers doynges. Wherfore in as much as euery man is charged onely with the burthen of his own workes and transgressions: neither shall the child (as the Scripture teacheth vs) beare the iniquitie of his father: we ought therfore of duetie and conscience to pardon this young and tender Prince, and take compassion of his age, as ye see. And now for somuch as he is the kynges naturall & eldest sonne, and must be our soueraigne and kyng, and successour of this kyngdome, come and let vs appoint him our kyng & gouernour: & let vs remoue frō vs this Lewes the French kynges sonne, and suppresse his people which is a confusion and a shame to our nation, and the yoke of their seruitude let vs caste of from our shoulders. To these wordes spake and aunswered the Earle of Glocester. And by what reason or right (sayd he) cā we so do, seyng we haue called him hether and haue sworne to him our feaultie.

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Whereunto the Earle Marshall inferred agayne and sayd: Good right and reason we haue, and ought of duety to do no lesse for that he contrary to our mynde & callyng hath abused our affiance and fealties. Truth it is, we called him, and ment to preferre him to be our chieftaine and gouernour: but he eftsoones surprised in pride, hath contemned and despised vs: and if we shall so suffer him, he will subuert and ouerthrow both vs and our natiō, & so shall we remaine a spectacle of shame to all men, and be as outcastes of all the world.

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At these wordes all they, as inspired from aboue, cryed altogether with one voyce: be it so, he shall be our kyng. And so the day was appointed for his coronation which was the day of Symon and Iude. This coronatiō was kept not at Westminster, for as much as Westminster the same tyme was holden of the Frenchmen, MarginaliaEx Chron. Monac. Oisburnans.but at Gloucester the safest place (as was thought) at that time in the realme, an. 1216. by Swallow the Popes Legate through counsell of all the Lordes and Barons that held with his father kyng Iohn, to witte, the Byshop of Winchester. Byshop of Bath, Byshop of Chester, and Byshop of Worcester: the Earle Radulph of Chester, William Earle Marshall, William Earle of Pembrocke, William Tren Earle of Feres, William de Bruer, Serle or Samarike de mall Baron. MarginaliaK. Hēry the. 3. crowned.These were at the crowning of the king at Glocester. Many other lords and Barons there were, which as yet held with Lewes the French kynges sonne, to whom they had done their homage before. And immediatly after the crownyng of this kyng, he held his coūcell at Bristow at S. Martines feast: where were assembled xi. byshops of England and Wales, with diuers Earles & Barons and knightes of England.

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